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Sökning: WFRF:(Spiegelman Donna)

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1.
  • Bao, Ying, et al. (författare)
  • Folate Intake and Risk of Pancreatic Cancer : Pooled Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. - : OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC. - 0027-8874 .- 1460-2105. ; 103:24, s. 1840-1850
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Epidemiological studies evaluating the association between folate intake and risk of pancreatic cancer have produced inconsistent results. The statistical power to examine this association has been limited in previous studies partly because of small sample size and limited range of folate intake in some studies. Methods We analyzed primary data from 14 prospective cohort studies that included 319 716 men and 542 948 women to assess the association between folate intake and risk of pancreatic cancer. Folate intake was assessed through a validated food-frequency questionnaire at baseline in each study. Study-specific relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models and then pooled using a random effects model. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results During 7-20 years of follow-up across studies, 2195 pancreatic cancers were identified. No association was observed between folate intake and risk of pancreatic cancer in men and women (highest vs lowest quintile: dietary folate intake, pooled multivariable RR = 1.06, 95% CI = 0.90 to 1.25, P-trend = .47; total folate intake [dietary folate and supplemental folic acid], pooled multivariable RR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.80 to 1.16, P-trend = .90). No between-study heterogeneity was observed (for dietary folate, P-heterogeneity = .15; for total folate, P-heterogeneity = .22). Conclusion Folate intake was not associated with overall risk of pancreatic cancer in this large pooled analysis.
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2.
  • Genkinger, Jeanine M., et al. (författare)
  • A pooled analysis of 14 cohort studies of anthropometric factors and pancreatic cancer risk
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - : WILEY. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215. ; 129:7, s. 1708-1717
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Epidemiologic studies of pancreatic cancer risk have reported null or nonsignificant positive associations for obesity, while associations for height have been null. Waist and hip circumference have been evaluated infrequently. A pooled analysis of 14 cohort studies on 846,340 individuals was conducted; 2,135 individuals were diagnosed with pancreatic cancer during follow-up. Study-specific relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by Cox proportional hazards models, and then pooled using a random effects model. Compared to individuals with a body mass index (BMI) at baseline between 21-22.9 kg/m(2), pancreatic cancer risk was 47% higher (95% CI:23-75%) among obese (BMI >= 30 kg/m(2)) individuals. A positive association was observed for BMI in early adulthood (pooled multivariate [MV]RR = 1.30, 95%CI = 1.09-1.56 comparing BMI >= 25 kg/m(2) to a BMI between 21 and 22.9 kg/m(2)). Compared to individuals who were not overweight in early adulthood (BMI < 25 kg/m(2)) and not obese at baseline (BMI < 30 kg/m(2)), pancreatic cancer risk was 54% higher (95%CI = 24-93%) for those who were overweight in early adulthood and obese at baseline. We observed a 40% higher risk among individuals who had gained BMI >= 10 kg/m(2) between BMI at baseline and younger ages compared to individuals whose BMI remained stable. Results were either similar or slightly stronger among never smokers. A positive association was observed between waist to hip ratio (WHR) and pancreatic cancer risk (pooled MVRR = 1.35 comparing the highest versus lowest quartile, 95%CI = 1.03-1.78). BMI and WHR were positively associated with pancreatic cancer risk. Maintaining normal body weight may offer a feasible approach to reducing morbidity and mortality from pancreatic cancer.
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3.
  • Genkinger, Jeanine M., et al. (författare)
  • Alcohol Intake and Pancreatic Cancer Risk : A Pooled Analysis of Fourteen Cohort Studies
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention. - 1055-9965 .- 1538-7755. ; 18:3, s. 765-776
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Few risk factors have been implicated in pancreatic cancer etiology. Alcohol has been theorized to promote carcinogenesis. However, epidemiologic studies have reported inconsistent results relating alcohol intake to pancreatic cancer risk. Methods: We conducted a pooled analysis of the primary data from 14 prospective cohort studies. The study sample consisted of 862,664 individuals among whom 2,187 incident pancreatic cancer cases were identified. Study-specific relative risks and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using Cox proportional hazards models and then pooled using a random effects model. Results: A slight positive association with pancreatic cancer risk was observed for alcohol intake (pooled multivariate relative risk, 1.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.45 comparing >= 30 to 0 grams/day of alcohol; P value, test for between-studies heterogeneity = 0.80). For this comparison, the positive association was only statistically significant among women although the difference in the results by gender was not statistically significant (P value, test for interaction = 0.19). Slightly stronger results for alcohol intake were observed when we limited the analysis to cases with adenocarcinomas of the pancreas. No statistically significant associations were observed for alcohol from wine, beer, and spirits comparing intakes of >= 5 to 0 grams/day. A stronger positive association between alcohol consumption and pancreatic cancer risk was observed among normal weight individuals compared with overweight and obese individuals (P value, test for interaction = 0.01). Discussion: Our findings are consistent with a modest increase in risk of pancreatic cancer with consumption of 30 or more grams of alcohol per day. (Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2009;18(3):765-76)
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4.
