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Sökning: WFRF:(Steinsson Kristjan)

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1.
  • Abelson, A. K., et al. (författare)
  • No evidence of association between genetic variants of the PDCD1 ligands and SLE
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Genes and Immunity. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1476-5470 .- 1466-4879. ; 8:1, s. 69-74
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PDCD1, an immunoreceptor involved in peripheral tolerance has previously been shown to be genetically associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). PDCD1 has two ligands whose genes are located in close proximity on chromosome 9p24. Our attention was drawn to these ligands after finding suggestive linkage to a marker (gata62f03, Z = 2.27) located close to their genes in a genome scan of Icelandic families multiplex for SLE. Here, we analyse Swedish trios (N = 149) for 23 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the genes of the PDCD1 ligands. Initially, indication of association to eight SNPs was observed, and these SNPs were therefore also analysed in Mexican trios (N = 90), as well as independent sets of patients and controls from Sweden (152 patients, 448 controls) and Argentina (288 patients, 288 controls). We do not find support for genetic association to SLE. This is the first genetic study of SLE and the PDCD1 ligands and the lack of association in several cohorts implies that these genes are not major risk factors for SLE.
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2.
  • Kristjánsdóttir, Helga, 1966-, et al. (författare)
  • Association of three systemic lupus erythematosus susceptibility factors, PD-1.3A, C4AQ0, and low levels of mannan-binding lectin, with autoimmune manifestations in Icelandic multicase systemic lupus erythematosus families
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Arthritis and Rheumatism. - 0004-3591 .- 1529-0131. ; 58:12, s. 3865-3872
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: To study autoimmune diseases and autoantibodies in Icelandic multicase systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) families and to determine the association of 3 SLE susceptibility factors, PD-1.3A, C4AQ0, and low levels of mannan-binding lectin (MBL), with autoimmune disease in this population. Methods: Eight SLE multicase families were studied, comprising a total of 124 family members (23 patients with SLE and 101 relatives). The diagnosis of an autoimmune disease was established and autoantibodies were measured in each family. In addition, PD-1.3A alleles were genotyped, and C4AQ0 allotypes were established by electrophoresis and haplotype analysis. Low levels of MBL were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and variant-allele genotyping. Results: In the SLE multicase families there was a high frequency of other autoimmune diseases (32.2%) and a high frequency of autoantibodies (53.2%). Of all family members, 59.7% were determined to have SLE, other autoimmune diseases, antinuclear antibodies, and/or other autoantibodies. The families showed genetic heterogeneity for PD-1.3A, C4AQ0, and low MBL levels; the frequency of each factor ranged from 0% to 85%. The frequencies of PD-1.3A and C4AQ0 were significantly increased in patients with SLE, relatives with other autoimmune diseases, and non-autoimmune disease relatives compared with controls. In the 7 families whose members had low levels of MBL, this factor was significantly associated with SLE, but the frequency of low MBL was decreased in relatives with other autoimmune diseases as compared with non-autoimmune disease relatives and controls. There were indications of an additive effect, and 91% of patients with SLE, 78% of relatives with other autoimmune diseases, and 75% of non-autoimmune disease relatives carried at least 1 of the 3 factors. Conclusion: These results demonstrate a high frequency of autoimmune diseases and autoantibodies in SLE multicase families. PD-1.3A and C4AQ0 are part of a predisposing genetic background. Other genetic and/or environmental factors are necessary for disease expression, demonstrated by a high frequency of PD-1.3A and C4AQ0 in non-autoimmune disease relatives. Low MBL levels may be one such contributing factor. The results of this study provide an example of epistatic genetic effects and overlapping genetics in autoimmune diseases.
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3.
