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  • Bjorklund, E., et al. (författare)
  • Outcome of ST-elevation myocardial infarction treated with thrombolysis in the unselected population is vastly different from samples of eligible patients in a large-scale clinical trial
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Am Heart J. - 1097-6744 .- 0002-8703. ; 148:4, s. 566-73
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Patients in clinical trials of fibrinolytic agents have been shown to be younger, less often female, and to have lower risk characteristics and a better outcome compared with unselected patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction. However, a direct comparison of patients treated with fibrinolytic agents and not enrolled versus those enrolled in a trial, including a large number of patients, has not been performed. METHODS: Prospective data from the Swedish Register of Cardiac Intensive Care on patients admitted with acute myocardial infarction treated with thrombolytic agents in 60 Swedish hospitals were linked to data on trial participants in the ASsessment of Safety and Efficacy of a New Thrombolytic (ASSENT)-2 trial of fibrinolytic agents. Baseline characteristics, treatments, and long-term outcome were evaluated in 729 trial participants (A2), 2048 nonparticipants at trial hospitals (non-A2), and 964 nonparticipants at other hospitals (non-A2-Hosp). RESULTS: Nontrial patients compared with A2 patients were older and had higher risk characteristics and more early complications, although the treatments were similar. Patients at highest risk of death were the least likely to be enrolled in the trial. The 1-year mortality rate was 8.8% versus 20.3% and 19.0% (P <.001 for both) among A2 compared with non-A2 and non-A2-Hosp patients, respectively. After adjustment for a number of risk factors, the 1-year mortality rate was still twice as high in nontrial compared with A2 patients. CONCLUSIONS: The adjusted 1-year mortality rate was twice as high in patients treated with fibrinolytic agents and not enrolled in a clinical trial compared with those enrolled. One major reason for the difference in outcome appeared to be the selection of less critically ill patients to the trial.
  • Björck, Lena, 1959, et al. (författare)
  • Smoking in relation to ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction: findings from the Register of Information and Knowledge about Swedish Heart Intensive Care Admissions.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Heart (British Cardiac Society). - 1468-201X .- 1355-6037. ; 95:12, s. 1006-1011
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: In the past few decades, clinical presentation in AMI has been reported to be changing, with milder cases and less ST-elevation myocardial infarction, the most serious form of AMI. The better outcome may be due to improved medical and interventional management, as well as more sensitive methods for detecting AMI. However, changes in risk factors have also been documented, especially lower tobacco-smoking rates. Therefore, the relation between smoking and ST-elevation AMI in a large observational cohort was analysed. METHODS: Data were derived from 93 416 consecutive patients aged 25 to 84 years and admitted to hospital between 1996 and 2004 with a first AMI. RESULTS: Tobacco smoking was more prevalent in younger patients (ie, <65 years). More than 50% of younger patients presenting with STEMI were smokers at the time of hospitalisation. After multiple adjustments, smoking was found to be an independent determinant for presenting with STEMI compared with non-STEMI. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) associated with smoking was 2.01 (99% CI 1.75 to 2.30) in younger women and 1.33 (99% CI 1.22 to 1.43) in younger men, with a significant interaction between smoking and gender. In older women and men (> or =65 years), the corresponding ORs were 1.33 (99% CI 1.20 to 1.48) and 1.14 (99% CI 1.04 to 1.25), respectively. CONCLUSION: Tobacco smoking is a major determinant for presenting with STEMI compared with non-STEMI, particularly among younger patients and among women. These results indicate that smoking is one of the major risk factors for presenting with more severe AMIs.
  • Norhammar, A, et al. (författare)
  • Women younger than 65 years with diabetes mellitus are a high-risk group after myocardial infarction : a report from the Swedish Register of Information and Knowledge about Swedish Heart Intensive Care Admission (RIKS-HIA)
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Heart. - 1355-6037 .- 1468-201X. ; 94:12, s. 1565-1570
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: To analyse gender differences in prognosis, risk factors and evidence-based treatment in patients with diabetes and myocardial infarction. Methods: Mortality in 1995-2002 was analysed in 70 882 Swedish patients (age,80) with a first registry-recorded acute myocardial infarction stratified by gender and age. Owing to gender differences in mortality, specifically characterising patients below the age of 65 years, a more detailed analysis was performed within this cohort of 25 555 patients. In this group, 5786 (23%) were women and 4473 (18%) had diabetes. Differences in clinical and other parameters were adjusted for using a propensity score model. Results: Long-term mortality in diabetic patients aged,65 years was significantly higher in women than men (RR 1.34; 95% CI 1.16 to 1.55). Compared with diabetic men, women had an increased risk factor burden (hypertension 49 vs 43%; RR 1.12; 95% CI 1.05 to 1.20; heart failure 10 vs 8%; RR 1.25; 95% CI 1.03 to 1.53). Diabetic women aged,65 years were less frequently treated with intravenous beta-blockade during the acute hospital phase and with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors at hospital discharge. However, this under-use was not associated with the mortality differences, nor was female gender by itself. Conclusion: Women below 65 years of age with diabetes have a poorer outcome than men after a myocardial infarction. This relates to an increased risk factor burden. It is suggested that greater awareness of this situation and improved prevention have the potential to improve what is an unfavourable situation for these women.
