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  • Wang, Zhaoming, et al. (författare)
  • Imputation and subset-based association analysis across different cancer types identifies multiple independent risk loci in the TERT-CLPTM1L region on chromosome 5p15.33
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Human Molecular Genetics. - 0964-6906 .- 1460-2083. ; 23:24, s. 6616-6633
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have mapped risk alleles for at least 10 distinct cancers to a small region of 63 000 bp on chromosome 5p15.33. This region harbors the TERT and CLPTM1L genes; the former encodes the catalytic subunit of telomerase reverse transcriptase and the latter may play a role in apoptosis. To investigate further the genetic architecture of common susceptibility alleles in this region, we conducted an agnostic subset-based meta-analysis (association analysis based on subsets) across six distinct cancers in 34 248 cases and 45 036 controls. Based on sequential conditional analysis, we identified as many as six independent risk loci marked by common single-nucleotide polymorphisms: five in the TERT gene (Region 1: rs7726159, P = 2.10 × 10(-39); Region 3: rs2853677, P = 3.30 × 10(-36) and PConditional = 2.36 × 10(-8); Region 4: rs2736098, P = 3.87 × 10(-12) and PConditional = 5.19 × 10(-6), Region 5: rs13172201, P = 0.041 and PConditional = 2.04 × 10(-6); and Region 6: rs10069690, P = 7.49 × 10(-15) and PConditional = 5.35 × 10(-7)) and one in the neighboring CLPTM1L gene (Region 2: rs451360; P = 1.90 × 10(-18) and PConditional = 7.06 × 10(-16)). Between three and five cancers mapped to each independent locus with both risk-enhancing and protective effects. Allele-specific effects on DNA methylation were seen for a subset of risk loci, indicating that methylation and subsequent effects on gene expression may contribute to the biology of risk variants on 5p15.33. Our results provide strong support for extensive pleiotropy across this region of 5p15.33, to an extent not previously observed in other cancer susceptibility loci.
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  • Allen, N. E., et al. (författare)
  • Animal foods, protein, calcium and prostate cancer risk: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Cancer. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1532-1827. ; 98:9, s. 1574-1581
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We examined consumption of animal foods, protein and calcium in relation to risk of prostate cancer among 142 251 men in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Associations were examined using Cox regression, stratified by recruitment centre and adjusted for height, weight, education, marital status and energy intake. After an average of 8.7 years of follow-up, there were 2727 incident cases of prostate cancer, of which 1131 were known to be localised and 541 advanced-stage disease. A high intake of dairy protein was associated with an increased risk, with a hazard ratio for the top versus the bottom fifth of intake of 1.22 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.07-1.41, P-trend = 0.02). After calibration to allow for measurement error, we estimated that a 35-g day(-1) increase in consumption of dairy protein was associated with an increase in the risk of prostate cancer of 32% (95% CI: 1-72%, P-trend = 0.04). Calcium from dairy products was also positively associated with risk, but not calcium from other foods. The results support the hypothesis that a high intake of protein or calcium from dairy products may increase the risk for prostate cancer.
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  • Hedlund, P. O., et al. (författare)
  • Parenteral estrogen versus combined androgen deprivation in the treatment of metastatic prostatic cancer : Part 2. Final evaluation of the Scandinavian Prostatic Cancer Group (SPCG) Study No. 5
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology. - 0036-5599 .- 1651-2065. ; 42:3, s. 220-229
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective. To compare parenteral estrogen therapy in the form of high-dose polyestradiol phosphate (PEP, Estradurin®) with combined androgen deprivation (CAD) in the treatment of prostate cancer patients with skeletal metastases. The aim of the study was to compare anticancer efficacy and adverse events, especially cardiovascular events. Material and methods. In total, 910 eligible patients with T0-4, NX, M1, G1-3 prostate cancer with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-2 were randomized to treatment with either PEP 240mg i.m. twice a month for 2months and thereafter monthly, or flutamide (Eulexin®) 250mg t.i.d. per os in combination with either triptorelin (Decapeptyl®) 3.75mg i.m. per month or on an optional basis bilateral orchidectomy. Results. At this final evaluation of the trial 855 of the 910 patients were dead. There was no difference between the treatment groups in terms of biochemical or clinical progression-free survival or in overall or disease-specific survival. There was no difference in cardiovascular mortality, but a significant increase in non-fatal cardiovascular events in the PEP arm (p<0.05) predominantly caused by an increase in ischemic heart and heart decompensation events. There were 18 grave skeletal events in the CAD group but none in the PEP group (p=0.001). Conclusions. PEP has an anticancer efficacy equal to CAD and does not increase cardiovascular mortality in metastasized patients, but carries a significant risk of non-fatal cardiovascular events, which should be balanced against the skeletal complications in the CAD group. It is feasible to use Estradurin in the primary or secondary endocrine treatment of metastasized patients without prominent cardiac risk factors and especially those with osteoporosis. © 2008 Taylor & Francis.
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