  • Kristjánsdóttir, Helga, 1966-, et al. (författare)
  • Lower expression levels of the programmed death 1 receptor on CD4+CD25+ T cells and correlation with the PD-1.3A genotype in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Arthritis and Rheumatism. - 0004-3591 .- 1529-0131. ; 62:6, s. 1702-1711
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE.: A genetic polymorphism, PD1.3A, in the PDCD1 gene encoding the co-inhibitory immunoreceptor PD-1, has been associated with SLE. The aim of the study was to assess PD-1 receptor expression in SLE patients, relatives and controls and correlate with PD-1.3A. METHODS.: Icelandic and Swedish SLE patients, relatives and controls were studied. PBMCs were stimulated with alphaCD3/CD28 and PD-1 expression analyzed by flow cytometry. PD-1.3A/G genotyping was performed by PCR-RFLP. RESULTS: I. PD-1 expression on PBMCs was induced after stimulation, by 2.1-fold in SLE patients, 3.1-fold in relatives and 5.1-fold in controls.II. The frequency of PD-1+ cells was significantly lower in SLE patients compared to relatives and controls. PD-1 expression on PD-1+ cells was significantly lower in SLE patients and relatives.III. PD-1 expression on CD4+CD25+ T cells was significantly lower in SLE patients and relatives.IV. PD-1 expression was significantly higher on CD25(high) compared to CD25(intermediate) and (low) cells.V. PD-1 expression on CD25(high) and CD25(intermediate) cells was significantly lower in SLE patients compared to controls.VI. PD-1 was expressed on both FoxP3- and FoxP3+ cells.VII. Lower PD-1 expression was significantly correlated with the PD-1.3A/G genotype. CONCLUSION.: The study demonstrates significantly lower PD-1 receptor expression in SLE patients and relatives and a significant correlation of lower PD-1 expression with the PD-1.3A allele. We conclude that PD-1.3A may be contributory to abnormalities in PD-1 receptor expression on CD4+CD25+ T-cells in SLE, providing support for an important role for the PD-1 pathway in SLE and possibly other autoimmune diseases.
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4.
  • Barber, Megan R.W., et al. (författare)
  • Economic Evaluation of Damage Accrual in an International Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Inception Cohort Using a Multistate Model Approach
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Arthritis Care and Research. - : John Wiley and Sons. - 2151-464X .- 2151-4658. ; 72:12, s. 1800-1808
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: There is a paucity of data regarding health care costs associated with damage accrual in systemic lupus erythematosus. The present study was undertaken to describe costs associated with damage states across the disease course using multistate modeling. Methods: Patients from 33 centers in 11 countries were enrolled in the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) inception cohort within 15 months of diagnosis. Annual data on demographics, disease activity, damage (SLICC/American College of Rheumatology Damage Index [SDI]), hospitalizations, medications, dialysis, and selected procedures were collected. Ten-year cumulative costs (Canadian dollars) were estimated by multiplying annual costs associated with each SDI state by the expected state duration using a multistate model. Results: A total of 1,687 patients participated; 88.7% were female, 49.0% were white, mean ± SD age at diagnosis was 34.6 ± 13.3 years, and mean time to follow-up was 8.9 years (range 0.6–18.5 years). Mean annual costs were higher for those with higher SDI scores as follows: $22,006 (Canadian) (95% confidence interval [95% CI] $16,662, $27,350) for SDI scores ≥5 versus $1,833 (95% CI $1,134, $2,532) for SDI scores of 0. Similarly, 10-year cumulative costs were higher for those with higher SDI scores at the beginning of the 10-year interval as follows: $189,073 (Canadian) (95% CI $142,318, $235,827) for SDI scores ≥5 versus $21,713 (95% CI $13,639, $29,788) for SDI scores of 0. Conclusion: Patients with the highest SDI scores incur 10-year cumulative costs that are ~9-fold higher than those with the lowest SDI scores. By estimating the damage trajectory and incorporating annual costs, data on damage can be used to estimate future costs, which is critical knowledge for evaluating the cost-effectiveness of novel therapies.
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6.
  • Delgado-Vega, Angélica M., et al. (författare)
  • Whole Exome Sequencing of Patients from Multicase Families with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Identifies Multiple Rare Variants
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - : NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 2045-2322 .- 2045-2322. ; 8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In an effort to identify rare alleles associated with SLE, we have performed whole exome sequencing of the most distantly related affected individuals from two large Icelandic multicase SLE families followed by Ta targeted genotyping of additional relatives. We identified multiple rare likely pathogenic variants in nineteen genes co-segregating with the disease through multiple generations. Gene co-expression and protein-protein interaction analysis identified a network of highly connected genes comprising several loci previously implicated in autoimmune diseases. These genes were significantly enriched for immune system development, lymphocyte activation, DNA repair, and V(D) J gene recombination GO-categories. Furthermore, we found evidence of aggregate association and enrichment of rare variants at the FAM71E1/EMC10 locus in an independent set of 4,254 European SLE-cases and 4,349 controls. Our study presents evidence supporting that multiple rare likely pathogenic variants, in newly identified genes involved in known disease pathogenic pathways, segregate with SLE at the familial and population level.