  • Aspberg, Sara, et al. (författare)
  • Large differences between patients with acute myocardial infarction included in two Swedish health registers
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health. - : SAGE Publications (UK and US). - 1403-4948 .- 1651-1905. ; 41:6, s. 637-643
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Acute myocardial infarction (MI) is a leading cause for morbidity and mortality in Sweden. We aimed to compare patients with an acute MI included in the Register of information and knowledge about Swedish heart intensive care admissions (RIKS-HIA, now included in the register Swedeheart) and in the Swedish statistics of acute myocardial infarctions (S-AMI). Methods: Population based register study including RIKS-HIA, S-AMI, the National patient register and the Cause of death register. Odds ratios were determined by logistic regression analysis. Results: From 2001 to 2007, 114,311 cases in RIKS-HIA and 198,693 cases in S-AMI were included with a discharge diagnosis of an acute MI. Linkage was possible for 110,958 cases. These cases were younger, more often males, had fewer concomitant diseases and were more often treated with invasive coronary artery procedures than patients included in S-AMI only. There were substantial regional differences in proportions of patients reported to RIKS-HIA. Conclusions: Approximately half of all patients with an acute MI were included in RIKS-HIA. They represented a relatively more healthy population than patients included in S-AMI only. S-AMI covered almost all patients with an acute MI but had limited information about the patients. Used in combination, these two registers can give better prerequisites for improved quality of care of all patients with acute coronary syndromes.
  • Björklund, Erik, et al. (författare)
  • Pre-hospital thrombolysis delivered by paramedics is associated with reduced time delay and mortality in ambulance-transported real-life patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: European Heart Journal. - 0195-668X .- 1522-9645. ; 27:10, s. 1146-1152
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AIMS: There are sparse data on the impact of pre-hospital thrombolysis (PHT) in real-life patients. We therefore evaluated treatment delays and outcome in a large cohort of ambulance-transported real-life patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) according to PHT delivered by paramedics or in-hospital thrombolysis. METHODS AND RESULTS: Prospective cohort study used data from the Swedish Register of Cardiac intensive care on patients admitted to the coronary care units of 75 Swedish hospitals in 2001-2004. Ambulance-transported thrombolytic-treated patients younger than age 80 with a diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction were included. Patients with PHT (n=1690) were younger, had a lower prevalence of co-morbid conditions, fewer complications, and a higher ejection fraction (EF) than in-hospital-treated patients (n=3685). Median time from symptom onset to treatment was 113 min for PHT and 165 min for in-hospital thrombolysis. One-year mortality was 7.2 vs. 11.8% for PHT and in-hospital thrombolysis, respectively. In a multivariable analysis, after adjusting for baseline characteristics and rescue angioplasty, PHT was associated with lower 1-year mortality (odds ratio 0.71, 0.55-0.92, P=0.008). CONCLUSION: When compared with regular in-hospital thrombolysis, pre-hospital diagnosis and thrombolysis with trained paramedics in the ambulances are associated with reduced time to thrombolysis by almost 1 h and reduced adjusted 1-year mortality by 30% in real-life STEMI patients.
  • Held, Claes, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of revascularization within 14 days of hospital admission due to acute coronary syndrome on 1-year mortality in patients with previous coronary artery bypass graft surgery
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: European Heart Journal. - 0195-668X .- 1522-9645. ; 28:3, s. 316-325
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims To determine whether revascularization within 14 days reduces 1 -year mortality in patients with a previous CABG admitted for non-ST-elevation ACS. Current guidelines for patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) include early revascularization. The evidence is derived from studies, in which patients with previous coronary artery by-pass graft (CABG) surgery often were excluded and thus insufficient to support a similar strategy in these high-risk patients in whom coronary interventions are associated with lower success and higher complication rates. Methods and results A cohort of 10469 patients <80 years old from a national registry, admitted to coronary care units in Sweden, was studied. We obtained 1-year mortality data from the Swedish National Cause of Death Registry. Relative risk (RR) in patients undergoing revascularization within 14 days (n = 4269) of admission compared to those who did not (n = 6200) was calculated by using multivariable logistic regression analyses and propensity scores for the likelihood of early revascularization. At 1-year, unadjusted mortality was 5.4% in the revascularized group and 13.1% in the conservatively treated group. In multiple regression analyses, revascularization was associated with a reduction of 1-year mortality (RR 0.67; 95% Cl, 0.56-0.81; P< 0.001). Conclusion In patients with a previous CABG admitted for ACS, revascularization within 14 days of hospital admission was associated with a marked reduction in 1-year mortality, supporting an early invasive approach also in this subset of patients.
