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Sökning: WFRF:(Sirima Sodiomon B)

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1.
  • Ajayi, IkeOluwapo O, et al. (författare)
  • Feasibility of Malaria Diagnosis and Management in Burkina Faso, Nigeria, and Uganda: A Community-Based Observational Study.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. - 1537-6591. ; 63:suppl 5, s. S245-S255
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Malaria-endemic countries are encouraged to increase, expedite, and standardize care based on parasite diagnosis and treat confirmed malaria using oral artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) or rectal artesunate plus referral when patients are unable to take oral medication. In 172 villages in 3 African countries, trained community health workers (CHWs) assessed and diagnosed children aged between 6 months and 6 years using rapid histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2)-based diagnostic tests (RDTs). Patients coming for care who could take oral medication were treated with ACTs, and those who could not were treated with rectal artesunate and referred to hospital. The full combined intervention package lasted 12 months. Changes in access and speed of care and clinical course were determined through 1746 random household interviews before and 3199 during the intervention. A total of 15 932 children were assessed: 6394 in Burkina Faso, 2148 in Nigeria, and 7390 in Uganda. Most children assessed (97.3% [15 495/15 932]) were febrile and most febrile cases (82.1% [12 725/15 495]) tested were RDT positive. Almost half of afebrile episodes (47.6% [204/429]) were RDT positive. Children eligible for rectal artesunate contributed 1.1% of episodes. The odds of using CHWs as the first point of care doubled (odds ratio [OR], 2.15; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.9-2.4; P < .0001). RDT use changed from 3.2% to 72.9% (OR, 80.8; 95% CI, 51.2-127.3; P < .0001). The mean duration of uncomplicated episodes reduced from 3.69 ± 2.06 days to 3.47 ± 1.61 days, Degrees of freedom (df) = 2960, Student's t (t) = 3.2 (P = .0014), and mean duration of severe episodes reduced from 4.24 ± 2.26 days to 3.7 ± 1.57 days, df = 749, t = 3.8, P = .0001. There was a reduction in children with danger signs from 24.7% before to 18.1% during the intervention (OR, 0.68; 95% CI, .59-.78; P < .0001). Provision of diagnosis and treatment via trained CHWs increases access to diagnosis and treatment, shortens clinical episode duration, and reduces the number of severe cases. This approach, recommended by the World Health Organization, improves malaria case management. ISRCTN13858170.
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2.
  • Abdulla, Salim, et al. (författare)
  • Clinical determinants of early parasitological response to ACTs in African patients with uncomplicated falciparum malaria : a literature review and meta-analysis of individual patient data
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: BMC Medicine. - 1741-7015. ; 13
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum has emerged in the Greater Mekong sub-region and poses a major global public health threat. Slow parasite clearance is a key clinical manifestation of reduced susceptibility to artemisinin. This study was designed to establish the baseline values for clearance in patients from Sub-Saharan African countries with uncomplicated malaria treated with artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs). Methods: A literature review in PubMed was conducted in March 2013 to identify all prospective clinical trials (uncontrolled trials, controlled trials and randomized controlled trials), including ACTs conducted in Sub-Saharan Africa, between 1960 and 2012. Individual patient data from these studies were shared with the WorldWide Antimalarial Resistance Network (WWARN) and pooled using an a priori statistical analytical plan. Factors affecting early parasitological response were investigated using logistic regression with study sites fitted as a random effect. The risk of bias in included studies was evaluated based on study design, methodology and missing data. Results: In total, 29,493 patients from 84 clinical trials were included in the analysis, treated with artemether-lumefantrine (n = 13,664), artesunate-amodiaquine (n = 11,337) and dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (n = 4,492). The overall parasite clearance rate was rapid. The parasite positivity rate (PPR) decreased from 59.7 % (95 % CI: 54.5-64.9) on day 1 to 6.7 % (95 % CI: 4.8-8.7) on day 2 and 0.9 % (95 % CI: 0.5-1.2) on day 3. The 95th percentile of observed day 3 PPR was 5.3 %. Independent risk factors predictive of day 3 positivity were: high baseline parasitaemia (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.16 (95 % CI: 1.08-1.25); per 2-fold increase in parasite density, P <0.001); fever (>37.5 degrees C) (AOR = 1.50 (95 % CI: 1.06-2.13), P = 0.022); severe anaemia (AOR = 2.04 (95 % CI: 1.21-3.44), P = 0.008); areas of low/moderate transmission setting (AOR = 2.71 (95 % CI: 1.38-5.36), P = 0.004); and treatment with the loose formulation of artesunate-amodiaquine (AOR = 2.27 (95 % CI: 1.14-4.51), P = 0.020, compared to dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine). Conclusions: The three ACTs assessed in this analysis continue to achieve rapid early parasitological clearance across the sites assessed in Sub-Saharan Africa. A threshold of 5 % day 3 parasite positivity from a minimum sample size of 50 patients provides a more sensitive benchmark in Sub-Saharan Africa compared to the current recommended threshold of 10 % to trigger further investigation of artemisinin susceptibility.
