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1.
  • Jakobsson, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • Visual cues of oviposition sites and spectral sensitivity of Cydia strobilella L.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of Insect Physiology. - : Elsevier. - 0022-1910. ; 101, s. 161-168
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We investigated whether the spruce seed moth (Cydia strobilella L., Tortricidae: Grapholitini), an important pest in seed orchards of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.), can make use of the spectral properties of its host when searching for flowers to oviposit on. Spectral measurements showed that the flowers, and the cones they develop into, differ from a background of P. abies needles by a higher reflectance of long wavelengths. These differences increase as the flowers develop into mature cones. Electroretinograms (ERGs) in combination with spectral adaptation suggest that C. strobilella has at least three spectral types of photoreceptor; an abundant green-sensitive receptor with maximal sensitivity at wavelength λmax = 526 nm, a blue-sensitive receptor with λmax = 436 nm, and an ultraviolet-sensitive receptor with λmax = 352 nm. Based on our spectral measurements and the receptor properties inferred from the ERGs, we calculated that open flowers, which are suitable oviposition sites, provide detectable achromatic, but almost no chromatic contrasts to the background of needles. In field trials using traps of different spectral properties with or without a female sex pheromone lure, only pheromone-baited traps caught moths. Catches in baited traps were not correlated with the visual contrast of the traps against the background. Thus, visual contrast is probably not the primary cue for finding open host flowers, but it could potentially complement olfaction as a secondary cue, since traps with certain spectral properties caught significantly more moths than others.
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2.
  • Saxena, Richa, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association analysis identifies loci for type 2 diabetes and triglyceride levels
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Science. - : American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). - 1095-9203. ; 316:5829, s. 1331-1336
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • New strategies for prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D) require improved insight into disease etiology. We analyzed 386,731 common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 1464 patients with T2D and 1467 matched controls, each characterized for measures of glucose metabolism, lipids, obesity, and blood pressure. With collaborators (FUSION and WTCCC/UKT2D), we identified and confirmed three loci associated with T2D - in a noncoding region near CDKN2A and CDKN2B, in an intron of IGF2BP2, and an intron of CDKAL1 - and replicated associations near HHEX and in SLC30A8 found by a recent whole-genome association study. We identified and confirmed association of a SNP in an intron of glucokinase regulatory protein (GCKR) with serum triglycerides. The discovery of associated variants in unsuspected genes and outside coding regions illustrates the ability of genome-wide association studies to provide potentially important clues to the pathogenesis of common diseases.
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3.
  • Svensson, Akiko Kishi, et al. (författare)
  • Incident diabetes mellitus may explain the association between sleep duration and incident coronary heart disease
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Diabetologia. - : Springer. - 0012-186X. ; 61:2, s. 331-341
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims/hypothesis: Sleep duration is a risk factor for incident diabetes mellitus and CHD. The primary aim of the present study was to investigate, in sex-specific analyses, the role of incident diabetes as the possible biological mechanism for the reported association between short/long sleep duration and incident CHD. Considering that diabetes is a major risk factor for CHD, we hypothesised that any association with sleep duration would not hold for cases of incident CHD occurring before incident diabetes (‘non-diabetes CHD’) but would hold true for cases of incident CHD following incident diabetes (‘diabetes-CHD’). Methods: A total of 6966 men and 9378 women aged 45–73 years from the Malmö Diet Cancer Study, a population-based, prospective cohort, who had answered questions on habitual sleep duration and did not have a history of prevalent diabetes or CHD were included in the analyses. Incident cases of diabetes and CHD were identified using national registers. Sex-specific Cox proportional hazards regression models were stratified by BMI and adjusted for known covariates of diabetes and CHD. Results: Mean follow-up times for incident diabetes (n = 1137/1016 [men/women]), incident CHD (n = 1170/578), non-diabetes CHD (n = 1016/501) and diabetes-CHD (n = 154/77) were 14.2–15.2 years for men, and 15.8–16.5 years for women. In men, short sleep duration (< 6 h) was associated with incident diabetes (HR 1.35, 95% CI 1.01, 1.80), CHD (HR 1.41, 95% CI 1.06, 1.89) and diabetes-CHD (HR 2.34, 95% CI 1.20, 4.55). Short sleep duration was not associated with incident non-diabetes CHD (HR 1.35, 95% CI 0.98, 1.87). Long sleep duration (≥ 9 h) was associated with incident diabetes (HR 1.37, 95% CI 1.03, 1.83), CHD (HR 1.33, 95% CI 1.01, 1.75) and diabetes-CHD (HR 2.10, 95% CI 1.11, 4.00). Long sleep duration was not associated with incident non-diabetes CHD (HR 1.33, 95% CI 0.98, 1.80). In women, short sleep duration was associated with incident diabetes (HR 1.53, 95% CI 1.16, 2.01), CHD (HR 1.46, 95% CI 1.03, 2.07) and diabetes-CHD (HR 2.88, 95% CI 1.37, 6.08). Short sleep duration was not associated with incident non-diabetes CHD (HR 1.29, 95% CI 0.86, 1.93). Conclusions/interpretation: The associations between sleep duration and incident CHD directly reflect the associations between sleep duration and incident diabetes. Incident diabetes may thus be the explanatory mechanism for the association between short and long sleep duration and incident CHD.
