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1.
  • Abadie, J., et al. (författare)
  • Implementation and testing of the first prompt search for gravitational wave transients with electromagnetic counterparts
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Astronomy & Astrophysics. - : EDP Sciences. - 0004-6361. ; 539
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims. A transient astrophysical event observed in both gravitational wave (GW) and electromagnetic (EM) channels would yield rich scientific rewards. A first program initiating EM follow-ups to possible transient GW events has been developed and exercised by the LIGO and Virgo community in association with several partners. In this paper, we describe and evaluate the methods used to promptly identify and localize GW event candidates and to request images of targeted sky locations. Methods. During two observing periods (Dec. 17, 2009 to Jan. 8, 2010 and Sep. 2 to Oct. 20, 2010), a low-latency analysis pipeline was used to identify GW event candidates and to reconstruct maps of possible sky locations. A catalog of nearby galaxies and Milky Way globular clusters was used to select the most promising sky positions to be imaged, and this directional information was delivered to EM observatories with time lags of about thirty minutes. A Monte Carlo simulation has been used to evaluate the low-latency GW pipeline's ability to reconstruct source positions correctly. Results. For signals near the detection threshold, our low-latency algorithms often localized simulated GW burst signals to tens of square degrees, while neutron star/neutron star inspirals and neutron star/black hole inspirals were localized to a few hundred square degrees. Localization precision improves for moderately stronger signals. The correct sky location of signals well above threshold and originating from nearby galaxies may be observed with similar to 50% or better probability with a few pointings of wide-field telescopes.
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2.
  • Buitink, S., et al. (författare)
  • A large light-mass component of cosmic rays at 1017–1017.5 electronvolts from radio observations
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 531:7592, s. 70-73
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cosmic rays are the highest-energy particles found in nature. Measurements of the mass composition of cosmic rays with energies of 1017–1018 electronvolts are essential to understanding whether they have galactic or extragalactic sources. It has also been proposed that the astrophysical neutrino signal1 comes from accelerators capable of producing cosmic rays of these energies2. Cosmic rays initiate air showers—cascades of secondary particles in the atmosphere—and their masses can be inferred from measurements of the atmospheric depth of the shower maximum3 (Xmax; the depth of the air shower when it contains the most particles) or of the composition of shower particles reaching the ground4. Current measurements5 have either high uncertainty, or a low duty cycle and a high energy threshold. Radio detection of cosmic rays6, 7, 8 is a rapidly developing technique9 for determining Xmax (refs 10, 11) with a duty cycle of, in principle, nearly 100 per cent. The radiation is generated by the separation of relativistic electrons and positrons in the geomagnetic field and a negative charge excess in the shower front6, 12. Here we report radio measurements of Xmax with a mean uncertainty of 16 grams per square centimetre for air showers initiated by cosmic rays with energies of 1017–1017.5 electronvolts. This high resolution in Xmax enables us to determine the mass spectrum of the cosmic rays: we find a mixed composition, with a light-mass fraction (protons and helium nuclei) of about 80 per cent. Unless, contrary to current expectations, the extragalactic component of cosmic rays contributes substantially to the total flux below 1017.5 electronvolts, our measurements indicate the existence of an additional galactic component, to account for the light composition that we measured in the 1017–1017.5 electronvolt range.
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3.