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3.
  • Castellani, Joëlle, et al. (författare)
  • Impact of Improving Community-Based Access to Malaria Diagnosis and Treatment on Household Costs.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. - 1537-6591. ; 63:suppl 5, s. S256-S263
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Community health workers (CHWs) were trained in Burkina Faso, Nigeria, and Uganda to diagnose febrile children using malaria rapid diagnostic tests, and treat positive malaria cases with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) and those who could not take oral medicines with rectal artesunate. We quantified the impact of this intervention on private household costs for childhood febrile illness. Households with recent febrile illness in a young child in previous 2 weeks were selected randomly before and during the intervention and data obtained on household costs for the illness episode. Household costs included consultation fees, registration costs, user fees, diagnosis, bed, drugs, food, and transport costs. Private household costs per episode before and during the intervention were compared. The intervention's impact on household costs per episode was calculated and projected to districtwide impacts on household costs. Use of CHWs increased from 35% of illness episodes before the intervention to 50% during the intervention (P < .0001), and total household costs per episode decreased significantly in each country: from US Dollars (USD) $4.36 to USD $1.54 in Burkina Faso, from USD $3.90 to USD $2.04 in Nigeria, and from USD $4.46 to USD $1.42 in Uganda (all P < .0001). There was no difference in the time used by the child's caregiver to care for a sick child (59% before intervention vs 51% during intervention spent ≤2 days). Using the most recent population figures for each study district, we estimate that the intervention could save households a total of USD $29 965, USD $254 268, and USD $303 467, respectively, in the study districts in Burkina Faso, Nigeria, and Uganda. Improving access to malaria diagnostics and treatments in malaria-endemic areas substantially reduces private household costs. The key challenge is to develop and strengthen community human resources to deliver the intervention, and ensure adequate supplies of commodities and supervision. We demonstrate feasibility and benefit to populations living in difficult circumstances. ISRCTN13858170.
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4.
