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Sökning: WFRF:(Speizer FE)

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1.
  • Cho, Eunyoung, et al. (författare)
  • Alcohol intake and colorectal cancer : a pooled analysis of 8 cohort studies
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Annals of Internal Medicine. - 0003-4819 .- 1539-3704. ; 140:8, s. 603-613
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies have generally reported positive associations between alcohol consumption and risk for colorectal cancer. However, findings related to specific alcoholic beverages or different anatomic sites in the large bowel have been inconsistent. OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship of total alcohol intake and intake from specific beverages to the incidence of colorectal cancer and to evaluate whether other potential risk factors modify the association. DESIGN: Pooled analysis of primary data from 8 cohort studies in 5 countries. SETTING: North America and Europe. PARTICIPANTS: 489,979 women and men with no history of cancer other than nonmelanoma skin cancer at baseline. MEASUREMENTS: Alcohol intake was assessed in each study at baseline by using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. RESULTS: During a maximum of 6 to 16 years of follow-up across the studies, 4687 cases of colorectal cancer were documented. In categorical analyses, increased risk for colorectal cancer was limited to persons with an alcohol intake of 30 g/d or greater (approximately > or =2 drinks/d), a consumption level reported by 4% of women and 13% of men. Compared with nondrinkers, the pooled multivariate relative risks were 1.16 (95% CI, 0.99 to 1.36) for persons who consumed 30 to less than 45 g/d and 1.41 (CI, 1.16 to 1.72) for those who consumed 45 g/d or greater. No significant heterogeneity by study or sex was observed. The association was evident for cancer of the proximal colon, distal colon, and rectum. No clear difference in relative risks was found among specific alcoholic beverages. LIMITATIONS: The study included only one measure of alcohol consumption at baseline and could not investigate lifetime alcohol consumption, alcohol consumption at younger ages, or changes in alcohol consumption during follow-up. It also could not examine drinking patterns or duration of alcohol use. CONCLUSIONS: A single determination of alcohol intake correlated with a modest relative elevation in colorectal cancer rate, mainly at the highest levels of alcohol intake.
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2.
  • Kim, Dong-Hyun, et al. (författare)
  • Pooled analyses of 13 prospective cohort studies on folate intake and colon cancer
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Cancer Causes and Control. - : SPRINGER. - 0957-5243 .- 1573-7225. ; 21:11, s. 1919-1930
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Studies of folate intake and colorectal cancer risk have been inconsistent. We examined the relation with colon cancer risk in a series of 13 prospective studies. Study- and sex-specific relative risks (RRs) were estimated from the primary data using Cox proportional hazards models and then pooled using a random-effects model. Among 725,134 participants, 5,720 incident colon cancers were diagnosed during follow-up. The pooled multivariate RRs (95% confidence interval [CI]) comparing the highest vs. lowest quintile of intake were 0.92 (95% CI 0.84-1.00, p-value, test for between-studies heterogeneity = 0.85) for dietary folate and 0.85 (95% CI 0.77-0.95, p-value, test for between-studies heterogeneity = 0.42) for total folate. Results for total folate intake were similar in analyses using absolute intake cutpoints (pooled multivariate RR = 0.87, 95% CI 0.78-0.98, comparing a parts per thousand yen560 mcg/days vs. < 240 mcg/days, p-value, test for trend = 0.009). When analyzed as a continuous variable, a 2% risk reduction (95% CI 0-3%) was estimated for every 100 mu g/day increase in total folate intake. These data support the hypothesis that higher folate intake is modestly associated with reduced risk of colon cancer.
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3.
  • Missmer, S A, et al. (författare)
  • Meat and dairy food consumption and breast cancer : a pooled analysis of cohort studies
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Epidemiology. - Harvard Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Brigham & Womens Hosp, Channing Lab, Dept Med, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Harvard Univ, Sch Med, Boston, MA USA. Harvard Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Nutr, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Harvard Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Biostat, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol, Stockholm, Sweden. Loma Linda Univ, Sch Med, Ctr Hlth Res, Loma Linda, CA USA. Maastricht Univ, Dept Epidemiol, Maastricht, Netherlands. SUNY Buffalo, Dept Social & Prevent Med, Buffalo, NY 14260 USA. TNO, Nutr & Food Res Inst, Dept Epidemiol, NL-3700 AJ Zeist, Netherlands. Columbia Univ, Teachers Coll, Dept Hlth & Behav Sci, New York, NY 10027 USA. Deutsch Krebsforschungszentrum, Div Clin Epidemiol, D-6900 Heidelberg, Germany. Fred Hutchinson Canc Res Ctr, Canc Prevent Res Program, Seattle, WA 98104 USA. Albert Einstein Coll Med, Dept Epidemiol & Social Med, New York, NY USA. Harvard Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Environm Hlth, Boston, MA 02115 USA. NYU, Sch Med, Dept Obstet & Gynecol, New York, NY USA. NYU, Sch Med, Nelson Inst Environm Med, New York, NY USA. Harvard Ctr Canc Prevent, Boston, MA USA. : OXFORD UNIV PRESS. - 0300-5771 .- 1464-3685. ; 31:1, s. 78-85
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background More than 20 studies have investigated the relation between meat and dairy food consumption and breast cancer risk with conflicting results. Our objective was to evaluate the risk of breast cancer associated with meat and dairy food consumption and to assess whether non-dietary risk factors modify the relation. Methods We combined the primary data from eight prospective cohort studies from North America and Western Europe with at least 200 incident breast cancer cases, assessment of usual food and nutrient intakes, and a validation study of the dietary assessment instrument. The pooled database included 351 041 women, 7379 of whom were diagnosed with invasive breast cancer during up to 15 years of follow-up. Results We found no significant association between intakes of total meat, red meat, white meat, total dairy fluids, or total dairy solids and breast cancer risk. Categorical analyses suggested a J-shaped association for egg consumption where, compared to women who did not eat eggs, breast cancer risk was slightly decreased among women who consumed <2 eggs per week but slightly increased among women who consumed greater than or equal to1 egg per day. Conclusions We found no significant associations between intake of meat or dairy products and risk of breast cancer. An inconsistent relation between egg consumption and risk of breast cancer merits further investigation.