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4.
  • Svensson, Glenn, et al. (författare)
  • Assessment of genetic and pheromonal diversity of the Cydia strobilella species complex (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Systematic Entomology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1365-3113. ; 38:2, s. 305-315
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Combining pheromone trapping and genetic analyses can be useful whentrying to resolve complexes of closely related insect taxa that are difficult to distinguishbased on morphological characters. Nearctic and Palearctic populations of the spruceseed moth, Cydia strobilella L., have been considered taxonomically synonymoussince 1983, but more recent work revealing distinct sex pheromones for Canadianand Swedish moths suggest that populations in the two regions belong to differentspecies. In order to test this hypothesis, we performed field trapping using differentpheromone lures at ten sites in North America, Europe and Asia, and reconstructedphylogenetic relationships among trapped moths using mitochondrial (cytochromeoxidase subunit I ) and nuclear (elongation factor 1 alpha) DNA sequence data.Trapping data and tree topologies for both genes revealed distinct pherotypes in NorthAmerica and Eurasia. A genetically distinct population from China was investigatedfurther with respect to its sex pheromone. Electrophysiological data indicated thatChinese females produce a deviant ratio of the sex pheromone components (dienicacetates) compared to Swedish females. However, trapping experiments in both areasrevealed a similar broad response profile in males to a wide range of acetate ratios,and these populations should be considered taxonomically synonymous. A previoussuggestion of an agonistic effect on the attraction of C. strobilella males in Swedenwhen adding the corresponding alcohols to the binary acetate blend was also testedin Sweden as well as in China, with no observed effect on attraction of males. In conclusion, our study demonstrates the great potential of using pheromone trappingas a tool for identification and delimitation of taxa within cryptic species complexes.Based on our data, Nearctic and Palearctic populations of C. strobilella should beconsidered different species, and C. youngana Kearfott stat. rev. is resurrected hereas valid name for North American populations, which was the case before the revisionin 1983.
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5.
  • Svensson, Glenn P., et al. (författare)
  • Challenges of pheromone-based mating disruption of Cydia strobilella and Dioryctria abietella in spruce seed orchards
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of Pest Science. - : Springer. - 1612-4758. ; 91, s. 639-650
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Seed orchards function as the primary source of high-quality seeds for reforestation in many European countries, but their seed yields can be severely reduced due to seed- and cone-feeding insects. We evaluated various parameters of pheromone-based mating disruption for control of the moths Cydia strobilella and Dioryctria abietella, which are major pests in European Picea abies seed orchards. We applied different types of pheromone dispensers (rubber septa or wax droplets) at different densities and heights, and with different amounts of active components, covering whole orchards or part of an orchard. The efficacy of the treatment was evaluated by analysing male captures in pheromone-baited assessment traps, and presence of larvae in cones. A dramatic decrease (94–100%) in capture of males in traps occurred in all pheromone-treated plots compared to control plots for both moth species. In contrast, a subsequent reduction in larval numbers in cones was only achieved when wax droplets were used as the dispensing formulation at high density and at the highest pheromone dose tested, and only in half of the trials for each pest species. Electrophysiological recordings using antennae of male C. strobilella indicated elevated pheromone concentrations in a treated plot versus a control plot. Our results show that mating disruption has potential to reduce cone damage in spruce seed orchards caused by C. strobilella and D. abietella, but optimisation of the technique is required to achieve consistent and efficient population suppression of these pests.
