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2.
  • Lood, Christian, et al. (författare)
  • C1q inhibits immune complex-induced interferon-alpha production in plasmacytoid dendritic cells : a novel link between C1q deficiency and systemic lupus erythematosus pathogenesis
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Arthritis and Rheumatism. - : John Wiley & Sons Inc.. - 0004-3591 .- 1529-0131. ; 60:10, s. 3081-3090
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: C1q deficiency is the strongest risk factor known for the development of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), since almost all humans with a genetic deficiency of C1q develop this disease. Low C1q serum concentration is also a typical finding in SLE during flares, emphasizing the involvement of C1q in SLE pathogenesis. Recent studies have revealed that C1q has a regulatory effect on Toll-like receptor-induced cytokine production. Therefore, we undertook this study to investigate whether C1q could regulate production of interferon-alpha (IFNalpha). METHODS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDCs) were stimulated with 3 known interferogenic stimuli and cultured with physiologic concentrations of C1q. IFNalpha production was determined by an immunoassay. RESULTS: C1q significantly inhibited PBMC IFNalpha production induced by RNA-containing immune complexes (ICs), herpes simplex virus (HSV), and CpG DNA. C1q also inhibited PDC IFNalpha production induced by ICs and CpG DNA but increased PDC IFNalpha production induced by HSV. The regulatory role of C1q was not specific for IFNalpha but was also seen for interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor alpha. We demonstrated binding of C1q to PDCs both by surface plasmon resonance interaction analysis and by flow cytometry, and we also demonstrated intracellular detection of 2 C1q binding proteins. CONCLUSION: Our findings contribute to the understanding of why C1q deficiency is such a strong risk factor for SLE and suggest an explanation for the up-regulation of the type I IFN system seen in SLE patients.
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  • Sandling, Johanna K., et al. (författare)
  • A candidate gene study of the type I interferon pathway implicates IKBKE and IL8 as risk loci for SLE
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Human Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1476-5438 .- 1018-4813. ; 19:4, s. 479-484
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune disease in which the type I interferon pathway has a crucial role. We have previously shown that three genes in this pathway, IRF5, TYK2 and STAT4, are strongly associated with risk for SLE. Here, we investigated 78 genes involved in the type I interferon pathway to identify additional SLE susceptibility loci. First, we genotyped 896 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in these 78 genes and 14 other candidate genes in 482 Swedish SLE patients and 536 controls. Genes with P < 0.01 in the initial screen were then followed up in 344 additional Swedish patients and 1299 controls. SNPs in the IKBKE, TANK, STAT1, IL8 and TRAF6 genes gave nominal signals of association with SLE in this extended Swedish cohort. To replicate these findings we extracted data from a genomewide association study on SLE performed in a US cohort. Combined analysis of the Swedish and US data, comprising a total of 2136 cases and 9694 controls, implicates IKBKE and IL8 as SLE susceptibility loci (P-meta=0.00010 and P-meta=0.00040, respectively). STAT1 was also associated with SLE in this cohort (P-meta=3.3 x 10(-5)), but this association signal appears to be dependent of that previously reported for the neighbouring STAT4 gene. Our study suggests additional genes from the type I interferon system in SLE, and highlights genes in this pathway for further functional analysis. European Journal of Human Genetics (2011) 19, 479-484; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2010.197; published online 22 December 2010
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6.
  • Sigurdsson, Snaevar, et al. (författare)
  • A risk haplotype of STAT4 for systemic lupus erythematosus is over-expressed, correlates with anti-dsDNA and shows additive effects with two risk alleles of IRF5
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Human Molecular Genetics. - : Oxford University Press. - 0964-6906 .- 1460-2083. ; 17:18, s. 2868-76
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is the prototype autoimmune disease where genes regulated by type I interferon (IFN) are over-expressed and contribute to the disease pathogenesis. Because signal transducer and activator of transcription 4 (STAT4) plays a key role in the type I IFN receptor signaling, we performed a candidate gene study of a comprehensive set of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) in STAT4 in Swedish patients with SLE. We found that 10 out of 53 analyzed SNPs in STAT4 were associated with SLE, with the strongest signal of association (P = 7.1 x 10(-8)) for two perfectly linked SNPs rs10181656 and rs7582694. The risk alleles of these 10 SNPs form a common risk haplotype for SLE (P = 1.7 x 10(-5)). According to conditional logistic regression analysis the SNP rs10181656 or rs7582694 accounts for all of the observed association signal. By quantitative analysis of the allelic expression of STAT4 we found that the risk allele of STAT4 was over-expressed in primary human cells of mesenchymal origin, but not in B-cells, and that the risk allele of STAT4 was over-expressed (P = 8.4 x 10(-5)) in cells carrying the risk haplotype for SLE compared with cells with a non-risk haplotype. The risk allele of the SNP rs7582694 in STAT4 correlated to production of anti-dsDNA (double-stranded DNA) antibodies and displayed a multiplicatively increased, 1.82-fold risk of SLE with two independent risk alleles of the IRF5 (interferon regulatory factor 5) gene.
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7.