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7.
  • Enocsson, Helena, et al. (författare)
  • Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) levels predict damage accrual in patients with recent-onset systemic lupus erythematosus
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Autoimmunity. - : Elsevier. - 0896-8411 .- 1095-9157. ; 106
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: The soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) has potential as a prognosis and severity biomarker in several inflammatory and infectious diseases. In a previous cross-sectional study, suPAR levels were shown to reflect damage accrual in cases of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Herein, we evaluated suPAR as a predictor of future organ damage in recent-onset SLE. Methods: Included were 344 patients from the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) Inception Cohort who met the 1997 American College of Rheumatology classification criteria with 5-years of follow-up data available. Baseline sera from patients and age- and sex-matched controls were assayed for suPAR. Organ damage was assessed annually using the SLICC/ACR damage index (SDI). Results: The levels of suPAR were higher in patients who accrued damage, particularly those with SDI≥2 at 5 years (N = 32, 46.8% increase, p = 0.004), as compared to patients without damage. Logistic regression analysis revealed a significant impact of suPAR on SDI outcome (SDI≥2; OR = 1.14; 95% CI 1.03–1.26), also after adjustment for confounding factors. In an optimized logistic regression to predict damage, suPAR persisted as a predictor, together with baseline disease activity (SLEDAI-2K), age, and non-Caucasian ethnicity (model AUC = 0.77). Dissecting SDI into organ systems revealed higher suPAR levels in patients who developed musculoskeletal damage (SDI≥1; p = 0.007). Conclusion: Prognostic biomarkers identify patients who are at risk of acquiring early damage and therefore need careful observation and targeted treatment strategies. Overall, suPAR constitutes an interesting biomarker for patient stratification and for identifying SLE patients who are at risk of acquiring organ damage during the first 5 years of disease.
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8.
  • Hanly, John G., et al. (författare)
  • A Longitudinal Analysis of Outcomes of Lupus Nephritis in an International Inception Cohort Using a Multistate Model Approach
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Arthritis & Rheumatology. - : John Wiley and Sons. - 2326-5191. ; 68:8, s. 1932-1944
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: To study bidirectional change and predictors of change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and proteinuria in lupus nephritis (LN) using a multistate modeling approach. Methods: Patients in the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics inception cohort were classified annually into estimated GFR state 1 (>60 ml/minute), state 2 (30–60 ml/minute), or state 3 (3.0 gm/day), or end-stage renal disease (ESRD) or death. Using multistate modeling, relative transition rates between states indicated improvement and deterioration. Results: Of 1,826 lupus patients, 700 (38.3%) developed LN. During a mean ± SD follow-up of 5.2 ± 3.5 years, the likelihood of improvement in estimated GFR and estimated proteinuria was greater than the likelihood of deterioration. After 5 years, 62% of patients initially in estimated GFR state 3 and 11% of patients initially in estimated proteinuria state 3 transitioned to ESRD. The probability of remaining in the initial states 1, 2, and 3 was 85%, 11%, and 3%, respectively, for estimated GFR and 62%, 29%, and 4%, respectively, for estimated proteinuria. Male sex predicted improvement in estimated GFR states; older age, race/ethnicity, higher estimated proteinuria state, and higher renal biopsy chronicity scores predicted deterioration. For estimated proteinuria, race/ethnicity, earlier calendar years, damage scores without renal variables, and higher renal biopsy chronicity scores predicted deterioration; male sex, presence of lupus anticoagulant, class V nephritis, and mycophenolic acid use predicted less improvement. Conclusion: In LN, the expected improvement or deterioration in renal outcomes can be estimated by multistate modeling and is preceded by identifiable risk factors. New therapeutic interventions for LN should meet or exceed these expectations.