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6.
  • Svensson, Thomas, et al. (författare)
  • Association of Sleep Duration with All- And Major-Cause Mortality among Adults in Japan, China, Singapore, and Korea
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: JAMA Network Open. - : American Medical Association. - 2574-3805. ; 4:9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Importance: The association between long sleep duration and mortality appears stronger in East Asian populations than in North American or European populations. Objectives: To assess the sex-specific association between sleep duration and all-cause and major-cause mortality in a pooled longitudinal cohort and to stratify the association by age and body mass index. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study of individual-level data from 9 cohorts in the Asia Cohort Consortium was performed from January 1, 1984, to December 31, 2002. The final population included participants from Japan, China, Singapore, and Korea. Mean (SD) follow-up time was 14.0 (5.0) years for men and 13.4 (5.3) years for women. Data analysis was performed from August 1, 2018, to May 31, 2021. Exposures: Self-reported sleep duration, with 7 hours as the reference category. Main Outcomes and Measures: Mortality, including deaths from all causes, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and other causes. Sex-specific hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression with shared frailty models adjusted for age and the key self-reported covariates of marital status, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity, history of diabetes and hypertension, and menopausal status (for women). Results: For 322721 participants (mean [SD] age, 54.5 [9.2] years; 178542 [55.3%] female), 19419 deaths occurred among men (mean [SD] age of men, 53.6 [9.0] years) and 13768 deaths among women (mean [SD] age of women, 55.3 [9.2] years). A sleep duration of 7 hours was the nadir for associations with all-cause, cardiovascular disease, and other-cause mortality in both men and women, whereas 8 hours was the mode sleep duration among men and the second most common sleep duration among women. The association between sleep duration and all-cause mortality was J-shaped for both men and women. The greatest association for all-cause mortality was with sleep durations of 10 hours or longer for both men (hazard ratio [HR], 1.34; 95% CI, 1.26-1.44) and women (HR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.36-1.61). Sex was a significant modifier of the association between sleep duration and mortality from cardiovascular disease (χ25= 13.47, P =.02), cancer (χ25= 16.04, P =.007), and other causes (χ25= 12.79, P =.03). Age was a significant modifier of the associations among men only (all-cause mortality: χ25= 41.49, P <.001; cancer: χ25= 27.94, P <.001; other-cause mortality: χ25= 24.51, P <.001). Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this cohort study suggest that sleep duration is a behavioral risk factor for mortality in both men and women. Age was a modifier of the association between sleep duration in men but not in women. Sleep duration recommendations in these populations may need to be considered in the context of sex and age.
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7.
  • Svensson, Thomas, et al. (författare)
  • Plasma concentration of Caspase-8 is associated with short sleep duration and the risk of incident diabetes mellitus
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. - : Oxford University Press. - 1945-7197. ; 103:4, s. 1592-1600
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context: The biological mechanism for the association between sleep duration and incident diabetes mellitus (DM) is unclear. Sleep duration and Caspase-8, a marker of apoptotic activity, have both been implicated in beta cell function.Objective: To investigate the associations between sleep duration and plasma Caspase-8, and incident DM, respectively.Design: Prospective cohort study.Setting: The Malmö Diet and Cancer (MDC) Study is a population-based, prospective study run in the city of Malmö, Sweden.Participants: 4023 individuals from the MDC Study aged 45-68 years at baseline without a history of prevalent DM, and with information on habitual sleep duration.Main outcomes: Incident DM.Results: Mean follow-up time was 17.8 years. Sleep duration was the only behavioural variable significantly associated with plasma Caspase-8. Plasma Caspase-8 was significantly associated with incident DM per standard deviation of its transformed continuous form (hazard ratio [HR]= 1.24, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.13-1.36), and when dichotomized into high (quartile 4) (HR=1.44, 95%CI: 1.19-1.74) compared to low (quartiles 1-3) concentrations. Caspase-8 interacted with sleep duration; compared to 7-8 hours of sleep and low plasma Caspase-8, individuals with high plasma Caspase-8 and sleep duration <6 hours (HR=3.54, 95%CI: 2.12-5.90), 6-7 hours (HR=1.81, 95%CI: 1.24-2.65), and 8-9 hours (HR=1.54, 95%CI: 1.09-2.18) were at significantly increased risks of incident DM.Conclusions: Sleep duration is associated with plasma Caspase-8. Caspase-8 independently predicts DM years before disease onset and modifies the effect of sleep duration on incident DM. Future studies should investigate if change of sleep duration modifies plasma concentrations of Caspase-8.
