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Sökning: WFRF:(Speizer Frank E.)

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1.
  • Cho, Eunyoung, et al. (författare)
  • Alcohol intake and colorectal cancer : a pooled analysis of 8 cohort studies
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Annals of Internal Medicine. - 0003-4819 .- 1539-3704. ; 140:8, s. 603-613
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies have generally reported positive associations between alcohol consumption and risk for colorectal cancer. However, findings related to specific alcoholic beverages or different anatomic sites in the large bowel have been inconsistent. OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship of total alcohol intake and intake from specific beverages to the incidence of colorectal cancer and to evaluate whether other potential risk factors modify the association. DESIGN: Pooled analysis of primary data from 8 cohort studies in 5 countries. SETTING: North America and Europe. PARTICIPANTS: 489,979 women and men with no history of cancer other than nonmelanoma skin cancer at baseline. MEASUREMENTS: Alcohol intake was assessed in each study at baseline by using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. RESULTS: During a maximum of 6 to 16 years of follow-up across the studies, 4687 cases of colorectal cancer were documented. In categorical analyses, increased risk for colorectal cancer was limited to persons with an alcohol intake of 30 g/d or greater (approximately > or =2 drinks/d), a consumption level reported by 4% of women and 13% of men. Compared with nondrinkers, the pooled multivariate relative risks were 1.16 (95% CI, 0.99 to 1.36) for persons who consumed 30 to less than 45 g/d and 1.41 (CI, 1.16 to 1.72) for those who consumed 45 g/d or greater. No significant heterogeneity by study or sex was observed. The association was evident for cancer of the proximal colon, distal colon, and rectum. No clear difference in relative risks was found among specific alcoholic beverages. LIMITATIONS: The study included only one measure of alcohol consumption at baseline and could not investigate lifetime alcohol consumption, alcohol consumption at younger ages, or changes in alcohol consumption during follow-up. It also could not examine drinking patterns or duration of alcohol use. CONCLUSIONS: A single determination of alcohol intake correlated with a modest relative elevation in colorectal cancer rate, mainly at the highest levels of alcohol intake.
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2.
  • Kim, Dong-Hyun, et al. (författare)
  • Pooled analyses of 13 prospective cohort studies on folate intake and colon cancer
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Cancer Causes and Control. - : SPRINGER. - 0957-5243 .- 1573-7225. ; 21:11, s. 1919-1930
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Studies of folate intake and colorectal cancer risk have been inconsistent. We examined the relation with colon cancer risk in a series of 13 prospective studies. Study- and sex-specific relative risks (RRs) were estimated from the primary data using Cox proportional hazards models and then pooled using a random-effects model. Among 725,134 participants, 5,720 incident colon cancers were diagnosed during follow-up. The pooled multivariate RRs (95% confidence interval [CI]) comparing the highest vs. lowest quintile of intake were 0.92 (95% CI 0.84-1.00, p-value, test for between-studies heterogeneity = 0.85) for dietary folate and 0.85 (95% CI 0.77-0.95, p-value, test for between-studies heterogeneity = 0.42) for total folate. Results for total folate intake were similar in analyses using absolute intake cutpoints (pooled multivariate RR = 0.87, 95% CI 0.78-0.98, comparing a parts per thousand yen560 mcg/days vs. < 240 mcg/days, p-value, test for trend = 0.009). When analyzed as a continuous variable, a 2% risk reduction (95% CI 0-3%) was estimated for every 100 mu g/day increase in total folate intake. These data support the hypothesis that higher folate intake is modestly associated with reduced risk of colon cancer.
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3.
  • Smith-Warner, Stephanie A., et al. (författare)
  • Alcohol and breast cancer in women : A pooled analysis of cohort studies
  • 1998
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA). - 0098-7484 .- 1538-3598. ; 279:7, s. 535-540
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To assess the risk of invasive breast cancer associated with total and beverage-specific alcohol consumption and to evaluate whether dietary and nondietary factors modify the association. DATA SOURCES: We included in these analyses 6 prospective studies that had at least 200 incident breast cancer cases, assessed long-term intake of food and nutrients, and used a validated diet assessment instrument. The studies were conducted in Canada, the Netherlands, Sweden, and the United States. Alcohol intake was estimated by food frequency questionnaires in each study. The studies included a total of 322647 women evaluated for up to 11 years, including 4335 participants with a diagnosis of incident invasive breast cancer. DATA EXTRACTION: Pooled analysis of primary data using analyses consistent with each study's original design and the random-effects model for the overall pooled analyses. DATA SYNTHESIS: For alcohol intakes less than 60 g/d (reported by >99% of participants), risk increased linearly with increasing intake; the pooled multivariate relative risk for an increment of 10 g/d of alcohol (about 0.75-1 drink) was 1.09 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-1.13; P for heterogeneity among studies, .71). The multivariate-adjusted relative risk for total alcohol intakes of 30 to less than 60 g/d (about 2-5 drinks) vs nondrinkers was 1.41 (95% CI, 1.18-1.69). Limited data suggested that alcohol intakes of at least 60 g/d were not associated with further increased risk. The specific type of alcoholic beverage did not strongly influence risk estimates. The association between alcohol intake and breast cancer was not modified by other factors. CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol consumption is associated with a linear increase in breast cancer incidence in women over the range of consumption reported by most women. Among women who consume alcohol regularly, reducing alcohol consumption is a potential means to reduce breast cancer risk.
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