  • Mansoor, Rashid, et al. (författare)
  • Haematological consequences of acute uncomplicated falciparum malaria : a WorldWide Antimalarial Resistance Network pooled analysis of individual patient data
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: BMC Medicine. - : Springer Nature. - 1741-7015. ; 20:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundPlasmodium falciparum malaria is associated with anaemia-related morbidity, attributable to host, parasite and drug factors. We quantified the haematological response following treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria to identify the factors associated with malarial anaemia.MethodsIndividual patient data from eligible antimalarial efficacy studies of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria, available through the WorldWide Antimalarial Resistance Network data repository prior to August 2015, were pooled using standardised methodology. The haematological response over time was quantified using a multivariable linear mixed effects model with nonlinear terms for time, and the model was then used to estimate the mean haemoglobin at day of nadir and day 7. Multivariable logistic regression quantified risk factors for moderately severe anaemia (haemoglobin < 7 g/dL) at day 0, day 3 and day 7 as well as a fractional fall >= 25% at day 3 and day 7.ResultsA total of 70,226 patients, recruited into 200 studies between 1991 and 2013, were included in the analysis: 50,859 (72.4%) enrolled in Africa, 18,451 (26.3%) in Asia and 916 (1.3%) in South America. The median haemoglobin concentration at presentation was 9.9 g/dL (range 5.0-19.7 g/dL) in Africa, 11.6 g/dL (range 5.0-20.0 g/dL) in Asia and 12.3 g/dL (range 6.9-17.9 g/dL) in South America. Moderately severe anaemia (Hb < 7g/dl) was present in 8.4% (4284/50,859) of patients from Africa, 3.3% (606/18,451) from Asia and 0.1% (1/916) from South America. The nadir haemoglobin occurred on day 2 post treatment with a mean fall from baseline of 0.57 g/dL in Africa and 1.13 g/dL in Asia. Independent risk factors for moderately severe anaemia on day 7, in both Africa and Asia, included moderately severe anaemia at baseline (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 16.10 and AOR = 23.00, respectively), young age (age < 1 compared to >= 12 years AOR = 12.81 and AOR = 6.79, respectively), high parasitaemia (AOR = 1.78 and AOR = 1.58, respectively) and delayed parasite clearance (AOR = 2.44 and AOR = 2.59, respectively). In Asia, patients treated with an artemisinin-based regimen were at significantly greater risk of moderately severe anaemia on day 7 compared to those treated with a non-artemisinin-based regimen (AOR = 2.06 [95%CI 1.39-3.05], p < 0.001).ConclusionsIn patients with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria, the nadir haemoglobin occurs 2 days after starting treatment. Although artemisinin-based treatments increase the rate of parasite clearance, in Asia they are associated with a greater risk of anaemia during recovery.
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5.
  • Adjuik, Martin A., et al. (författare)
  • The effect of dosing strategies on the therapeutic efficacy of artesunate-amodiaquine for uncomplicated malaria : a meta-analysis of individual patient data
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: BMC Medicine. - 1741-7015. ; 13
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Artesunate-amodiaquine (AS-AQ) is one of the most widely used artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) to treat uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Africa. We investigated the impact of different dosing strategies on the efficacy of this combination for the treatment of falciparum malaria. Methods: Individual patient data from AS-AQ clinical trials were pooled using the WorldWide Antimalarial Resistance Network (WWARN) standardised methodology. Risk factors for treatment failure were identified using a Cox regression model with shared frailty across study sites. Results: Forty-three studies representing 9,106 treatments from 1999-2012 were included in the analysis; 4,138 (45.4%) treatments were with a fixed dose combination with an AQ target dose of 30 mg/kg (FDC), 1,293 (14.2%) with a non-fixed dose combination with an AQ target dose of 25 mg/kg (loose NFDC-25), 2,418 (26.6%) with a non-fixed dose combination with an AQ target dose of 30 mg/kg (loose NFDC-30), and the remaining 1,257 (13.8%) with a co-blistered non-fixed dose combination with an AQ target dose of 30 mg/kg (co-blistered NFDC). The median dose of AQ administered was 32.1 mg/kg [IQR: 25.9-38.2], the highest dose being administered to patients treated with co-blistered NFDC (median = 35.3 mg/kg [IQR: 30.6-43.7]) and the lowest to those treated with loose NFDC-25 (median = 25.0 mg/kg [IQR: 22.7-25.0]). Patients treated with FDC received a median dose of 32.4 mg/kg [IQR: 27-39.0]. After adjusting for reinfections, the corrected antimalarial efficacy on day 28 after treatment was similar for co-blistered NFDC (97.9% [95% confidence interval (CI): 97.0-98.8%]) and FDC (98.1% [95% CI: 97.6%-98.5%]; P = 0.799), but significantly lower for the loose NFDC-25 (93.4% [95% CI: 91.9%-94.9%]), and loose NFDC-30 (95.0% [95% CI: 94.1%-95.9%]) (P < 0.001 for all comparisons). After controlling for age, AQ dose, baseline parasitemia and region; treatment with loose NFDC-25 was associated with a 3.5-fold greater risk of recrudescence by day 28 (adjusted hazard ratio, AHR = 3.51 [95% CI: 2.02-6.12], P < 0.001) compared to FDC, and treatment with loose NFDC-30 was associated with a higher risk of recrudescence at only three sites. Conclusions: There was substantial variation in the total dose of amodiaquine administered in different AS-AQ combination regimens. Fixed dose AS-AQ combinations ensure optimal dosing and provide higher antimalarial treatment efficacy than the loose individual tablets in all age categories.
