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Sökning: WFRF:(Spanagel R)

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  • Bilbao, Ainhoa, et al. (författare)
  • Loss of the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type IV in dopaminoceptive neurons enhances behavioral effects of cocaine
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. - : National Academy of Sciences; 1999. - 0027-8424 .- 1091-6490. ; 105:45, s. 17549-17554
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The persistent nature of addiction has been associated with activity-induced plasticity of neurons within the striatum and nucleus accumbens (NAc). To identify the molecular processes leading to these adaptations, we performed Cre/loxP-mediated genetic ablations of two key regulators of gene expression in response to activity, the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaMKIV) and its postulated main target, the cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB). We found that acute cocaine-induced gene expression in the striatum was largely unaffected by the loss of CaMKIV. On the behavioral level, mice lacking CaMKIV in dopaminoceptive neurons displayed increased sensitivity to cocaine as evidenced by augmented expression of locomotor sensitization and enhanced conditioned place preference and reinstatement after extinction. However, the loss of CREB in the forebrain had no effect on either of these behaviors, even though it robustly blunted acute cocaine-induced transcription. To test the relevance of these observations for addiction in humans, we performed an association study of CAMK4 and CREB promoter polymorphisms with cocaine addiction in a large sample of addicts. We found that a single nucleotide polymorphism in the CAMK4 promoter was significantly associated with cocaine addiction, whereas variations in the CREB promoter regions did not correlate with drug abuse. These findings reveal a critical role for CaMKIV in the development and persistence of cocaine-induced behaviors, through mechanisms dissociated from acute effects on gene expression and CREB-dependent transcription.
  • Littleton, JM, et al. (författare)
  • Challenges to medications development in treating alcohol dependence: An international perspective - Summary of a symposium held at the ESBRA Congress, Prague, 13 September 2003
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Alcohol and Alcoholism. - : Oxford University Press. - 1464-3502. ; 39:4, s. 271-275
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Few medications for treating alcohol dependence exist. Greater partnership is needed between academia and the pharmaceutical industry to develop, licence and market efficacious medications for treating alcohol dependence. Methodologies that span the divide between preclinical and large-scale clinical studies need to be developed in order to provide sufficient information on safety, toleration, drug-interaction profile and efficacy, with which to guide development decisions. Due to the heterogeneous nature of alcohol dependence, the effort of developing an efficacious medication is likely to be enhanced by clearer choices about the characteristics of the population. Careful consideration of potential mechanism of action of the putative therapeutic medication should enable the appropriate choice of drinking endpoint. The pharmaceutical industry in collaboration with academia might need to develop new approaches to determining appropriate treatment endpoints with regulatory bodies. The investment risk to industry should be appraised not only in terms of the rather poor results of previous marketing efforts but with a view to the opportunity to penetrate a potentially enormous and largely untapped market.
  • Bernardi, R. E., et al. (författare)
  • A gene-by-sex interaction for nicotine reward: evidence from humanized mice and epidemiology
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Translational Psychiatry. - : NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 2158-3188 .- 2158-3188. ; 6:e861
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • It has been proposed that vulnerability to nicotine addiction is moderated by variation at the mu-opioid receptor locus (OPRM1), but results from human studies vary and prospective studies based on genotype are lacking. We have developed a humanized mouse model of the most common functional OPRM1 polymorphism rs1799971_A4G (A118G). Here we use this model system together with a cohort of German youth to examine the role of the OPRM1 A118G variation on nicotine reward. Nicotine reinforcement was examined in the humanized mouse model using i.v. self-administration. Male (n = 17) and female (n = 26) mice homozygous either for the major human A allele (AA) or the minor G allele (GG) underwent eight daily 2 h sessions of nicotine self-administration. Furthermore, male (n = 104) and female (n = 118) subjects homozygous for the A allele or carrying the G allele from the Mannheim Study of Children at Risk were evaluated for pleasurable and unpleasant experiences during their initial smoking experience. A significant sex-by-genotype effect was observed for nicotine self-administration. Male 118GG mice demonstrated higher nicotine intake than male 118AA mice, suggesting increased nicotine reinforcement. In contrast, there was no genotype effect in female mice. Human male G allele carriers reported increased pleasurable effects from their first smoking experience, as compared to male homozygous A, female G and female homozygous A allele carriers. The 118G allele appears to confer greater sensitivity to nicotine reinforcement in males, but not females.