  • Huynh, Thao, et al. (författare)
  • The Pre-Hospital Fibrinolysis Experience in Europe and North America and Implications for Wider Dissemination
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: JACC-CARDIOVASCULAR INTERVENTIONS. - : Elsevier. - 1936-8798 .- 1876-7605. ; 4:8, s. 877-883
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives The primary objective of this report was to describe the infrastructures and processes of selected European and North American pre-hospital fibrinolysis (PHL) programs. A secondary objective is to report the outcome data of the PHL programs surveyed. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanBackground Despite its benefit in reducing mortality in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, PHL remained underused in North America. Examination of existing programs may provide insights to help address barriers to the implementation of PHL. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMethods The leading investigators of PHL research projects/national registries were invited to respond to a survey on the organization and outcomes of their affiliated PHL programs. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanResults PHL was successfully deployed in a wide range of geographic territories (Europe: France, Sweden, Vienna, England, and Wales; North America: Houston, Edmonton, and Nova Scotia) and was delivered by healthcare professionals of varying expertise. In-hospital major adverse outcomes were rare with mortality of 3% to 6%, reinfarction of 2% to 5%, and stroke of andlt;2%. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanConclusions Combining formal protocols for PHL for some patients with direct transportation of others to a percutaneous coronary intervention hospital for primary percutaneous coronary intervention would allow for tailored reperfusion therapy for patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Insights from a variety of international settings may promote widespread use of PHL and increase timely coronary reperfusion worldwide.
  • Janszky, Imre, et al. (författare)
  • Daylight saving time shifts and incidence of acute myocardial infarction - Swedish Register of Information and Knowledge About Swedish Heart Intensive Care Admissions (RIKS-HIA)
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Sleep Medicine. - : Elsevier. - 1389-9457 .- 1878-5506. ; 13:3, s. 237-242
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Daylight saving time shifts can be looked upon as large-scale natural experiments to study the effects of acute minor sleep deprivation and circadian rhythm disturbances. Limited evidence suggests that these shifts have a short-term influence on the risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), but confirmation of this finding and its variation in magnitude between individuals is not clear. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMethods: To identify AMI incidence on specific dates, we used the Register of Information and Knowledge about Swedish Heart Intensive Care Admission, a national register of coronary care unit admissions in Sweden. We compared AMI incidence on the first seven days after the transition with mean incidence during control periods. To assess effect modification, we calculated the incidence ratios in strata defined by patient characteristics. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanResults: Overall, we found an elevated incidence ratio of 1.039 (95% confidence interval, 1.003-1.075) for the first week after the spring clock shift forward. The higher risk tended to be more pronounced among individuals taking cardiac medications and having low cholesterol and triglycerides. There was no statistically significant change in AMI incidence following the autumn shift. Patients with hyperlipidemia and those taking statins and calcium-channel blockers tended to have a lower incidence than expected. Smokers did not ever have a higher incidence. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanConclusions: Our data suggest that even modest sleep deprivation and disturbances in the sleep-wake cycle might increase the risk of AMI across the population. Confirmation of subgroups at higher risk may suggest preventative strategies to mitigate this risk.
  • Jernberg, Tomas, et al. (författare)
  • The Swedish Web-system for enhancement and development of evidence-based care in heart disease evaluated according to recommended therapies (SWEDEHEART).
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Heart (British Cardiac Society). - : BMJ Publishing Group; 1999. - 1468-201X .- 1355-6037. ; 96:20, s. 1617-21
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AIMS: The aims of the Swedish Web-system for Enhancement and Development of Evidence-based care in Heart disease Evaluated According to Recommended Therapies (SWEDEHEART) are to support the improvement of care and evidence-based development of therapy of coronary artery disease (CAD). INTERVENTIONS: To provide users with online interactive reports monitoring the processes of care and outcomes and allowing direct comparisons over time and with other hospitals. National, regional and county-based reports are publicly presented on a yearly basis. SETTING: Every hospital (n=74) in Sweden providing the relevant services participates. Launched in 2009 after merging four national registries on CAD. POPULATION: Consecutive acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients, and patients undergoing coronary angiography/angioplasty or heart surgery. Includes approximately 80, 000 new cases each year. STARTPOINTS: On admission in ACS patients, at coronary angiography in patients with stable CAD. BASELINE DATA: 106 variables for patients with ACS, another 75 variables regarding secondary prevention after 12-14 months, 150 variables for patients undergoing coronary angiography/angioplasty, 100 variables for patients undergoing heart surgery. DATA CAPTURE: Web-based registry with all data registered online directly by the caregiver. DATA QUALITY: A monitor visits approximately 20 hospitals each year. In 2007, there was a 96% agreement. ENDPOINTS AND LINKAGES TO OTHER DATA: Merged with the National Cause of Death Register, including information about vital status of all Swedish citizens, the National Patient Registry, containing diagnoses at discharge for all hospital stays in Sweden and the National Registry of Drug prescriptions recording all drug prescriptions in Sweden. ACCESS TO DATA: Available for research by application to the SWEDEHEART steering group.
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