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Sökning: WFRF:(Stiernstedt Mikael)

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  • Eriksson, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • Changing Zaire to Congo : The fate of no-longer relevant mnemonic information.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: NeuroImage. - : Elsevier BV. - 1053-8119 .- 1095-9572. ; 101, s. 1-7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In an ever-changing world there is constant pressure on revising long-term memory, such when people or countries change name. What happens to the old, pre-existing information? One possibility is that old associations gradually are weakened and eventually lost. Alternatively, old and no longer relevant information may still be an integral part of memory traces. To test the hypothesis that old mnemonic information still becomes activated when people correctly retrieve new, currently relevant information, brain activity was measured with fMRI while participants performed a cued-retrieval task. Paired associates (symbol-sound and symbol-face pairs) were first learned during two days. Half of the associations were then updated during the next two days, followed by fMRI scanning on day 5 and also 18months later. As expected, retrieval reactivated sensory cortex related to the most recently learned association (visual cortex for symbol-face pairs, auditory cortex for symbol-sound pairs). Critically, retrieval also reactivated sensory cortex related to the no-longer relevant associate. Eighteen months later, only non-updated symbol-face associations were intact. Intriguingly, a subset of the updated associations was now treated as though the original association had taken over, in that memory performance was significantly worse than chance and that activity in sensory cortex for the original but not the updated associate correlated (negatively) with performance. Moreover, the degree of "residual" reactivation during day 5 inversely predicted memory performance 18months later. Thus, updating of long-term memory involves adding new information to already existing networks, in which old information can stay resilient for a long time.
  • Nyberg, Lars, 1966-, et al. (författare)
  • Biological and environmental predictors of heterogeneity in neurocognitive ageing : Evidence from Betula and other longitudinal studies
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Ageing Research Reviews. - : Elsevier. - 1568-1637 .- 1872-9649. ; 64
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Individual differences in cognitive performance increase with advancing age, reflecting marked cognitive changes in some individuals along with little or no change in others. Genetic and lifestyle factors are assumed to influence cognitive performance in aging by affecting the magnitude and extent of age-related brain changes (i.e., brain maintenance or atrophy), as well as the ability to recruit compensatory processes. The purpose of this review is to present findings from the Betula study and other longitudinal studies, with a focus on clarifying the role of key biological and environmental factors assumed to underlie individual differences in brain and cognitive aging. We discuss the vital importance of sampling, analytic methods, consideration of non-ignorable dropout, and related issues for valid conclusions on factors that influence healthy neurocognitive aging.
  • Nyberg, Lars, 1966-, et al. (författare)
  • Forecasting memory function in aging : pattern-completion ability and hippocampal activity relate to visuospatial functioning over 25 years
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Neurobiology of Aging. - : Elsevier. - 0197-4580 .- 1558-1497. ; 94, s. 217-226
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Heterogeneity in episodic memory functioning in aging was assessed with a pattern-completion functional magnetic resonance imaging task that required reactivation of well-consolidated face-name memory traces from fragmented (partial) or morphed (noisy) face cues. About half of the examined individuals (N = 101) showed impaired (chance) performance on fragmented faces despite intact performance on complete and morphed faces, and they did not show a pattern-completion response in hippocampus or the examined subfields (CA1, CA23, DGCA4). This apparent pattern-completion deficit could not be explained by differential hippocampal atrophy. Instead, the impaired group displayed lower cortical volumes, accelerated reduction in mini-mental state examination scores, and lower general cognitive function as defined by longitudinal measures of visuospatial functioning and speed-of-processing. In the full sample, inter-individual differences in visuospatial functioning predicted performance on fragmented faces and hippocampal CA23 subfield activity over 25 years. These findings suggest that visuospatial functioning in middle age can forecast pattern-completion deficits in aging.
  • Solé-Padullés, Cristina, et al. (författare)
  • No Association Between Loneliness, Episodic Memory and Hippocampal Volume Change in Young and Healthy Older Adults : A Longitudinal European Multicenter Study
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience. - : Frontiers Media S.A.. - 1663-4365 .- 1663-4365. ; 14
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Loneliness is most prevalent during adolescence and late life and has been associated with mental health disorders as well as with cognitive decline during aging. Associations between longitudinal measures of loneliness and verbal episodic memory and brain structure should thus be investigated.Methods: We sought to determine associations between loneliness and verbal episodic memory as well as loneliness and hippocampal volume trajectories across three longitudinal cohorts within the Lifebrain Consortium, including children, adolescents (N = 69, age range 10–15 at baseline examination) and older adults (N = 1468 over 60). We also explored putative loneliness correlates of cortical thinning across the entire cortical mantle.Results: Loneliness was associated with worsening of verbal episodic memory in one cohort of older adults. Specifically, reporting medium to high levels of loneliness over time was related to significantly increased memory loss at follow-up examinations. The significance of the loneliness-memory change association was lost when eight participants were excluded after having developed dementia in any of the subsequent follow-up assessments. No significant structural brain correlates of loneliness were found, neither hippocampal volume change nor cortical thinning.Conclusion: In the present longitudinal European multicenter study, the association between loneliness and episodic memory was mainly driven by individuals exhibiting progressive cognitive decline, which reinforces previous findings associating loneliness with cognitive impairment and dementia.
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