  • Genkinger, Jeanine M., et al. (författare)
  • Coffee, Tea, and Sugar-Sweetened Carbonated Soft Drink Intake and Pancreatic Cancer Risk : A Pooled Analysis of 14 Cohort Studies
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention. - 1055-9965 .- 1538-7755. ; 21:2, s. 305-318
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Coffee has been hypothesized to have pro- and anticarcinogenic properties, whereas tea may contain anticarcinogenic compounds. Studies assessing coffee intake and pancreatic cancer risk have yielded mixed results, whereas findings for tea intake have mostly been null. Sugar-sweetened carbonated soft drink (SSB) intake has been associated with higher circulating levels of insulin, which may promote carcinogenesis. Few prospective studies have examined SSB intake and pancreatic cancer risk; results have been heterogeneous. Methods: In this pooled analysis from 14 prospective cohort studies, 2,185 incident pancreatic cancer cases were identified among 853,894 individuals during follow-up. Multivariate (MV) study-specific relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards models and then pooled using a random-effects model. Results: No statistically significant associations were observed between pancreatic cancer risk and intake of coffee (MVRR = 1.10; 95% CI, 0.81-1.48 comparing >= 900 to <0 g/d; 237g approximate to 8oz), tea (MVRR = 0.96; 95% CI, 0.78-1.16 comparing >= 400 to 0 g/d; 237g approximate to 8oz), or SSB (MVRR = 1.19; 95% CI, 0.98-1.46 comparing >= 250 to 0 g/d; 355g approximate to 12oz; P value, test for between-studies heterogeneity > 0.05). These associations were consistent across levels of sex, smoking status, and body mass index. When modeled as a continuous variable, a positive association was evident for SSB (MVRR = 1.06; 95% CI, 1.02-1.12). Conclusion and Impact: Overall, no associations were observed for intakes of coffee or tea during adulthood and pancreatic cancer risk. Although we were only able to examine modest intake of SSB, there was a suggestive, modest positive association for risk of pancreatic cancer for intakes of SSB.
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5.
  • Hvidtfeldt, Ulla A., et al. (författare)
  • Alcohol Intake and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in Younger, Middle-Aged, and Older Adults
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Circulation. - : LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. - 0009-7322 .- 1524-4539. ; 121:14, s. 1589-1597
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background-Light to moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease. This protective effect of alcohol, however, may be confined to middle-aged or older individuals. Coronary heart disease incidence is low in men <40 years of age and in women <50 years of age; for this reason, study cohorts rarely have the power to investigate the effects of alcohol on coronary heart disease risk in younger adults. This study examined whether the beneficial effect of alcohol on coronary heart disease depends on age. Methods and Results-In this pooled analysis of 8 prospective studies from North America and Europe including 192 067 women and 74 919 men free of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancers at baseline, average daily alcohol intake was assessed at baseline with a food frequency or diet history questionnaire. An inverse association between alcohol and risk of coronary heart disease was observed in all age groups; hazard ratios among moderately drinking men (5.0 to 29.9 g/d) 39 to 50, 50 to 59, and >= 60 years of age were 0.58 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.36 to 0.93), 0.72 (95% CI, 0.60 to 0.86), and 0.85 (95% CI, 0.75 to 0.97) compared with abstainers. However, the analyses indicated a smaller incidence rate difference between abstainers and moderate consumers in younger adults (incidence rate difference, 45 per 100 000; 90% CI, 8 to 84) than in middle-aged (incidence rate difference, 64 per 100 000; 90% CI, 24 to 102) and older (incidence rate difference, 89 per 100 000; 90% CI, 44 to 140) adults. Similar results were observed in women. Conclusion-Alcohol is also associated with a decreased risk of coronary heart disease in younger adults; however, the absolute risk was small compared with middle-aged and older adults. (Circulation. 2010; 121: 1589-1597.)
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6.