  • Sigurdsson, Snaevar, et al. (författare)
  • Comprehensive evaluation of the genetic variants of interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) reveals a novel 5 bp length polymorphism as strong risk factor for systemic lupus erythematosus
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Human Molecular Genetics. - : Oxford University Press. - 0964-6906 .- 1460-2083. ; 17:6, s. 872-881
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We analyzed a comprehensive set of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and length polymorphisms in the interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) gene for their association with the autoimmune disease systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in 485 Swedish patients and 563 controls. We found 16 SNPs and two length polymorphisms that display association with SLE (P < 0.0005, OR > 1.4). Using a Bayesian model selection and averaging approach we identified parsimonious models with exactly two variants of IRF5 that are independently associated with SLE. The variants of IRF5 with the highest posterior probabilities (1.00 and 0.71, respectively) of being causal in SLE are a SNP (rs10488631) located 3' of IRF5, and a novel CGGGG insertion-deletion (indel) polymorphism located 64 bp upstream of the first untranslated exon (exon 1A) of IRF5. The CGGGG indel explains the association signal from multiple SNPs in the IRF5 gene, including rs2004640, rs10954213 and rs729302 previously considered to be causal variants in SLE. The CGGGG indel contains three or four repeats of the sequence CGGGG with the longer allele containing an additional SP1 binding site as the risk allele for SLE. Using electrophoretic mobility shift assays we show increased binding of protein to the risk allele of the CGGGG indel and using a minigene reporter assay we show increased expression of IRF5 mRNA from a promoter containing this allele. Increased expression of IRF5 protein was observed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from SLE patients carrying the risk allele of the CGGGG indel. We have found that the same IRF5 allele also confers risk for inflammatory bowel diseases and multiple sclerosis, suggesting a general role for IRF5 in autoimmune diseases.
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8.
  • Abelson, A. K., et al. (författare)
  • No evidence of association between genetic variants of the PDCD1 ligands and SLE
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Genes and Immunity. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1476-5470 .- 1466-4879. ; 8:1, s. 69-74
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PDCD1, an immunoreceptor involved in peripheral tolerance has previously been shown to be genetically associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). PDCD1 has two ligands whose genes are located in close proximity on chromosome 9p24. Our attention was drawn to these ligands after finding suggestive linkage to a marker (gata62f03, Z = 2.27) located close to their genes in a genome scan of Icelandic families multiplex for SLE. Here, we analyse Swedish trios (N = 149) for 23 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the genes of the PDCD1 ligands. Initially, indication of association to eight SNPs was observed, and these SNPs were therefore also analysed in Mexican trios (N = 90), as well as independent sets of patients and controls from Sweden (152 patients, 448 controls) and Argentina (288 patients, 288 controls). We do not find support for genetic association to SLE. This is the first genetic study of SLE and the PDCD1 ligands and the lack of association in several cohorts implies that these genes are not major risk factors for SLE.
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9.
  • Alper, CA, et al. (författare)
  • Immunoglobulin deficiencies and susceptibility to infection among homozygotes and heterozygotes for C2 deficiency
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Immunology. - : Springer. - 0271-9142. ; 23:4, s. 297-305
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • About 25% of C2-deficient homozygotes have increased susceptibility to severe bacterial infections. C2-deficient homozygotes had significantly lower serum levels of IgG2, IgG4, IgD, and Factor B, significantly higher levels of IgA and IgG3 and levels of IgG1 and IgM similar to controls. Type I ( 28 bp deletion in C2 exon 6 on the [HLA-B18, S042, DR2] haplotype or its fragments) and type II ( non-type I) C2-deficient patients with increased susceptibility to bacterial infection had significantly lower mean levels of IgG4 ( p < 0.04) and IgA ( p < 0.01) than those without infections ( who had a higher than normal mean IgA level) but similar mean levels of other immunoglobulins and Factor B. Of 13 C2-deficient homozygotes with infections, 85% had IgG4 deficiency, compared with 64% of 25 without infections. IgD deficiency was equally extraordinarily common among infection-prone (50%) and noninfection-prone (70%) homozygous type I C2-deficient patients. IgD deficiency was also common (35%) among 31 type I C2-deficient heterozygotes ( with normal or type II haplotypes), but was not found in 5 type II C2-deficient heterozygotes or 1 homozygote. Thus, C2 deficiency itself is associated with many abnormalities in serum immunoglobulin levels, some of which, such as in IgG4 and IgA, may contribute to increased susceptibility to infection. In contrast, IgD deficiency appears not to contribute to increased infections and appears to be a dominant trait determined by a gene or genes on the extended major histocompatibility complex (MHC) haplotype [HLA-B18, S042, DR2] ( but probably not on type II C2-deficient haplotypes) similar to those previously identified on [HLA-B8, SC01, DR3] and [HLA-B18, F1C30, DR3].
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10.
  • Bengtsson, Anders A., et al. (författare)
  • Metabolic Profiling of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Comparison with Primary Sjögren’s Syndrome and Systemic Sclerosis
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: PLOS ONE. - : Public Library of Science (PLoS). - 1932-6203. ; 11:7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease which can affect most organ systems including skin, joints and the kidney. Clinically, SLE is a heterogeneous disease and shares features of several other rheumatic diseases, in particular primary Sjögrens syndrome (pSS) and systemic sclerosis (SSc), why it is difficult to diag- nose The pathogenesis of SLE is not completely understood, partly due to the heterogeneity of the disease. This study demonstrates that metabolomics can be used as a tool for improved diagnosis of SLE compared to other similar autoimmune diseases. We observed differences in metabolic profiles with a classification specificity above 67% in the comparison of SLE with pSS, SSc and a matched group of healthy individuals. Selected metabolites were also significantly different between studied diseases. Biochemical pathway analysis was conducted to gain understanding of underlying pathways involved in the SLE pathogenesis. We found an increased oxidative activity in SLE, supported by increased xanthine oxidase activity and an increased turnover in the urea cycle. The most discriminatory metabolite observed was tryptophan, with decreased levels in SLE patients compared to control groups. Changes of tryptophan levels were related to changes in the activity of the aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) and/or to activation of the kynurenine pathway. 
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