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Sökning: WFRF:(Skoglund Pontus)

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1.
  • Skoglund, Pontus, et al. (författare)
  • Investigating population history using temporal genetic differentiation
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Molecular biology and evolution. - 0737-4038 .- 1537-1719. ; 31:9, s. 2516-2527
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The rapid advance of sequencing technology coupled with improvements in molecular methods for obtaining genetic data from ancient sources holds the promise of producing a wealth of genomic data from time-separated individuals. However, the population genetic properties of time-structured samples have not been extensively explored. Here, we consider the implications of temporal sampling for analyses of genetic differentiation, and use a temporal coalescent framework to show that complex historical events such as size reductions, population replacements, and transient genetic barriers between populations leave a footprint of genetic differentiation that can be traced through history using temporal samples. Our results emphasize explicit consideration of the temporal structure when making inferences, and indicate that genomic data from ancient individuals will greatly increase our ability to reconstruct population history.
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2.
  • Bergström, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • Origins and genetic legacy of prehistoric dogs
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Science. - 1095-9203 .- 0036-8075. ; 370:6516, s. 557-564
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Dogs were the first domestic animal, but little is known about their population history and to what extent it was linked to humans. We sequenced 27 ancient dog genomes and found that all dogs share a common ancestry distinct from present-day wolves, with limited gene flow from wolves since domestication but substantial dog-to-wolf gene flow. By 11,000 years ago, at least five major ancestry lineages had diversified, demonstrating a deep genetic history of dogs during the Paleolithic. Coanalysis with human genomes reveals aspects of dog population history that mirror humans, including Levant-related ancestry in Africa and early agricultural Europe. Other aspects differ, including the impacts of steppe pastoralist expansions in West and East Eurasia and a near-complete turnover of Neolithic European dog ancestry.
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3.
  • Castroviejo-Fisher, Santiago, et al. (författare)
  • Vanishing Native American dog lineages
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: BMC Evolutionary Biology. - 1471-2148 .- 1471-2148. ; 11, s. 73-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Dogs were an important element in many native American cultures at the time Europeans arrived. Although previous ancient DNA studies revealed the existence of unique native American mitochondrial sequences, these have not been found in modern dogs, mainly purebred, studied so far. Results: We identified many previously undescribed mitochondrial control region sequences in 400 dogs from rural and isolated areas as well as street dogs from across the Americas. However, sequences of native American origin proved to be exceedingly rare, and we estimate that the native population contributed only a minor fraction of the gene pool that constitutes the modern population. Conclusions: The high number of previously unidentified haplotypes in our sample suggests that a lot of unsampled genetic variation exists in non-breed dogs. Our results also suggest that the arrival of European colonists to the Americas may have led to an extensive replacement of the native American dog population by the dogs of the invaders.
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4.
  • da Fonseca, Rute R., et al. (författare)
  • The origin and evolution of maize in the Southwestern United States
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Nature Plants. - 2055-026X. ; 1:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The origin of maize (Zea mays mays) in the US Southwest remains contentious, with conflicting archaeological data supporting either coastal(1-4) or highland(5,6) routes of diffusion of maize into the United States. Furthermore, the genetics of adaptation to the new environmental and cultural context of the Southwest is largely uncharacterized(7). To address these issues, we compared nuclear DNA from 32 archaeological maize samples spanning 6,000 years of evolution to modern landraces. We found that the initial diffusion of maize into the Southwest about 4,000 years ago is likely to have occurred along a highland route, followed by gene flow from a lowland coastal maize beginning at least 2,000 years ago. Our population genetic analysis also enabled us to differentiate selection during domestication for adaptation to the climatic and cultural environment of the Southwest, identifying adaptation loci relevant to drought tolerance and sugar content.
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6.
  • Günther, Torsten, et al. (författare)
  • Ancient genomes link early farmers from Atapuerca in Spain to modern-day Basques
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. - 0027-8424 .- 1091-6490. ; 112:38, s. 11917-11922
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The consequences of the Neolithic transition in Europe-one of the most important cultural changes in human prehistory-is a subject of great interest. However, its effect on prehistoric and modern-day people in Iberia, the westernmost frontier of the European continent, remains unresolved. We present, to our knowledge, the first genome-wide sequence data from eight human remains, dated to between 5,500 and 3,500 years before present, excavated in the El Portalon cave at Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain. We show that these individuals emerged from the same ancestral gene pool as early farmers in other parts of Europe, suggesting that migration was the dominant mode of transferring farming practices throughout western Eurasia. In contrast to central and northern early European farmers, the Chalcolithic El Portalon individuals additionally mixed with local southwestern hunter-gatherers. The proportion of hunter-gatherer-related admixture into early farmers also increased over the course of two millennia. The Chalcolithic El Portalon individuals showed greatest genetic affinity to modern-day Basques, who have long been considered linguistic and genetic isolates linked to the Mesolithic whereas all other European early farmers show greater genetic similarity to modern-day Sardinians. These genetic links suggest that Basques and their language may be linked with the spread of agriculture during the Neolithic. Furthermore, all modern-day Iberian groups except the Basques display distinct admixture with Caucasus/Central Asian and North African groups, possibly related to historical migration events. The El Portalon genomes uncover important pieces of the demographic history of Iberia and Europe and reveal how prehistoric groups relate to modern-day people.