  • Heald, G. H., et al. (författare)
  • The LOFAR Multifrequency Snapshot Sky Survey (MSSS) : I. Survey description and first results
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 582, s. 1-22
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present the Multifrequency Snapshot Sky Survey (MSSS), the first northern-sky Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) imaging survey. In this introductory paper, we first describe in detail the motivation and design of the survey. Compared to previous radio surveys, MSSS is exceptional due to its intrinsic multifrequency nature providing information about the spectral properties of the detected sources over more than two octaves (from 30 to 160 MHz). The broadband frequency coverage, together with the fast survey speed generated by LOFAR’s multibeaming capabilities, make MSSS the first survey of the sort anticipated to be carried out with the forthcoming Square Kilometre Array (SKA). Two of the sixteen frequency bands included in the survey were chosen to exactly overlap the frequency coverage of large-area Very Large Array (VLA) and Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) surveys at 74 MHz and 151 MHz respectively. The survey performance is illustrated within the MSSS Verification Field (MVF), a region of 100 square degrees centered at (α,δ)J2000 = (15h,69°). The MSSS results from the MVF are compared with previous radio survey catalogs. We assess the flux and astrometric uncertainties in the catalog, as well as the completeness and reliability considering our source finding strategy. We determine the 90% completeness levels within the MVF to be 100 mJy at 135 MHz with 108″ resolution, and 550 mJy at 50 MHz with 166″ resolution. Images and catalogs for the full survey, expected to contain 150 000–200 000 sources, will be released to a public web server. We outline the plans for the ongoing production of the final survey products, and the ultimate public release of images and source catalogs.
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4.
  • Muxlow, T. W. B., et al. (författare)
  • The e-MERGE Survey (e-MERLIN Galaxy Evolution Survey): overview and survey description
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. - 0035-8711 .- 1365-2966. ; 495:1, s. 1188-1208
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present an overview and description of the e-MERGE Survey (e-MERLIN Galaxy Evolution Survey) Data Release 1 (DR1), a large program of high-resolution 1.5-GHz radio observations of the GOODS-N field comprising similar to 140 h of observations with enhanced-Multi-Element Remotely Linked Interferometer Network (e-MERLIN) and similar to 40 h with the Very Large Array (VLA). We combine the long baselines of e-MERLIN (providing high angular resolution) with the relatively closely packed antennas of the VLA (providing excellent surface brightness sensitivity) to produce a deep 1.5-GHz radio survey with the sensitivity (similar to 1.5 mu Jy beam(-1)), angular resolution (0.2-0.7 arcsec) and field-of-view (similar to 15x15 arcmin(2)) to detect and spatially resolve star-forming galaxies and active galactic nucleus (AGN) at z greater than or similar to 1. The goal of e-MERGE is to provide new constraints on the deep, sub-arcsecond radio sky which will be surveyed by SKA1-mid. In this initial publication, we discuss our data analysis techniques, including steps taken to model in-beam source variability over an similar to 20-yr baseline and the development of newpoint spread function/primary beam models to seamlessly merge e-MERLIN and VLA data in the uv plane. We present early science results, including measurements of the luminosities and/or linear sizes of similar to 500 galaxies selected at 1.5 GHz. In combination with deep Hubble Space Telescope observations, we measure a mean radio-to-optical size ratio of r(e-MERGE)/r(HST) similar to 1.02 +/- 0.03, suggesting that in most high-redshift galaxies, the similar to GHz continuum emission traces the stellar light seen in optical imaging. This is the first in a series of papers that will explore the similar to kpc-scale radio properties of star-forming galaxies and AGN in the GOODS-N field observed by e-MERGE DR1.
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5.
  • Shulevski, A., et al. (författare)
  • The peculiar radio galaxy 4C 35.06 : a case for recurrent AGN activity?
