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Sökning: WFRF:(Stahler Daniel R.)

  • Resultat 1-6 av 6
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1.
  • Geffen, E., et al. (författare)
  • Kin encounter rate and inbreeding avoidance in canids
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Molecular Ecology. - 0962-1083 .- 1365-294X. ; 20:24, s. 5348-5358
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Mating with close kin can lead to inbreeding depression through the expression of recessive deleterious alleles and loss of heterozygosity. Mate selection may be affected by kin encounter rate, and inbreeding avoidance may not be uniform but associated with age and social system. Specifically, selection for kin recognition and inbreeding avoidance may be more developed in species that live in family groups or breed cooperatively. To test this hypothesis, we compared kin encounter rate and the proportion of related breeding pairs in noninbred and highly inbred canid populations. The chance of randomly encountering a full sib ranged between 1–8% and 20–22% in noninbred and inbred canid populations, respectively. We show that regardless of encounter rate, outside natal groups mates were selected independent of relatedness. Within natal groups, there was a significant avoidance of mating with a relative. Lack of discrimination against mating with close relatives outside packs suggests that the rate of inbreeding in canids is related to the proximity of close relatives, which could explain the high degree of inbreeding depression observed in some populations. The idea that kin encounter rate and social organization can explain the lack of inbreeding avoidance in some species is intriguing and may have implications for the management of populations at risk
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2.
  • Anderson, Tovi M., et al. (författare)
  • Molecular and Evolutionary History of Melanism in North American Gray Wolves
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Science. - 0036-8075 .- 1095-9203. ; 323:5919, s. 1339-1343
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Morphological diversity within closely related species is an essential aspect of evolution and adaptation. Mutations in the Melanocortin 1 receptor (Mc1r) gene contribute to pigmentary diversity in natural populations of fish, birds, and many mammals. However, melanism in the gray wolf, Canis lupus, is caused by a different melanocortin pathway component, the K locus, that encodes a beta-defensin protein that acts as an alternative ligand for Mc1r. We show that the melanistic K locus mutation in North American wolves derives from past hybridization with domestic dogs, has risen to high frequency in forested habitats, and exhibits a molecular signature of positive selection. The same mutation also causes melanism in the coyote, Canis latrans, and in Italian gray wolves, and hence our results demonstrate how traits selected in domesticated species can influence the morphological diversity of their wild relatives.
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5.
  • Uboni, Alessia, et al. (författare)
  • Interannual variability : a crucial component of space use at the territory level
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Ecology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0012-9658 .- 1939-9170. ; 96:1, s. 62-70
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Interannual variability in space use and how that variation is influenced by density-dependent and density-independent factors are important processes in population ecology. Nevertheless, interannual variability has been neglected by the majority of space use studies. We assessed that variation for wolves living in 15 different packs within Yellowstone National Park during a 13-year period (1996–2008). We estimated utilization distributions to quantify the intensity of space use within each pack's territory each year in summer and winter. Then, we used the volume of intersection index (VI) to quantify the extent to which space use varied from year to year. This index accounts for both the area of overlap and differences in the intensity of use throughout a territory and ranges between 0 and 1. The mean VI index was 0.49, and varied considerably, with ~20% of observations (n = 230) being <0.3 or >0.7. In summer, 42% of the variation was attributable to differences between packs. These differences can be attributable to learned behaviors and had never been thought to have such an influence on space use. In winter, 34% of the variation in overlap between years was attributable to interannual differences in precipitation and pack size. This result reveals the strong influence of climate on predator space use and underlies the importance of understanding how climatic factors are going to affect predator populations in the occurrence of climate change. We did not find any significant association between overlap and variables representing density-dependent processes (elk and wolf densities) or intraspecific competition (ratio of wolves to elk). This last result poses a challenge to the classic view of predator–prey systems. On a small spatial scale, predator space use may be driven by factors other than prey distribution.
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6.
  • Uboni, Alessia, et al. (författare)
  • Long- and short-term temporal variability in habitat selection of a top predator
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Ecosphere. - : Ecological Society of America. - 2150-8925 .- 2150-8925. ; 6:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Considerable theory explains the importance of understanding temporal variation in ecological processes. Nevertheless, long-term variability in habitat selection is rarely assessed or even acknowledged. We explored temporal variability in the habitat selection of a top-predator, the wolf (Canis lupus), at two time scales: interannual and seasonal variability. To do this, we developed resource utilization functions to relate wolf habitat selection to environmental variables in different years and seasons. We used radiotelemetry data collected from a wolf population in Yellowstone National Park during a 10-year period (1998-2007) and added a Year variable in the models to account for interannual variation in the studied processes. We also used a three-year data set (nested within the 10-year data set) to incorporate additional variables in the models and test for differences in short- and long-term patterns of habitat selection. Wolves exhibited seasonal variation in habitat selection with respect to distance from roads, elevation, openness, and habitat type. Habitat selection was considerably more complicated during the winter compared to summer, when wolves only selected habitat based on distance from roads. We detected clear patterns of habitat selection in the three-year data set that could not be detected in the 10-year data set, despite the longer data set had more statistical power for pattern detection. This observation is likely the result of the longer data set being comprised of several shorter-term and countervailing patterns. This explanation is also consistent with having detected significant year effects in the 10-year data set. Insomuch as habitat selection is important to conservation and management, this research is significant for demonstrating the different impressions that can be given by short-term and long-term studies. It may be common for short-term data sets to suggest patterns of habitat selection that do not prevail over longer periods of time.
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  • Resultat 1-6 av 6

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