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6.
  • Cherif, Mariama, et al. (författare)
  • Distribution of Fc gamma R gene polymorphisms among two sympatric populations in Mali : differing allele frequencies, associations with malariometric indices and implications for genetic susceptibility to malaria
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Malaria Journal. - 1475-2875 .- 1475-2875. ; 15
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Genetic polymorphisms in the complex gene cluster encoding human Fc-gamma receptors (Fc gamma Rs) may influence malaria susceptibility and pathogenesis. Studying genetic susceptibility to malaria is ideal among sympatric populations because the distribution of polymorphic genes among such populations can help in the identification malaria candidate genes. This study determined the distribution of three FcyRs single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (Fc gamma RIIB-rs1050519, Fc gamma RIIC-rs3933769 and Fc gamma RIIIA-rs396991) among sympatric Fulani and Dogon children with uncomplicated malaria. The association of these SNPs with clinical, malariometric and immunological indices was also tested. Methods: This study involved 242 Fulani and Dogon volunteers from Mali age under 15 years. All SNPs were genotyped with predesigned TaqMan (R) SNP Genotyping Assays. Genotypic and allelic distribution of SNPs was compared across ethnic groups using the Fisher exact test. Variations in clinical, malariometric and immunologic indices between groups were tested with Kruskal-Wallis H, Mann-Whitney U test and Fisher exact test where appropriate. Results: The study confirmed known malariometric and immunologic differences between sympatric Fulani and non-Fulani tribes. Parasite density was lower in the Fulani than the Dogon (p < 0.0001). The mutant allele of Fc gamma RIIC (rs3933769) was found more frequently in the Fulani than the Dogon (p < 0.0001) while that of Fc gamma RIIIA (rs396991) occurred less frequently in the Fulani than Dogon (p = 0.0043). The difference in the mutant allele frequency of Fc gamma RIIB (rs1050519) between the two ethnic groups was however not statistically significant (p = 0.064). The mutant allele of rs396991 was associated with high malaria-specific IgG1 and IgG3 in the entire study population and Dogon tribe, p = 0.023 and 0.015, respectively. Parasite burden was lower in carriers of the Fc gamma RIIC (rs3933769) mutant allele than non-carriers in the entire study population (p < 0.0001). Carriers of this allele harboured less than half the parasites found in non-carriers. Conclusion: Differences in the allelic frequencies of rs3933769 and rs396991 among Fulani and Dogon indirectly suggest that these SNPs may influence malaria susceptibility and pathogenesis in the study population. The high frequency of the Fc gamma RIIC (rs3933769) mutant allele in the Fulani and its subsequent association with low parasite burden in the entire study population is noteworthy.
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7.
  • Cherif, Mariama K., et al. (författare)
  • Is Fc gamma receptor IIA (Fc gamma RIIA) polymorphism associated with clinical malaria and Plasmodium falciparum specific antibody levels in children from Burkina Faso?
