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Sökning: WFRF:(Spada Francesca)

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2.
  • Klionsky, Daniel J., et al. (författare)
  • Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Autophagy. - : Landes Bioscience. - 1554-8635 .- 1554-8627. ; 8:4, s. 445-544
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process vs. those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process); thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from stimuli that result in increased autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.
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3.
  • Dawod, Mohammed, et al. (författare)
  • Antiproliferative Systemic Therapies for Metastatic Small Bowel Neuroendocrine Tumours
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Current Treatment Options in Oncology. - 1527-2729 .- 1534-6277. ; 22:8
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) are a heterogeneous group of malignancies with rising incidence and prevalence. Outcome and therapy of small bowel neuroendocrine tumours (SBNETs) is variable, depending on the grade, differentiation, tumour burden, as well as the site of the tumour origin. Because of this, multidisciplinary approach is essential. Large randomized clinical trials, with somatostatin analogues (PROMID, CLARINET) or with peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) with 177-lutetium (NETTER-1 trial) as well as the mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor (mTOR) everolimus (RADIANT trials), represent milestones for the medical management of unresectable grade 1 and 2 SBNETS over the last decade. Novel therapies, such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), are on the cutting edge. However, multiple unsolved questions remain. This review provides a comprehensive review of the main systemic therapeutic options for advanced SBNETs and discusses the latest guideline recommendations for palliative treatment.
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  • Grimaldi, Franco, et al. (författare)
  • Assessment of Response to Treatment and Follow-Up in Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Neoplasms
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders - Drug Targets. - : Bentham Science. - 1871-5303 .- 2212-3873. ; 18:5, s. 419-449
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Well-established criteria for evaluating the response to treatment and the appropriate follow-up of individual patients are critical in clinical oncology. The current evidence-based data on these issues in terms of the management of gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN) are unfortunately limited. This document by the Italian Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AME) on the criteria for the follow-up of GEP-NEN patients is aimed at providing comprehensive recommendations for everyday clinical practice based on both the best available evidence and the combined opinion of an interdisciplinary panel of experts. The initial risk stratification of patients with NENs should be performed according to the grading, staging and functional status of the neoplasm and the presence of an inherited syndrome. The evaluation of response to the initial treatment, and to the subsequent therapies for disease progression or recurrence, should be based on a cost-effective, risk-effective and timely use of the appropriate diagnostic resources. A multidisciplinary evaluation of the response to the treatment is strongly recommended and, at every step in the follow-up, it is mandatory to assess the disease state and the patient performance status, comorbidities, and recent clinical evolution. Local expertise, available technical resources and the patient preferences should always be evaluated while planning the individual clinical management of GEP-NENs.
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5.
  • Koumarianou, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Temozolomide in Advanced Neuroendocrine Neoplasms : Pharmacological and Clinical Aspects
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Neuroendocrinology. - 0028-3835 .- 1423-0194. ; 101:4, s. 274-288
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Alkylating agents, such as streptozocin and dacarbazine, have been reported as active in neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs). Temozolomide (TMZ) is an oral, potentially less toxic derivative of dacarbazine, which has shown activity both as a single agent and in combination with other drugs. Nevertheless, its role in NENs has not been well defined. Several retrospective and prospective phase I-II studies have been published describing its use in a variety of NENs. In a retrospective series, the combination of capecitabine and TMZ was reported to be associated with a particularly high tumour response in pancreatic NENs as a first-line treatment. Although in NENs, determination of the CP-nnethylguanineDNA methyltransferase (MGMT) status has been suggested as a predictive biomarker of response, its role still remains investigational, awaiting validation along with the establishment of the optimal detection method. Metronomic schedules have been reported to potentially overcome MGMT-related drug resistance. Toxicity is manageable if well monitored. We reviewed the literature regarding pharmacological and clinical aspects of TMZ, focusing on specific settings of NENs, different schedules, toxicity and safety profiles, and potential predictive biomarkers of response. 
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6.