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4.
  • Smith-Warner, Stephanie A., et al. (författare)
  • Alcohol and breast cancer in women : A pooled analysis of cohort studies
  • 1998
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA). - 0098-7484 .- 1538-3598. ; 279:7, s. 535-540
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To assess the risk of invasive breast cancer associated with total and beverage-specific alcohol consumption and to evaluate whether dietary and nondietary factors modify the association. DATA SOURCES: We included in these analyses 6 prospective studies that had at least 200 incident breast cancer cases, assessed long-term intake of food and nutrients, and used a validated diet assessment instrument. The studies were conducted in Canada, the Netherlands, Sweden, and the United States. Alcohol intake was estimated by food frequency questionnaires in each study. The studies included a total of 322647 women evaluated for up to 11 years, including 4335 participants with a diagnosis of incident invasive breast cancer. DATA EXTRACTION: Pooled analysis of primary data using analyses consistent with each study's original design and the random-effects model for the overall pooled analyses. DATA SYNTHESIS: For alcohol intakes less than 60 g/d (reported by >99% of participants), risk increased linearly with increasing intake; the pooled multivariate relative risk for an increment of 10 g/d of alcohol (about 0.75-1 drink) was 1.09 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-1.13; P for heterogeneity among studies, .71). The multivariate-adjusted relative risk for total alcohol intakes of 30 to less than 60 g/d (about 2-5 drinks) vs nondrinkers was 1.41 (95% CI, 1.18-1.69). Limited data suggested that alcohol intakes of at least 60 g/d were not associated with further increased risk. The specific type of alcoholic beverage did not strongly influence risk estimates. The association between alcohol intake and breast cancer was not modified by other factors. CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol consumption is associated with a linear increase in breast cancer incidence in women over the range of consumption reported by most women. Among women who consume alcohol regularly, reducing alcohol consumption is a potential means to reduce breast cancer risk.
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5.
  • van den Brandt, P A, et al. (författare)
  • Pooled analysis of prospective cohort studies on height, weight, and breast cancer risk
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Epidemiology. - Maastricht Univ, Dept Epidemiol, NL-6200 MD Maastricht, Netherlands. Harvard Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Harvard Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Biostat, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Brigham & Womens Hosp, Dept Med, Channing Lab, Boston, MA USA. Harvard Univ, Sch Med, Boston, MA USA. Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol, Stockholm, Sweden. Loma Linda Univ, Sch Med, Ctr Hlth Res, Loma Linda, CA USA. Univ Minnesota, Sch Publ Hlth, Div Epidemiol, Minneapolis, MN 55455 USA. TNO, Nutr & Food Res Inst, Dept Epidemiol, NL-3700 AJ Zeist, Netherlands. SUNY Buffalo, Dept Social & Prevent Med, Buffalo, NY 14260 USA. Univ Arizona, Arizona Canc Ctr, Tucson, AZ USA. Univ Toronto, Fac Med, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Toronto, ON, Canada. Harvard Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Nutr, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Harvard Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Environm Hlth, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Harvard Univ, Ctr Canc Prevent, Boston, MA 02115 USA. : OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC. - 0002-9262 .- 1476-6256. ; 152:6, s. 514-527
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The association between anthropometric indices and the risk of breast cancer was analyzed using pooled data from seven prospective cohort studies. Together, these cohorts comprise 337,819 women and 4,385 incident invasive breast cancer cases. in multivariate analyses controlling for reproductive, dietary, and other risk factors, the pooled relative risk (RR) of breast cancer per height increment of 5 cm was 1.02 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.96, 1.10) in premenopausal women and 1.07 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.12) in postmenopausal women. Body mass index (BMI) showed significant inverse and positive associations with breast cancer among pre- and postmenopausal women, respectively; these associations were nonlinear. Compared with premenopausal women with a BMI of less than 21 kg/m(2), women with a BMI exceeding 31 kg/m(2) had an RR of 0.54 (95% CI: 0.34, 0.85). In postmenopausal women, the RRs did not increase further when BMI exceeded 28 kg/m(2); the RR for these women was 1.26 (95% CI: 1.09, 1.46). The authors found little evidence for interaction with other breast cancer risk factors. Their data indicate that height is an independent risk factor for postmenopausal breast cancer; in premenopausal women, this relation is less clear. The association between BMI and breast cancer Varies by menopausal status. Weight control may reduce the risk among postmenopausal women.
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