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Acta Tropica. - 0001-706X .- 1873-6254. ; 142, s. 41-46
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In the present study, the influences of Fc gamma RIIA polymorphism on susceptibility to malaria and antibody responses to Plasmodium falciparum antigens were analyzed in children. We recruited 96 healthy children between 3 and 10 years at the beginning of the high transmission season and we followed up for 5 months through the high transmission season to assess the parasitological, immunological and genetic endpoints in relation to clinical malaria status. There was a similar distribution of homozygous and heterozygous individuals carrying the Fc gamma RIIA-131R/R and Fc gamma RIIA-131R/H allele, whereas the number of Fc gamma RIIA-131H/H homozygous individuals was lower. P. falciparum infection frequency was not associated with the Fc gamma RIIa-131R/H polymorphism. Only IgG antibody responses to GLURP R0 showed a significant association between antibody levels and Fc gamma RIIA polymorphism (p = 0.02). IgG levels to MSP2a were significantly higher in children who did not experience any clinical malaria episode compared to those who experienced at least one malaria episode (p = 0.019). Cytophilic and non-cytophylic IgG subclass levels were higher in children without malaria than those who experienced at least one malaria episode. This difference was statistically significant for IgG1 to MSP3 (p = 0.003) and to MSP2a (p = 0.006); IgG3 to MSP2a (p = 0.007) and to GLURP R0 (p = 0.044); IgG2 to MSP2b (p = 0.007) and IgG4 to MSP3 (p = 0.051) and to MSP2a (p = 0.049). In this study, homozygous carriers of the Fc gamma RIIA-131R/R allele had higher malaria-specific antibody levels compare to the heterozygous carriers Fc gamma RIIA-131R/H alleles and to homozygous carriers of Fc gamma RIIA-131H/H alleles. The pre-existing antibodies responses were related to a reduced subsequent risk of clinical malaria.
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8.
  • Dahal, Prabin, et al. (författare)
  • Competing risk events in antimalarial drug trials in uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria : a WorldWide Antimalarial Resistance Network individual participant data meta-analysis
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Malaria Journal. - : BMC. - 1475-2875 .- 1475-2875. ; 18
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Therapeutic efficacy studies in uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria are confounded by new infections, which constitute competing risk events since they can potentially preclude/pre-empt the detection of subsequent recrudescence of persistent, sub-microscopic primary infections.Methods: Antimalarial studies typically report the risk of recrudescence derived using the Kaplan-Meier (K-M) method, which considers new infections acquired during the follow-up period as censored. Cumulative Incidence Function (CIF) provides an alternative approach for handling new infections, which accounts for them as a competing risk event. The complement of the estimate derived using the K-M method (1 minus K-M), and the CIF were used to derive the risk of recrudescence at the end of the follow-up period using data from studies collated in the WorldWide Antimalarial Resistance Network data repository. Absolute differences in the failure estimates derived using these two methods were quantified. In comparative studies, the equality of two K-M curves was assessed using the log-rank test, and the equality of CIFs using Gray's k-sample test (both at 5% level of significance). Two different regression modelling strategies for recrudescence were considered: cause-specific Cox model and Fine and Gray's sub-distributional hazard model.Results: Data were available from 92 studies (233 treatment arms, 31,379 patients) conducted between 1996 and 2014. At the end of follow-up, the median absolute overestimation in the estimated risk of cumulative recrudescence by using 1 minus K-M approach was 0.04% (interquartile range (IQR): 0.00-0.27%, Range: 0.00-3.60%). The overestimation was correlated positively with the proportion of patients with recrudescence [Pearson's correlation coefficient (rho): 0.38, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.30-0.46] or new infection [rho: 0.43; 95% CI 0.35-0.54]. In three study arms, the point estimates of failure were greater than 10% (the WHO threshold for withdrawing antimalarials) when the K-M method was used, but remained below 10% when using the CIF approach, but the 95% confidence interval included this threshold.Conclusions: The 1 minus K-M method resulted in a marginal overestimation of recrudescence that became increasingly pronounced as antimalarial efficacy declined, particularly when the observed proportion of new infection was high. The CIF approach provides an alternative approach for derivation of failure estimates in antimalarial trials, particularly in high transmission settings.
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9.