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9.
  • Hanly, John G., et al. (författare)
  • Cerebrovascular Events in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus : Results From an International Inception Cohort Study
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Arthritis Care and Research. - : John Wiley and Sons. - 2151-464X .- 2151-4658. ; 70:10, s. 1478-1487
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: To determine the frequency, characteristics, and outcomes of cerebrovascular events (CerVEs), as well as clinical and autoantibody associations in a multiethnic/racial inception cohort of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods: A total of 1,826 patients were assessed annually for 19 neuropsychiatric (NP) events, including 5 types of CerVEs: 1) stroke, 2) transient ischemia, 3) chronic multifocal ischemia, 4) subarachnoid/intracranial hemorrhage, and 5) sinus thrombosis. Global disease activity (Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease [SLE] Activity Index 2000), damage scores (SLE International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology Damage Index), and Short Form 36 (SF-36) scores were collected. Time to event, linear and logistic regressions, and multistate models were used as appropriate. Results: CerVEs were the fourth most frequent NP event: 82 of 1,826 patients had 109 events; of these events, 103 were attributed to SLE, and 44 were identified at the time of enrollment. The predominant events were stroke (60 of 109 patients) and transient ischemia (28 of 109 patients). CerVEs were associated with other NP events attributed to SLE, non–SLE-attributed NP events, African ancestry (at US SLICC sites), and increased organ damage scores. Lupus anticoagulant increased the risk of first stroke and sinus thrombosis and transient ischemic attack. Physician assessment indicated resolution or improvement in the majority of patients, but patients reported sustained reduction in SF-36 summary and subscale scores following a CerVE. Conclusion: CerVEs, the fourth most frequent NP event in SLE, are usually attributable to lupus. In contrast to good physician-reported outcomes, patients reported a sustained reduction in health-related quality of life following a CerVE.
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10.
  • Hanly, John G., et al. (författare)
  • Mood Disorders in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Results From an International Inception Cohort Study
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Arthritis & Rheumatology. - : John Wiley and Sons. - 2326-5191. ; 67:7, s. 1837-1847
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • ObjectiveTo examine the frequency, characteristics, and outcome of mood disorders, as well as clinical and autoantibody associations, in a multiethnic/racial, prospective inception cohort of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). MethodsPatients were assessed annually for mood disorders (4 types, according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition) and 18 other neuropsychiatric events. Global disease activity scores (SLE Disease Activity Index 2000 [SLEDAI-2K]), damage scores (Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology Damage Index [SDI]), and Short Form 36 subscales, mental and physical component summary scores were collected. Time to event, linear and ordinal regressions, and multi-state models were used as appropriate. ResultsAmong the 1,827 patients with SLE, 88.9% were female, and 48.9% were Caucasian. The mean SD age of the patients was 35.1 +/- 13.3 years, disease duration was 5.6 +/- 4.8 months, and the length of followup was 4.7 +/- 3.5 years. During the course of the study, 863 (47.2%) of the 1,827 patients had 1,627 neuropsychiatric events. Mood disorders occurred in 232 (12.7%) of 1,827 patients, and 98 (38.3%) of 256 mood disorder events were attributed to SLE. The estimated cumulative incidence of any mood disorder after 10 years was 17.7% (95% confidence interval 15.1, 20.2%). A greater risk of mood disorder was associated with concurrent neuropsychiatric events (P0.01), and a lower risk was associated with Asian race/ethnicity (P=0.01) and treatment with immunosuppressive drugs (P=0.003). Mood disorders were associated with lower mental health and mental component summary scores but not with the SLEDAI-2K, SDI, or lupus autoantibodies. Among the 232 patients with depression, 168 (72.4%) were treated with antidepressants. One hundred twenty-six (49.2%) of 256 mood disorders resolved in 117 (50.4%) of 232 patients. ConclusionMood disorders, the second most frequent neuropsychiatric event in patients with SLE, have a negative impact on health-related quality of life and improve over time. The lack of association with global SLE disease activity, cumulative organ damage, and lupus autoantibodies emphasizes the multifactorial etiology of mood disorders and a role for non-lupus-specific therapies.
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