  • Jakobsen, Marianne U., et al. (författare)
  • Major types of dietary fat and risk of coronary heart disease : a pooled analysis of 11 cohort studies
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. - : AMER SOC CLINICAL NUTRITION. - 0002-9165 .- 1938-3207. ; 89:5, s. 1425-1432
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Saturated fatty acid (SFA) intake increases plasma LDL-cholesterol concentrations; therefore, intake should be reduced to prevent coronary heart disease (CHD). Lower habitual intakes of SFAs, however, require substitution of other macronutrients to maintain energy balance. Objective: We investigated associations between energy intake from monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and carbohydrates and risk of CHD while assessing the potential effect-modifying role of sex and age. Using substitution models, our aim was to clarify whether energy from unsaturated fatty acids or carbohydrates should replace energy from SFAs to prevent CHD. Design: This was a follow-up study in which data from 11 American and European cohort studies were pooled. The outcome measure was incident CHD. Results: During 4-10 y of follow-up, 5249 coronary events and 2155 coronary deaths occurred among 344,696 persons. For a 5% lower energy intake from SFAs and a concomitant higher energy intake from PUFAs, there was a significant inverse association between PUFAs and risk of coronary events (hazard ratio: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.77, 0.97); the hazard ratio for coronary deaths was 0.74 (95% CI: 0.61, 0.89). For a 5% lower energy intake from SFAs and a concomitant higher energy intake from carbohydrates, there was a modest significant direct association between carbohydrates and coronary events (hazard ratio: 1.07; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.14); the hazard ratio for coronary deaths was 0.96 (95% CI: 0.82, 1.13). MUFA intake was not associated with CHD. No effect modification by sex or age was found. Conclusion: The associations suggest that replacing SFAs with PUFAs rather than MUFAs or carbohydrates prevents CHD over a wide range of intakes. Am J Clin Nutr 2009;89:1425-32.
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7.
  • Jung, Seungyoun, et al. (författare)
  • Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Risk of Breast Cancer by Hormone Receptor Status
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. - : Oxford University Press (OUP): Policy B1. - 0027-8874 .- 1460-2105. ; 105:3, s. 219-236
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Estrogen receptornegative (ER) breast cancer has few known or modifiable risk factors. Because ER tumors account for only 15% to 20% of breast cancers, large pooled analyses are necessary to evaluate precisely the suspected inverse association between fruit and vegetable intake and risk of ER breast cancer. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanAmong 993 466 women followed for 11 to 20 years in 20 cohort studies, we documented 19 869 estrogen receptor positive (ER) and 4821 ER breast cancers. We calculated study-specific multivariable relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using Cox proportional hazards regression analyses and then combined them using a random-effects model. All statistical tests were two-sided. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanTotal fruit and vegetable intake was statistically significantly inversely associated with risk of ER breast cancer but not with risk of breast cancer overall or of ER tumors. The inverse association for ER tumors was observed primarily for vegetable consumption. The pooled relative risks comparing the highest vs lowest quintile of total vegetable consumption were 0.82 (95% CI 0.74 to 0.90) for ER breast cancer and 1.04 (95% CI 0.97 to 1.11) for ER breast cancer (Pcommon-effects by ER status andlt; .001). Total fruit consumption was non-statistically significantly associated with risk of ER breast cancer (pooled multivariable RR comparing the highest vs lowest quintile 0.94, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.04). less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanWe observed no association between total fruit and vegetable intake and risk of overall breast cancer. However, vegetable consumption was inversely associated with risk of ER breast cancer in our large pooled analyses.
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8.
  • Kim, Dong-Hyun, et al. (författare)
  • Pooled analyses of 13 prospective cohort studies on folate intake and colon cancer
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Cancer Causes and Control. - : SPRINGER. - 0957-5243 .- 1573-7225. ; 21:11, s. 1919-1930
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Studies of folate intake and colorectal cancer risk have been inconsistent. We examined the relation with colon cancer risk in a series of 13 prospective studies. Study- and sex-specific relative risks (RRs) were estimated from the primary data using Cox proportional hazards models and then pooled using a random-effects model. Among 725,134 participants, 5,720 incident colon cancers were diagnosed during follow-up. The pooled multivariate RRs (95% confidence interval [CI]) comparing the highest vs. lowest quintile of intake were 0.92 (95% CI 0.84-1.00, p-value, test for between-studies heterogeneity = 0.85) for dietary folate and 0.85 (95% CI 0.77-0.95, p-value, test for between-studies heterogeneity = 0.42) for total folate. Results for total folate intake were similar in analyses using absolute intake cutpoints (pooled multivariate RR = 0.87, 95% CI 0.78-0.98, comparing a parts per thousand yen560 mcg/days vs. < 240 mcg/days, p-value, test for trend = 0.009). When analyzed as a continuous variable, a 2% risk reduction (95% CI 0-3%) was estimated for every 100 mu g/day increase in total folate intake. These data support the hypothesis that higher folate intake is modestly associated with reduced risk of colon cancer.