  • Ruggeri, Barbara, et al. (författare)
  • Association of Protein Phosphatase PPM1G With Alcohol Use Disorder and Brain Activity During Behavioral Control in a Genome-Wide Methylation Analysis
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Psychiatry. - 0002-953X .- 1535-7228. ; 172:6, s. 543-552
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: The genetic component of alcohol use disorder is substantial, but monozygotic twin discordance indicates a role for nonheritable differences that could be mediated by epigenetics. Despite growing evidence associating epigenetics and psychiatric disorders, it is unclear how epigenetics, particularly DNA methylation, relate to brain function and behavior, including drinking behavior. Method: The authors carried out a genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation of 18 monozygotic twin pairs discordant for alcohol use disorder and validated differentially methylated regions. After validation, the authors characterized these differentially methylated regions using personality trait assessment and functional MRI in a sample of 499 adolescents. Results: Hypermethylation in the 3'-protein-phosphatase-1G (PPM1G) gene locus was associated with alcohol use disorder. The authors found association of PPM1G hypermethylation with early escalation of alcohol use and increased impulsiveness. They also observed association of PPM1G hypermethylation with increased blood-oxygen-level-dependent response in the right subthalamic nucleus during an impulsiveness task. Conclusions: Overall, the authors provide first evidence for an epigenetic marker associated with alcohol consumption and its underlying neurobehavioral phenotype.
  • Rodriguez Parkitna, J, et al. (författare)
  • Loss of the serum response factor in the dopaminesystem leads to hyperactivity
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: The FASEB Journal. - : Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. - 0892-6638 .- 1530-6860. ; 24, s. 2427-2435
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The serum response factor (SRF) is a key regulator of neural development and cellular plasticity, which enables it to act as a regulator of long-term adaptations in neurons. Here we performed a comprehensive analysis of SRF function in the murine dopamine system. We found that loss of SRF in dopaminoceptive, but not dopaminergic, neurons is responsible for the development of a hyperactivity syndrome, characterized by reduced body weight into adulthood, enhanced motor activity, and deficits in habituation processes. Most important, the hyperactivity also develops when the ablation of SRF is induced in adult animals. On the molecular level, the loss of SRF in dopaminoceptive cells is associated with altered expression of neuronal plasticity-related genes, in particular transcripts involved in calcium ion binding, formation of the cytoskeleton, and transcripts encoding neuropeptide precursors. Furthermore, abrogation of SRF causes specific deficits in activity-dependent transcription, especially a complete lack of psychostimulant-induced expression of the Egr   genes. We inferred that alterations in SRFdependent  gene expression underlie the observed hyperactive behavior. Thus, SRF depletion in dopaminoceptive neurons might trigger molecular mechanisms responsible for development of psychopathological conditions involving hyperactivity.
  • Schumann, Gunter, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association and genetic functional studies identify autism susceptibility candidate 2 gene (AUTS2) in the regulation of alcohol consumption
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. - 0027-8424 .- 1091-6490. ; 108:17, s. 7119-7124
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Alcohol consumption is a moderately heritable trait, but the genetic basis in humans is largely unknown, despite its clinical and societal importance. We report a genome-wide association study meta-analysis of similar to 2.5 million directly genotyped or imputed SNPs with alcohol consumption (gram per day per kilogram body weight) among 12 population-based samples of European ancestry, comprising 26,316 individuals, with replication genotyping in an additional 21,185 individuals. SNP rs6943555 in autism susceptibility candidate 2 gene (AUTS2) was associated with alcohol consumption at genome-wide significance (P = 4 x 10(-8) to P = 4 x 10(-9)). We found a genotype-specific expression of AUTS2 in 96 human prefrontal cortex samples (P = 0.026) and significant (P < 0.017) differences in expression of AUTS2 in whole-brain extracts of mice selected for differences in voluntary alcohol consumption. Downregulation of an AUTS2 homolog caused reduced alcohol sensitivity in Drosophila (P < 0.001). Our finding of a regulator of alcohol consumption adds knowledge to our understanding of genetic mechanisms influencing alcohol drinking behavior.
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