  • Lamarca, Angela, et al. (författare)
  • Advanced small-bowel well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumours : An international survey of practice on 3(rd)-line treatment
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: World Journal of Gastroenterology. - : BAISHIDENG PUBLISHING GROUP INC. - 1007-9327 .- 2219-2840. ; 27:10, s. 976-989
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND Somatostatin analogues are an established first-line therapy for well differentiated small bowel neuroendocrine tumours (Wd-SBNETs), while and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) is frequently used as a second-line therapy. Adequate treatment selection of third-line treatment remains challenging due to the limited prospective data currently available on the best therapeutic sequence. AIM To understand current practice and rationale for decision-making by physicians in the 3(rd)-line setting by building an online survey. METHODS Weighted average (WA) of likelihood of usage between responders (1 very unlikely; 4 very likely) was used to reflect the relevance of factors explored. RESULTS Replies from representatives of 28 centers were received (5/8/2020-21/9/2020); medical oncologist (53.6%), gastroenterologist (17.9%); United Kingdom (21.4%), Spain (17.9%), Italy (14.3%). Majority from European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society (ENETS) Centres of Excellence (57.1%), who followed ENETS guidelines (82.1%). Generally speaking, 3(rd)-line treatment for Wd-SBNETs was: everolimus (EVE) (66.7%), PRRT (18.5%), liver embolization (LE) (7.4%) and interferon-alpha (IFN) (3.7%); chemotherapy (0%); decision was based on clinical trial data (59.3%), or personal experience (22.2%). EVE was most likely used if Ki-67 < 10% (WA 3.27/4) or age < 70 years (WA 3.23/4), in the 3(rd)-line setting (WA 3.23/4); regardless of presence/absence of carcinoid syndrome (CS), rate of progression or extent of disease. Chemotherapy was mainly utilised only if rapid progression (within 6 mo) (WA 3.35/4), Ki-67 10%-20% (WA 2.77/4), negative somatostatin receptor imaging (WA 2.65/4) or high tumour burden (WA 2.77/4); temozolomide or streptozocin was used with capecitabine or 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) (57.7%), FOLFOX (5-FU combined with oxaliplatin) (23.1%). LE was selected if presence of CS (WA 3.24/4) or Ki-67 < 10% (WA 2.8/4), after progression to other treatments (WA 2.8/4). IFN was rarely used (WA 1.3/4). CONCLUSION Everolimus was the most frequently used therapeutic option in the third-line setting. The most important factors for decision-making included Ki-67, rate of progression, functionality and tumour burden; since this decision is based on multiple factors, it highlights the need for a multidisciplinary assessment.
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  • van Leeuwaarde, Rachel S., et al. (författare)
  • A Multinational Pilot Study on Patients' Perceptions of Advanced Neuroendocrine Neoplasms on the EORTC QLQ-C30 and EORTC QLQ-GINET21 Questionnaires
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Medicine. - : MDPI. - 2077-0383. ; 11:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Among the available neuroendocrine neoplasm (NEN)-specific HR-QoL scales, only the EORTC QLQ-C30 and EORTC QLQ-G.I.NET21 questionnaires have been validated in several languages. We aim to assess patients' perceptions of these questionnaires. A cross-sectional qualitative pilot study was conducted among 65 adults from four countries with well-differentiated advanced gastro-entero-pancreatic (GEP) or unknown primary NENs. Patients completed the EORTC QLQ-C30 and EORTC QLQ-G.I.NET21 questionnaires and then a survey containing statements concerning the questionnaires. The majority of patients had a small intestine NET (52%). Most tumors were functioning (55%) and grade 2 NET (52%). Almost half of the patients identified limitations in the questionnaires, with nine (14%) patients scoring the questionnaires as poor and 16 (25%) patients as moderate. Overall, 37 (57%) patients were positive towards the questionnaires. Approximately a quarter of patients considered the questionnaires not suitable for all ages, missing some of their complaints, not representative of their overall HR-QoL regarding the treatment of their NET and too superficial. The current validated EORTC QLQ-C30 and EORTC QLQ-G.I.NET21 questionnaires may show some limitations in the design of questions and the patients' final satisfaction reporting of the questionnaire. Large-scale, high-quality prospective studies are required in HR-QoL assessment regarding NETs.
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9.
  • Zane, Silvia, et al. (författare)
  • The on-board calibration system of the X-ray Imaging Polarimetry Explorer (XIPE)
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: SPACE TELESCOPES AND INSTRUMENTATION 2016. - : SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering. - 9781510601895
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The calibration system for XIPE is aimed at providing a way to check and correct possible variations of performance of the Gas Pixel Detector during the three years of operation in orbit (plus two years of possible extended operation), while facilitating the observation of the celestial sources. This will be performed by using a filter wheel with a large heritage having a set of positions for the calibration and the observation systems. In particular, it will allow for correcting possible gain variation, for measuring the modulation factor using a polarized source, for removing non interesting bright sources in the field of view and for observing very bright celestial sources. The on-board calibration system is composed of three filter wheels, one for each detector and it is expected to operate for a small number of times during the year. Moreover, since it operates once at a time, within the observation mode, it allows for simultaneous calibration and acquisition from celestial sources on different detectors. In this paper we present the scope and the requirements of the on-board calibration system, its design, and a description of its possible use in space.
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