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Sökning: WFRF:(Sommer WH)

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1.
  • Björk, Karl, et al. (författare)
  • β-Arrestin 2 knockout mice exhibit sensitized dopamine release and increased reward in response to a low dose of alcohol
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Psychopharmacology. - : Springer. - 0033-3158 .- 1432-2072. ; 230:3, s. 439-449
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • RationaleThe rewarding effects of alcohol have been attributed to interactions between opioid and dopaminergic system within the mesolimbic reward pathway. We have previously shown that ablation of β-arrestin 2 (Arrb2), a crucial regulator of μ-opioid receptor function, attenuates alcohol-induced hyperlocomotion and c-fos activation in the nucleus accumbens.ObjectivesHere, we further investigated the role of Arrb2 in modulating alcohol-induced dopamine (DA) release and conditioned place preference (CPP). We also assessed the functional importance of Arrb2 for μ-opioid receptor surface expression and signaling following an acute alcohol challenge.MethodsAlcohol-evoked (0.375, 0.75, and 1.5 g/kg intraperitoneally) DA release was measured by in vivo microdialysis in the shell of nucleus accumbens. Reward was assessed by the CPP paradigm. Receptor function was assessed by μ-receptor binding and [35S]GTP-γ-S autoradiography.ResultsIn Arrb2 knockout mice accumbal DA levels reach maximum response at a lower dose compared to wild-type (wt) animals. In line with these results, Arrb2 knockout mice display increased CPP for alcohol as compared to wt mice. Finally, Arrb2 mutant mice display increased μ-opioid receptor signaling in the ventral and dorsal striatum and amygdala in response to a low dose of alcohol, indicating impaired desensitization mechanisms in these mice.ConclusionsOur results show that Arrb2 modulates the response to low doses of alcohol on various levels including μ-opioid receptor signaling, DA release, and reward. They also reveal a clear dissociation between the effects of Arrb2 on psychomotor and reward behaviors.
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2.
  • Caruso, Vanni, et al. (författare)
  • mRNA GPR162 changes are associated with decreased food intake in rat, and its human genetic variants with impairments in glucose homeostasis in two Swedish cohorts
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Gene. - 0378-1119 .- 1879-0038. ; 581:2, s. 139-145
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are a class of integral membrane proteins mediating intercellular interactions of fundamental physiological importance for survival including regulation of food intake, blood pressure, and hormonal sensing signaling, among other roles. Homeostatic alterations in the physiological status of GPCRs are often associated with underlying causes of disease, and to date, several orphan GPCRs are still uncharacterized. Findings from our previous study demonstrate that the Rhodopsin family protein GPR162 is widely expressed in GABAergic as well as other neurons within the mouse hippocampus, whereas extensive expression is observed in hypothalamus, amygdala, and ventral tegmental area, regions strictly interconnected and involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis and hedonic feeding. In this study, we provide a further anatomical characterization of GPR162 in mouse brain via in situ hybridization as well as detailed mRNA expression in a panel of rat tissues complementing a specie-specific mapping of the receptor. We also provide an attempt to demonstrate a functional implication of GPR162 in food intake-related behavior via antisense knockdown studies. Furthermore, we performed human genetic studies in which for the first time, variants of the GPR162 gene were associated with impairments in glucose homeostasis.
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3.
  • Dima, Danai, et al. (författare)
  • Subcortical volumes across the lifespan : Data from 18,605 healthy individuals aged 3-90 years.
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Human Brain Mapping. - 1065-9471 .- 1097-0193.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Age has a major effect on brain volume. However, the normative studies available are constrained by small sample sizes, restricted age coverage and significant methodological variability. These limitations introduce inconsistencies and may obscure or distort the lifespan trajectories of brain morphometry. In response, we capitalized on the resources of the Enhancing Neuroimaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium to examine age-related trajectories inferred from cross-sectional measures of the ventricles, the basal ganglia (caudate, putamen, pallidum, and nucleus accumbens), the thalamus, hippocampus and amygdala using magnetic resonance imaging data obtained from 18,605 individuals aged 3-90 years. All subcortical structure volumes were at their maximum value early in life. The volume of the basal ganglia showed a monotonic negative association with age thereafter; there was no significant association between age and the volumes of the thalamus, amygdala and the hippocampus (with some degree of decline in thalamus) until the sixth decade of life after which they also showed a steep negative association with age. The lateral ventricles showed continuous enlargement throughout the lifespan. Age was positively associated with inter-individual variability in the hippocampus and amygdala and the lateral ventricles. These results were robust to potential confounders and could be used to examine the functional significance of deviations from typical age-related morphometric patterns.
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4.
  • Frangou, Sophia, et al. (författare)
  • Cortical thickness across the lifespan: Data from 17,075 healthy individuals aged 3–90 years
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Human Brain Mapping. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 1065-9471 .- 1097-0193.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Delineating the association of age and cortical thickness in healthy individuals is critical given the association of cortical thickness with cognition and behavior. Previous research has shown that robust estimates of the association between age and brain morphometry require large-scale studies. In response, we used cross-sectional data from 17,075 individuals aged 3–90 years from the Enhancing Neuroimaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium to infer age-related changes in cortical thickness. We used fractional polynomial (FP) regression to quantify the association between age and cortical thickness, and we computed normalized growth centiles using the parametric Lambda, Mu, and Sigma method. Interindividual variability was estimated using meta-analysis and one-way analysis of variance. For most regions, their highest cortical thickness value was observed in childhood. Age and cortical thickness showed a negative association; the slope was steeper up to the third decade of life and more gradual thereafter; notable exceptions to this general pattern were entorhinal, temporopolar, and anterior cingulate cortices. Interindividual variability was largest in temporal and frontal regions across the lifespan. Age and its FP combinations explained up to 59% variance in cortical thickness. These results may form the basis of further investigation on normative deviation in cortical thickness and its significance for behavioral and cognitive outcomes.
