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Sökning: WFRF:(Stovall M)

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1.
  • Hill, Deirdre A., et al. (författare)
  • Breast cancer risk following radiotherapy for Hodgkin lymphoma : modification by other risk factors
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Blood. - 0006-4971 .- 1528-0020. ; 106:10, s. 3358-65
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The importance of genetic and other risk factors in the development of breast cancer after radiotherapy (RT) for Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) has not been determined. We analyzed data from a breast cancer case-control study (105 patients, 266 control subjects) conducted among 3 817 survivors of HL diagnosed at age 30 years or younger in 6 population-based cancer registries. Odds ratios (ORs) and excess relative risks (ERRs) were calculated using conditional regression. Women who received RT exposure (> or = 5 Gy radiation dose to the breast) had a 2.7-fold increased breast cancer risk (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4-5.2), compared with those given less than 5 Gy. RT exposure (> or = 5 Gy) was associated with an OR of 0.8 (95% CI, 0.2-3.4) among women with a first- or second-degree family history of breast or ovarian cancer, and 5.8 (95% CI, 2.1-16.3) among all other women (interaction P = .03). History of a live birth appeared to increase the breast cancer risk associated with RT among women not treated with ovarian-damaging therapies. Breast cancer risk following RT varied little according to other factors. The additional increased relative risk of breast cancer after RT for HL is unlikely to be larger among women with a family history of breast or ovarian cancer than among other women.
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2.
  • Travis, Lois B, et al. (författare)
  • Breast cancer following radiotherapy and chemotherapy among young women with Hodgkin disease
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA). - 0098-7484 .- 1538-3598. ; 290:4, s. 465-475
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • CONTEXT: Second cancer is the leading cause of death in long-term survivors of Hodgkin disease (HD), with exceptionally high risks of breast cancer among women treated at a young age. Quantitative associations between radiotherapy dose delivered to the breast and administered chemotherapy have not been reported to date in large series, nor has the influence of ovarian exposures on subsequent risk.OBJECTIVE: To quantify the long-term risk of breast cancer associated with use of radiotherapy and chemotherapy to treat young women with HD.DESIGN, SETTING, AND SUBJECTS: Matched case-control study of breast cancer within a cohort of 3817 female 1-year survivors of HD diagnosed at age 30 years or younger, between January 1, 1965, and December 31, 1994, and within 6 population-based cancer registries. The study was conducted March 1, 1996, through September 30, 1998.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Relative risk (RR) of breast cancer associated with radiation dose delivered to site of breast cancer or to ovaries and with cumulative dose of alkylating agents.RESULTS: Breast cancer occurred in 105 patients with HD who were matched to 266 patients with HD but without breast cancer. A radiation dose of 4 Gy or more delivered to the breast was associated with a 3.2-fold (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-8.2) increased risk, compared with the risk in patients who received lower doses and no alkylating agents. Risk increased to 8-fold (95% CI, 2.6-26.4) with a dose of more than 40 Gy (P<.001 for trend). Radiation risk did not vary appreciably by age at exposure or reproductive history. Increased risks persisted for 25 or more years following radiotherapy (RR, 2.3; 95% CI, 0.5-16.5; P =.03 for trend with dose). Treatment with alkylating agents alone resulted in a reduced risk (RR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.2-2.0) of breast cancer, and combined alkylating agents and radiotherapy in a 1.4-fold (95% CI, 0.6-3.5) increased risk. Risk of breast cancer decreased with increasing number of alkylating agent cycles (P =.003 for trend). Risk also was low (RR, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.1-1.1) among women who received 5 Gy or more delivered to ovaries compared with those who received lower doses.CONCLUSIONS: Hormonal stimulation appears important for the development of radiation-induced breast cancer, as evidenced by the reduced risk associated with ovarian damage from alkylating agents or radiation. The high radiation-related risk, which did not diminish at the highest doses or the longest follow-up, however, suggests the need for lifetime surveillance and programs of patient and public awareness.
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3.
  • Travis, Lois B., et al. (författare)
  • Cumulative absolute breast cancer risk for young women treated for Hodgkin lymphoma
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. - 0027-8874 .- 1460-2105. ; 97:19, s. 1428-37
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Many women develop breast cancer after treatment for Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) at a young age. We estimated this future risk, taking into account age and calendar year of HL diagnosis, HL treatment information, population breast cancer incidence rates, and competing causes of death. METHODS: Relative risks of breast cancer for categories defined by radiation dose to the chest (0, 20- < 40 Gy, or > or = 40 Gy) and use of alkylating agents (yes or no) were estimated from a case-control study conducted within an international population-based cohort of 3817 female 1-year survivors of HL diagnosed at age 30 years or younger from January 1, 1965, through December 31, 1994. To compute cumulative absolute risks of breast cancer, we used modified standardized incidence ratios to relate cohort breast cancer risks to those in the general population, enabling application of population-based breast cancer rates, and we allowed for competing risks by using population-based mortality rates in female HL survivors. RESULTS: Cumulative absolute risks of breast cancer increased with age at end of follow-up, time since HL diagnosis, and radiation dose. For an HL survivor who was treated at age 25 years with a chest radiation dose of at least 40 Gy without alkylating agents, estimated cumulative absolute risks of breast cancer by age 35, 45, and 55 years were 1.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.9% to 2.1%), 11.1% (95% CI = 7.4% to 16.3%), and 29.0% (95% CI = 20.2% to 40.1%), respectively. Cumulative absolute risks were lower in women treated with alkylating agents. CONCLUSIONS: Breast cancer projections varied considerably by type of HL therapy, time since HL diagnosis, and age at end of follow-up. These estimates are applicable to HL survivors treated with regimens of the past and can be used to counsel such patients and plan management and preventive strategies. Projections should be used with caution, however, in patients treated with more recent approaches, including limited-field radiotherapy and/or ovary-sparing chemotherapy.