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9.
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10.
  • Koushik, Anita, et al. (författare)
  • Fruits, vegetables, and colon cancer risk in a pooled analysis of 14 cohort studies
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. - Univ Montreal, CHUM, Ctr Rech, Dept Social & Prevent Med, Montreal, PQ H2W 1V1, Canada. Harvard Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Nutr, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Harvard Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Biostat, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Harvard Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Loma Linda Univ, Ctr Hlth Res, Loma Linda, CA 92350 USA. Maastricht Univ, Dept Epidemiol, Maastricht, Netherlands. Amer Canc Soc, Atlanta, GA 30329 USA. Harvard Univ, Sch Med, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Brigham & Womens Hosp, Dept Med, Div Prevent Med, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Brigham & Womens Hosp, Channing Lab, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Univ Buffalo State Univ New York, Dept Social & Prevent Med, Buffalo, NY 14222 USA. Roswell Pk Canc Inst, Dept Canc Prevent & Populat Sci, Buffalo, NY 14263 USA. Dana Farber Canc Inst, Dept Adult Oncol, Boston, MA USA. TNO, Dept Food & Chem Risk Anal, Zeist, Netherlands. Univ Minnesota, Sch Publ Hlth, Div Epidemiol & Community Hlth, Minneapolis, MN USA. Wayne State Univ, Sch Med, Dept Pathol, Karmanos Canc Inst, Detroit, MI 48201 USA. Natl Canc Inst, Nutr Epidemiol Unit, I-20133 Milan, Italy. Karolinska Inst, Natl Inst Environm Med, Div Nutr Epidemiol, Stockholm, Sweden. NCI, Div Canc Epidemiol & Genet, Bethesda, MD 20892 USA. Univ Toronto, Fac Med, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Toronto, ON, Canada. Natl Publ Hlth Inst, Dept Epidemiol & Hlth Promot, Helsinki, Finland. Albert Einstein Coll Med, Dept Epidemiol & Populat Hlth, Bronx, NY 10467 USA. AZJ, Div Epidemiol, Dept Environm Med, New York, NY USA. : OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC. - 0027-8874 .- 1460-2105. ; 99:19, s. 1471-1483
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Fruit and vegetable intakes have been associated with a reduced risk of colon cancer; however, in more recent studies associations have been less consistent. Statistical power to examine associations by colon site has been limited in previous studies. Methods Fruit and vegetable intakes in relation to colon cancer risk were examined in the Pooling Project of Prospective Studies of Diet and Cancer. Relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (Cis) were estimated separately in 14 studies using Cox proportional hazards model and then pooled using a randomeffects model. Intakes of total fruits and vegetables, total fruits, and total vegetables were categorized according to quintiles and absolute cutpoints. Analyses were conducted for colon cancer overall and for proximal and distal colon cancer separately. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Among 756217 men and women followed for up to 6 to 20 years, depending on the study, 5838 were diagnosed with colon cancer. The pooled multivariable RRs (95% Cis) of colon cancer for the highest versus lowest quintiles of intake were 0.91 (0.82 to 1-01 1 P-trend =.19) for total fruits and vegetables, 0.93 (0.85 to 1.02, P-trend =.28) for total fruits, and 0.94 (0.86 to 1.02, P-trend =.17) for total vegetables. Similar results were observed when intakes were categorized by identical absolute cut points across studies (pooled multivariable FIR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.77 to 1.05 for 800 or more versus <200 g/day of total fruits and vegetables, P-trend =.06). The age-standardized incidence rates of colon cancer for these two intake categories were 54 and 61 per 100000 person-years, respectively. When analyzed by colon site, the pooled multivariable RRs (95% Cis) comparing total fruit and vegetable intakes of 800 or more versus less than 200 g/day were 0.74 (0.57 to 0.95, P-trend =.02) for distal colon cancers and 1.02 (0.82 to 1.27, P-trend =.57) for proximal colon cancers. Similar site-specific associations were observed for total fruits and total vegetables. Conclusion Fruit and vegetable intakes were not strongly associated with colon cancer risk overall but may be associated with a lower risk of distal colon cancer.
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