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Sökning: WFRF:(Sweeney C)

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  • Klionsky, Daniel J., et al. (författare)
  • Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Autophagy. - : Landes Bioscience. - 1554-8635 .- 1554-8627. ; 8:4, s. 445-544
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process vs. those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process); thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from stimuli that result in increased autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.
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  • Sweeney, M. D., et al. (författare)
  • Vascular dysfunction-The disregarded partner of Alzheimer's disease
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Alzheimers & Dementia. - 1552-5260. ; 15:1, s. 158-167
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Increasing evidence recognizes Alzheimer's disease (AD) as a multifactorial and heterogeneous disease with multiple contributors to its pathophysiology, including vascular dysfunction. The recently updated AD Research Framework put forth by the National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer's Association describes a biomarker-based pathologic definition of AD focused on amyloid, tau, and neuronal injury. In response to this article, here we first discussed evidence that vascular dysfunction is an important early event in AD pathophysiology. Next, we examined various imaging sequences that could be easily implemented to evaluate different types of vascular dysfunction associated with, and/or contributing to, AD pathophysiology, including changes in blood-brain barrier integrity and cerebral blood flow. Vascular imaging biomarkers of small vessel disease of the brain, which is responsible for >50% of dementia worldwide, including AD, are already established, well characterized, and easy to recognize. We suggest that these vascular biomarkers should be incorporated into the AD Research Framework to gain a better understanding of AD pathophysiology and aid in treatment efforts. (C) 2018 the Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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7.
  • Bakker, D. C. E., et al. (författare)
  • An update to the surface ocean CO2 atlas (SOCAT version 2)
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Earth System Science Data. - 1866-3508. ; 6:1, s. 69-90
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT), an activity of the international marine carbon research community, provides access to synthesis and gridded fCO2 (fugacity of carbon dioxide) products for the surface oceans. Version 2 of SOCAT is an update of the previous release (version 1) with more data (increased from 6.3 million to 10.1 million surface water fCO 2 values) and extended data coverage (from 1968-2007 to 1968-2011). The quality control criteria, while identical in both versions, have been applied more strictly in version 2 than in version 1. The SOCAT website (http://www.socat.info/) has links to quality control comments, metadata, individual data set files, and synthesis and gridded data products. Interactive online tools allow visitors to explore the richness of the data. Applications of SOCAT include process studies, quantification of the ocean carbon sink and its spatial, seasonal, year-to-year and longerterm variation, as well as initialisation or validation of ocean carbon models and coupled climate-carbon models. © Author(s) 2014. CC Attribution 3.0 License.
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8.
  • Botticella, M. T., et al. (författare)
  • Supernova 2009kf : An Ultraviolet Bright Type IIP Supernova Discovered with Pan-STARRS 1 and GALEX
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 0004-637X .- 1538-4357. ; 717, s. L52-L56
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present photometric and spectroscopic observations of a luminous Type IIP Supernova (SN) 2009kf discovered by the Pan-STARRS 1 (PS1) survey and also detected by the Galaxy Evolution Explorer. The SN shows a plateau in its optical and bolometric light curves, lasting approximately 70 days in the rest frame, with an absolute magnitude of M V = -18.4 mag. The P-Cygni profiles of hydrogen indicate expansion velocities of 9000 km s-1 at 61 days after discovery which is extremely high for a Type IIP SN. SN 2009kf is also remarkably bright in the near-ultraviolet (NUV) and shows a slow evolution 10-20 days after optical discovery. The NUV and optical luminosity at these epochs can be modeled with a blackbody with a hot effective temperature (T ~ 16,000 K) and a large radius (R ~ 1 × 1015 cm). The bright bolometric and NUV luminosity, the light curve peak and plateau duration, the high velocities, and temperatures suggest that 2009kf is a Type IIP SN powered by a larger than normal explosion energy. Recently discovered high-z SNe (0.7 < z < 2.3) have been assumed to be IIn SNe, with the bright UV luminosities due to the interaction of SN ejecta with a dense circumstellar medium. UV-bright SNe similar to SN 2009kf could also account for these high-z events, and its absolute magnitude M NUV = -21.5 ± 0.5 mag suggests such SNe could be discovered out to z ~ 2.5 in the PS1 survey.
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9.
  • Creely, A. J., et al. (författare)
  • Overview of the SPARC tokamak
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Plasma Physics. - 0022-3778 .- 1469-7807. ; 86:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The SPARC tokamak is a critical next step towards commercial fusion energy. SPARC is designed as a high-field (B-0 = 12.2 T), compact (R-0 = 1.85 m, a = 0.57 m), superconducting, D-T tokamak with the goal of producing fusion gain Q > 2 from a magnetically confined fusion plasma for the first time. Currently under design, SPARC will continue the high-field path of the Alcator series of tokamaks, utilizing new magnets based on rare earth barium copper oxide high-temperature superconductors to achieve high performance in a compact device. The goal of Q > 2 is achievable with conservative physics assumptions (H-98,H- y2 = 0.7) and, with the nominal assumption of H-98,H- y2 = 1, SPARC is projected to attain Q approximate to 11 and P-fusion approximate to 140 MW. SPARC will therefore constitute a unique platform for burning plasma physics research with high density ( approximate to 3 x 10(20) m(-3)), high temperature ( approximate to 7 keV) and high power density (P-fusion/V-plasma approximate to 7 MWm(-3)) relevant to fusion power plants. SPARC's place in the path to commercial fusion energy, its parameters and the current status of SPARC design work are presented. This work also describes the basis for global performance projections and summarizes some of the physics analysis that is presented in greater detail in the companion articles of this collection.
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10.
  • Hachinski, Vladimir, et al. (författare)
  • Preventing dementia by preventing stroke : The Berlin Manifesto
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Alzheimer's and Dementia. - : Wiley. - 1552-5260. ; 15:7, s. 961-984
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The incidence of stroke and dementia are diverging across the world, rising for those in low- and middle-income countries and falling in those in high-income countries. This suggests that whatever factors cause these trends are potentially modifiable. At the population level, neurological disorders as a group account for the largest proportion of disability-adjusted life years globally (10%). Among neurological disorders, stroke (42%) and dementia (10%) dominate. Stroke and dementia confer risks for each other and share some of the same, largely modifiable, risk and protective factors. In principle, 90% of strokes and 35% of dementias have been estimated to be preventable. Because a stroke doubles the chance of developing dementia and stroke is more common than dementia, more than a third of dementias could be prevented by preventing stroke. Developments at the pathological, pathophysiological, and clinical level also point to new directions. Growing understanding of brain pathophysiology has unveiled the reciprocal interaction of cerebrovascular disease and neurodegeneration identifying new therapeutic targets to include protection of the endothelium, the blood-brain barrier, and other components of the neurovascular unit. In addition, targeting amyloid angiopathy aspects of inflammation and genetic manipulation hold new testable promise. In the meantime, accumulating evidence suggests that whole populations experiencing improved education, and lower vascular risk factor profiles (e.g., reduced prevalence of smoking) and vascular disease, including stroke, have better cognitive function and lower dementia rates. At the individual levels, trials have demonstrated that anticoagulation of atrial fibrillation can reduce the risk of dementia by 48% and that systolic blood pressure lower than 140 mmHg may be better for the brain. Based on these considerations, the World Stroke Organization has issued a proclamation, endorsed by all the major international organizations focused on global brain and cardiovascular health, calling for the joint prevention of stroke and dementia. This article summarizes the evidence for translation into action.
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