  • Dahal, Prabin, et al. (författare)
  • Temporal distribution of Plasmodium falciparum recrudescence following artemisinin-based combination therapy : an individual participant data meta-analysis
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Malaria Journal. - : Springer Nature. - 1475-2875 .- 1475-2875. ; 21
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The duration of trial follow-up affects the ability to detect recrudescent infections following anti-malarial treatment. The aim of this study was to explore the proportions of recrudescent parasitaemia as ascribed by genotyping captured at various follow-up time-points in treatment efficacy trials for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria.Methods: Individual patient data from 83 anti-malarial efficacy studies collated in the WorldWide Antimalarial Resistance Network (WWARN) repository with at least 28 days follow-up were available. The temporal and cumulative distributions of recrudescence were characterized using a Cox regression model with shared frailty on study-sites. Fractional polynomials were used to capture non-linear instantaneous hazard. The area under the density curve (AUC) of the constructed distribution was used to estimate the optimal follow-up period for capturing a P. falciparum malaria recrudescence. Simulation studies were conducted based on the constructed distributions to quantify the absolute overestimation in efficacy due to sub-optimal follow-up.Results: Overall, 3703 recurrent infections were detected in 60 studies conducted in Africa (15,512 children aged < 5 years) and 23 studies conducted in Asia and South America (5272 patients of all ages). Using molecular genotyping, 519 (14.0%) recurrences were ascribed as recrudescent infections. A 28 day artemether-lumefantrine (AL) efficacy trial would not have detected 58% [95% confidence interval (CI) 47-74%] of recrudescences in African children and 32% [95% CI 15-45%] in patients of all ages in Asia/South America. The corresponding estimate following a 42 day dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) efficacy trial in Africa was 47% [95% CI 19-90%] in children under 5 years old treated with > 48 mg/kg total piperaquine (PIP) dose and 9% [95% CI 0-22%] in those treated with <= 48 mg/kg PIP dose. In absolute terms, the simulation study found that trials limited to 28 days follow-up following AL underestimated the risk of recrudescence by a median of 2.8 percentage points compared to day 63 estimates and those limited to 42 days following DP underestimated the risk of recrudescence by a median of 2.0 percentage points compared to day 42 estimates. The analysis was limited by few clinical trials following patients for longer than 42 days (9 out of 83 trials) and the imprecision of PCR genotyping which overcalls recrudescence in areas of higher transmission biasing the later distribution.Conclusions: Restricting follow-up of clinical efficacy trials to day 28 for AL and day 42 for DP will miss a proportion of late recrudescent treatment failures but will have a modest impact in derived efficacy. The results highlight that as genotyping methods improve consideration should be given for trials with longer duration of follow-up to detect early indications of emerging drug resistance.
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10.
  • Quin, Jaclyn E., et al. (författare)
  • Major transcriptional changes observed in the Fulani, an ethnic group less susceptible to malaria
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: eLIFE. - 2050-084X. ; 6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Fulani ethnic group has relatively better protection from Plasmodium falciparum malaria, as reflected by fewer symptomatic cases of malaria, lower infection rates, and lower parasite densities compared to sympatric ethnic groups. However, the basis for this lower susceptibility to malaria by the Fulani is unknown. The incidence of classic malaria resistance genes are lower in the Fulani than in other sympatric ethnic populations, and targeted SNP analyses of other candidate genes involved in the immune response to malaria have not been able to account for the observed difference in the Fulani susceptibility to P.falciparum. Therefore, we have performed a pilot study to examine global transcription and DNA methylation patterns in specific immune cell populations in the Fulani to elucidate the mechanisms that confer the lower susceptibility to P.falciparum malaria. When we compared uninfected and infected Fulani individuals, in contrast to uninfected and infected individuals from the sympatric ethnic group Mossi, we observed a key difference: a strong transcriptional response was only detected in the monocyte fraction of the Fulani, where over 1000 genes were significantly differentially expressed upon P.falciparum infection.
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