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7.
  • Karlsson, MariAnne, 1956, et al. (författare)
  • Patterns of use, perceived benefits and reported effects of access to navigation support systems: an inter-European field operational test
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: IET Intelligent Transport Systems. - 1751-9578 .- 1751-956X. ; 9:8, s. 802-809
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The study presents findings regarding drivers' patterns of use, attitude towards, and reported effects of access tomature nomadic navigation support systems. Three different systems were tested by 582 drivers in four-field operationaltests for a period of six months. A majority of the participants used the support system for trips where the route/destination was unfamiliar but there were also other use scenarios. The main benefits entailed convenience andcomfort. Reported effects involved increased possibilities to choose the route according to preferences; a decrease inthe time it took to reach destinations and in the distance covered to reach the destination. One in four reported adecrease in fuel consumption attributed an increased compliance with speed limits and/or that driving around andsearching for the correct route to reach the desired destination could be avoided. A majority reported ‘no change’regarding the number of journeys made by car. Reported effects (whether increases or decreases) were howeversmaller than expected before the trial.
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8.
  • Krzewinska, Maja, et al. (författare)
  • Mitochondrial DNA variation in the Viking age population of Norway
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences. - 0962-8436 .- 1471-2970. ; 370:1660, s. 20130384-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The medieval Norsemen or Vikings had an important biological and cultural impact on many parts of Europe through raids, colonization and trade, from about AD 793 to 1066. To help understand the genetic affinities of the ancient Norsemen, and their genetic contribution to the gene pool of other Europeans, we analysed DNA markers in Late Iron Age skeletal remains from Norway. DNA was extracted from 80 individuals, and mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms were detected by next-generation sequencing. The sequences of 45 ancient Norwegians were verified as genuine through the identification of damage patterns characteristic of ancient DNA. The ancient Norwegians were genetically similar to previously analysed ancient Icelanders, and to present-day Shetland and Orkney Islanders, Norwegians, Swedes, Scots, English, German and French. The Viking Age population had higher frequencies of K*, U*, V* and I* haplogroups than their modern counterparts, but a lower proportion of T* and H* haplogroups. Three individuals carried haplotypes that are rare in Norway today (U5b1b1, Hg A* and an uncommon variant of H*). Our combined analyses indicate that Norse women were important agents in the overseas expansion and settlement of the Vikings, and that women from the Orkneys and Western Isles contributed to the colonization of Iceland.
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9.
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10.
  • Malmstrom, Helena, et al. (författare)
  • Finding the founder of Stockholm - A kinship study based on Y-chromosomal, autosomal and mitochondrial DNA
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Annals of Anatomy. - : Elsevier. - 0940-9602 .- 1618-0402. ; 194:1, s. 138-145
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Historical records claim that Birger Magnusson (died 1266), famous regent of Sweden and the founder of Stockholm, was buried in Varnhem Abbey in Vastergotland. After being lost for centuries, his putative grave was rediscovered during restoration work in the 1920s. Morphological analyses of the three individuals in the grave concluded that the older male, the female and the younger male found in the grave were likely to be Birger, his second wife Mechtild of Holstein and his son Erik from a previous marriage. More recent evaluations of the data from the 1920s seriously questioned these conclusions, ultimately leading to the reopening and reexamination of the grave in 2002. Ancient DNA-analyses were performed to investigate if the relationship between the three individuals matched what we would expect if the individuals were Birger, Erik and Mechtild. We used pyrosequencing of Y-chromosomal and autosomal SNPs and compared the results with haplogroup frequencies of modern Swedes to investigate paternal relations. Possible maternal kinship was investigated by deep FLX-sequencing of overlapping mtDNA amplicons. The authenticity of the sequences was examined using data from independent extractions, massive clonal data, the c-statistics, and real-time quantitative data. We show that the males carry the same Y-chromosomal haplogroup and thus we cannot reject a father-son type of relation. Further, as shown by the mtDNA analyses, none of the individuals are maternally related. We conclude that the graves indeed belong to Birger, Erik and Mechtild, or to three individuals with the exact same kind of biological relatedness.
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