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8.
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9.
  • Wang, Hong-Lei, et al. (författare)
  • Sex pheromone of the cloaked pug moth, Eupithecia abietaria (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), a pest of spruce cones
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of Applied Entomology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0931-2048. ; 139:5, s. 352-360
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The sex pheromone of the cloaked pug moth, Eupithecia abietaria Götze, an important cone-feeding pest in spruce seed orchards in Europe, was investigated. Chemical and electrophysiological analyses of pheromone gland extracts of female moths and analogous analyses of synthetic hydrocarbons and epoxides of chain length C19 and C21 revealed (3Z,6Z,9Z)-3,6,9-nonadecatriene (3Z,6Z,9Z-19:H) and 3Z,6Z-cis-9,10-epoxynonadecadiene (3Z,6Z-cis-9,10-epoxy-19:H) as candidate pheromone components, which were found in a gland extract in a ratio of 95 : 5. In field trapping experiments, conspecific males were only attracted to a combination of 3Z,6Z,9Z-19:H and the (9S,10R)-enantiomer of 3Z,6Z-cis-9,10-epoxy-19:H. The (9R,10S)-enantiomer was not attractive, which is in agreement with studies on other Eupithecia species, for which males have only been attracted by the (9S,10R)-enantiomer of epoxides. Subsequent experiments showed that E. abietaria males were attracted to a wide range of ratios of the two active compounds and that trap catches increased with increasing dose of the binary blend. A two-component bait containing 300 μg 3Z,6Z,9Z-19:H and 33 μg of the (9S,10R)-enantiomer of 3Z,6Z-cis-9,10-epoxy-19:H was efficient for monitoring E. abietaria in spruce seed orchards in southern Sweden, where this species has probably been overlooked as an important pest in the past. With sex pheromones recently identified for two other moths that are major pests on spruce cones, the spruce seed moth, Cydia strobilella L., and the spruce coneworm, Dioryctria abietella Denis & Schiffermüller, pheromone-based monitoring can now be achieved for the whole guild of cone-feeding moths in European spruce seed orchards.
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10.
  • Aasmundtveit, K.E., et al. (författare)
  • Structural ordering in phenyl-substituted polythiophenes
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Macromolecules. - 0024-9297 .- 1520-5835. ; 33:15, s. 5481-5489
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Various substituted poly(phenylthiophene)s have been studied by X-ray diffraction. They are semicrystalline, with very different degrees of crystallinity. Those with para-substituted phenyl groups have a low degree of crystallinity, whereas those with ortho-substituted phenyl groups are more crystalline. The most crystalline materials in this study have two equally long substituents on the phenyl ring, one at the ortho position and the other at the ortho or meta position on the opposite side of the phenyl ring. Poly(3-(2,5-dioctylphenyl)thiophene) (PDOPT) was most thoroughly studied, and a structural model is proposed. The structure of PDOPT is quite different from previously studied substituted polythiophenes in that the octyl side chains are directed normal to the thiophene planes. In this way, the conjugated polymer chains are kept separated from each other. Solution-cast and spin-cast PDOPT films are anisotropic, with the octyl side chains oriented normal to the film surface in both cases. This is contrary to the situation for poly(3-alkylthiophene)s, where solution-cast and spin-cast films orient in different ways.
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