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5.
  • Hansson, A C, et al. (författare)
  • Corticosterone actions on the hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression are mediated by exon IV promoter.
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Journal of neuroendocrinology (Print). - 0953-8194 .- 1365-2826. ; 18:2, s. 104-114
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression is strongly regulated by adrenocorticosteroids via activated gluco- and mineralocorticoid receptors. Four separate promoters are located upstream of the BDNF noncoding exons I to IV and may thus be involved in adrenocorticosteroid-mediated gene regulation. In adrenalectomised rats, corticosterone (10 mg/kg s.c.) induces a robust down-regulation of both BDNF mRNA and protein levels in the hippocampus peaking at 2-8 h. To study the role of the individual promoters in the corticosterone response, we employed exon-specific riboprobe in situ hybridisation as well as real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the dentate gyrus. We found a down-regulation, mainly of exon IV and the protein-coding exon V, in nearby all hippocampal subregions, but exon II was only down-regulated in the dentate gyrus. Exon I and exon III transcripts were not affected by corticosterone treatment. The results could be confirmed with real-time PCR in the dentate gyrus. It appears as if the exon IV promoter is the major target for corticosterone-mediated transcriptional regulation of BDNF in the hippocampus.
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6.
  • Ruggeri, Barbara, et al. (författare)
  • Association of Protein Phosphatase PPM1G With Alcohol Use Disorder and Brain Activity During Behavioral Control in a Genome-Wide Methylation Analysis
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Psychiatry. - 0002-953X .- 1535-7228. ; 172:6, s. 543-552
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: The genetic component of alcohol use disorder is substantial, but monozygotic twin discordance indicates a role for nonheritable differences that could be mediated by epigenetics. Despite growing evidence associating epigenetics and psychiatric disorders, it is unclear how epigenetics, particularly DNA methylation, relate to brain function and behavior, including drinking behavior. Method: The authors carried out a genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation of 18 monozygotic twin pairs discordant for alcohol use disorder and validated differentially methylated regions. After validation, the authors characterized these differentially methylated regions using personality trait assessment and functional MRI in a sample of 499 adolescents. Results: Hypermethylation in the 3'-protein-phosphatase-1G (PPM1G) gene locus was associated with alcohol use disorder. The authors found association of PPM1G hypermethylation with early escalation of alcohol use and increased impulsiveness. They also observed association of PPM1G hypermethylation with increased blood-oxygen-level-dependent response in the right subthalamic nucleus during an impulsiveness task. Conclusions: Overall, the authors provide first evidence for an epigenetic marker associated with alcohol consumption and its underlying neurobehavioral phenotype.
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7.
  • Wang, J., et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association analysis identifies variation in vitamin D receptor and other host factors influencing the gut microbiota
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 48:11, s. 1396-1406
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Human gut microbiota is an important determinant for health and disease, and recent studies emphasize the numerous factors shaping its diversity. Here we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of the gut microbiota using two cohorts from northern Germany totaling 1,812 individuals. Comprehensively controlling for diet and non-genetic parameters, we identify genome-wide significant associations for overall microbial variation and individual taxa at multiple genetic loci, including the VDR gene (encoding vitamin D receptor). We observe significant shifts in the microbiota of Vdr(-/-) mice relative to control mice and correlations between the microbiota and serum measurements of selected bile and fatty acids in humans, including known ligands and downstream metabolites of VDR. Genome-wide significant (P < 5 x 10(-8)) associations at multiple additional loci identify other important points of host-microbe intersection, notably several disease susceptibility genes and sterol metabolism pathway components. Non-genetic and genetic factors each account for approximately 10% of the variation in gut microbiota, whereby individual effects are relatively small.
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9.
  • Belyaev, IY, et al. (författare)
  • Exposure of rat brain to 915 MHz GSM microwaves induces changes in gene expression but not double stranded DNA breaks or effects on chromatin conformation
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Bioelectromagnetics. - : John Wiley and Sons. - 0197-8462. ; 27:4, s. 295-306
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We investigated whether exposure of rat brain to microwaves (MWs) of global system for mobile communication (GSM) induces DNA breaks, changes in chromatin conformation and in gene expression. An exposure installation was used based on a test mobile phone employing a GSM signal at 915 MHz, all standard modulations included, output power level in pulses 2 W, specific absorption rate (SAR) 0.4 mW/g. Rats were exposed or sham exposed to MWs during 2 h. After exposure, cell suspensions were prepared from brain samples, as well as from spleen and thymus. For analysis of gene expression patterns, total RNA was extracted from cerebellum. Changes in chromatin conformation, which are indicative of stress response and genotoxic effects, were measured by the method of anomalous viscosity time dependencies (AVTD). DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Effects of MW exposure were observed on neither conformation of chromatin nor DNA DSBs. Gene expression profiles were obtained by Affymetrix U34 GeneChips representing 8800 rat genes and analyzed with the Affymetrix Microarray Suite (MAS) 5.0 software. In cerebellum from all exposed animals, I I genes were upregulated in a range of 1.34-2.74 fold and one gene was downregulated 0.48-fold (P <.0025). The induced genes encode proteins with diverse functions including neurotransmitter regulation, blood-brain barrier (BBB), and melatonin production. The data shows that GSM MWs at 915 MHz did not induce PFGE-detectable DNA double stranded breaks or changes in chromatin conformation, but affected expression of genes in rat brain cells. Bioelectromagnetics 27:295-306, 2006. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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