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9.
  • Travis, L. B., et al. (författare)
  • Bladder and kidney cancer following cyclophosphamide therapy for non-Hodgkin´s lymphoma
  • 1995
  • Ingår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. - 0027-8874 .- 1460-2105. ; 87:7, s. 524-530
  • Recension (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Cyclophosphamide is an established bladder carcinogen, but few studies have examined the relationship between dose and effect. The largest analysis to date included only seven cases of bladder cancer. No investigation has estimated the risk of kidney cancer. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to quantify the risk of bladder and kidney cancer following cyclophosphamide therapy. METHODS: Within a cohort of 6171 two-year survivors of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), 48 patients with secondary cancer of the urinary tract were identified and matched to 136 control subjects with NHL who did not develop a second malignancy. Detailed information on chemotherapeutic drugs and cumulative dose received was collected for all subjects. Radiation dose to the target organ was estimated from individual radiotherapy records. Evaluations of the risk of second cancer as a result of treatment with cyclophosphamide alone, radiation alone, or both therapies were made relative to those patients who were exposed to neither treatment modality. RESULTS: A significant 4.5-fold risk of bladder cancer (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.5-13.6) followed therapy with cyclophosphamide, and risk was dependent upon cumulative dose. Among patients who received a total amount of cyclophosphamide of less than 20 g, a nonsignificant 2.4-fold risk of bladder cancer was apparent. Significantly elevated sixfold (95% CI = 1.3-29) and 14.5-fold (95% CI = 2.3-94) risks of bladder malignancy followed cumulative doses of 20-49 g and 50 g or more, respectively (P value for trend = .004). Radiotherapy given without cyclophosphamide was associated with a nonsignificant increased risk of bladder malignancy. Excess bladder cancer risk following treatment with both radiotherapy and cyclophosphamide was as expected if individual risks were summed. Neither radiotherapy nor cyclophosphamide was associated with excesses of kidney cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Cyclophosphamide-related bladder cancer is dose dependent. For patients given cumulative doses between 20 and 49 g, the absolute risk of bladder cancer is on the order of three excess cancers per 100 NHL patients after 15 years of follow-up. At cumulative doses of 50 g or more, the excess risk increases to approximately seven excess bladder cancers per 100 NHL patients. IMPLICATIONS: The strong dose-response relationship and high absolute risk of bladder cancer underscore the importance of limiting the cumulative dose of cyclophosphamide to what is required to achieve therapeutic end points. The risk of secondary bladder malignancy and other late sequelae of therapy must be carefully weighted against the curative gains provided by cyclophosphamide. Moreover, long-term side effects of therapy that might be acceptable in cancer treatment may need to be re-evaluated for patients with non-neoplastic disorders.
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10.
  • Travis, Lois B, et al. (författare)
  • Lung cancer following chemotherapy and radiotherapy for Hodgkin's disease
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. - 0027-8874 .- 1460-2105. ; 94:3, s. 182-192
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is a frequent cause of death in patients cured of Hodgkin's disease, but the contributions of chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and smoking are not well described. We quantified the risk of treatment-associated lung cancer, taking into account tobacco use.METHODS: Within a population-based cohort of 19 046 Hodgkin's disease patients (diagnosed from 1965 through 1994), a case-control study of lung cancer was conducted. The cumulative amount of cytotoxic drugs, the radiation dose to the specific location in the lung where cancer developed, and tobacco use were compared for 222 patients who developed lung cancer and for 444 matched control patients. All statistical tests were two-sided.RESULTS: Treatment with alkylating agents without radiotherapy was associated with increased lung cancer risk (relative risk [RR] = 4.2; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.1 to 8.8), as was radiation dose of 5 Gy or more without alkylating agents (RR = 5.9; 95% CI = 2.7 to 13.5). Risk increased with both increasing number of cycles of alkylating agents and increasing radiation dose (P for trend <.001). Among patients treated with mechlorethamine, vincristine, procarbazine, and prednisone (MOPP), risk increased with cumulative amounts of mechlorethamine and procarbazine (P<.001) when evaluated separately. Statistically significantly elevated risks of lung cancer were apparent within 1-4 years after treatment with alkylating agents, whereas excess risk after radiotherapy began 5 years after treatment and persisted for more than 20 years. Risk after treatment with alkylating agents and radiotherapy together was as expected if individual excess risks were summed. Tobacco use increased lung cancer risk more than 20-fold; risks from smoking appeared to multiply risks from treatment.CONCLUSIONS: Past treatments with alkylating agents and radiation therapy for Hodgkin's disease were associated with an increased risk of lung cancer in a dose-dependent and additive fashion. The precise risk estimates, however, should be interpreted cautiously, given the possible residual and enhancing effects of tobacco.
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  • Resultat 1-10 av 29
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