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 579, s. 1-10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Using observations obtained with the LOw Fequency ARray (LOFAR), the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT) and archival Very Large Array (VLA) data, we have traced the radio emission to large scales in the complex source 4C 35.06 located in the core of the galaxy cluster Abell 407. At higher spatial resolution (~ 4″), the source was known to have two inner radio lobes spanning 31 kpc and a diffuse, low-brightness extension running parallel to them, offset by about 11 kpc (in projection). At 62 MHz, we detect the radio emission of this structure extending out to 210 kpc. At 1.4 GHz and intermediate spatial resolution (~ 30″), the structure appears to have a helical morphology. We have derived the characteristics of the radio spectral index across the source. We show that the source morphology is most likely the result of at least two episodes of AGN activity separated by a dormant period of around 35 Myr. The outermost regions of radio emission have a steep spectral index (α< − 1), indicative of old plasma. We connect the spectral index properties of the resolved source structure with the integrated fluxdensity spectral index of 4C 35.06 and suggest an explanation for its unusual integrated flux density spectral shape (a moderately steep power law with no discernible spectral break), possibly providing a proxy for future studies of more distant radio sources through inferring their detailed spectral index properties and activity history from their integrated spectral indices. The AGN is hosted by one of the galaxies located in the cluster core of Abell 407. We propose that it is intermittently active as it moves in the dense environment in the cluster core. In this scenario, the AGN turned on sometime in the past, and has produced the helical pattern of emission, possibly a sign of jet precession/merger during that episode of activity. Using LOFAR, we can trace the relic plasma from that episode of activity out to greater distances from the core than ever before. Using the the WSRT, we detect H I in absorption against the center of the radio source. The absorption profile is relatively broad (FWHM of 288 kms-1), similar to what is found in other clusters. The derived column density is NHI ~ 4 × 1020 cm-2 for a Tspin = 100 K. This detection supports the connection – already suggested for other restarted radio sources – between the presence of cold gas and restarting activity. The cold gas appears to be dominated by a blue-shifted component although the broad H I profile could also include gas with different kinematics. Understanding the duty cycle of the radio emission as well as the triggering mechanism for starting (or restarting) the radio-loud activity can provide important constraints to quantify the impact of AGN feedback on galaxy evolution. The study of these mechanisms at low frequencies using morphological and spectral information promises to bring new important insights in this field.
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6.
  • Sobey, C., et al. (författare)
  • LOFAR discovery of a quiet emission mode in PSR B0823+26
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. - 0035-8711 .- 1365-2966. ; 451, s. 2493-2506
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PSR B0823+26, a 0.53-s radio pulsar, displays a host of emission phenomena over time-scales of seconds to (at least) hours, including nulling, subpulse drifting, and mode-changing. Studying pulsars like PSR B0823+26 provides further insight into the relationship between these various emission phenomena and what they might teach us about pulsar magnetospheres. Here we report on the LOFAR (Low-Frequency Array) discovery that PSR B0823+26 has a weak and sporadically emitting ‘quiet’ (Q) emission mode that is over 100 times weaker (on average) and has a nulling fraction forty-times greater than that of the more regularly-emitting ‘bright’ (B) mode. Previously, the pulsar has been undetected in the Q mode, and was assumed to be nulling continuously. PSR B0823+26 shows a further decrease in average flux just before the transition into the B mode, and perhaps truly turns off completely at these times. Furthermore, simultaneous observations taken with the LOFAR, Westerbork, Lovell, and Effelsberg telescopes between 110 MHz and 2.7 GHz demonstrate that the transition between the Q mode and B mode occurs within one single rotation of the neutron star, and that it is concurrent across the range of frequencies observed.
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7.
  • Stewart, A. J., et al. (författare)
  • LOFAR MSSS : detection of a low-frequency radio transient in 400 h of monitoring of the North Celestial Pole
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. - 0035-8711 .- 1365-2966. ; 456:3, s. 2321-2342
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present the results of a four-month campaign searching for low-frequency radio transients near the North Celestial Pole with the Low-Frequency Array (LOFAR), as part of the Multifrequency Snapshot Sky Survey (MSSS). The data were recorded between 2011 December and 2012 April and comprised 2149 11-min snapshots, each covering 175 deg2. We have found one convincing candidate astrophysical transient, with a duration of a few minutes and a flux density at 60 MHz of 15–25 Jy. The transient does not repeat and has no obvious optical or high-energy counterpart, as a result of which its nature is unclear. The detection of this event implies a transient rate at 60 MHz of 3.9−3.7+14.7×10−4" style="position: relative;" tabindex="0" id="MathJax-Element-1-Frame" class="MathJax">3.9+14.7−3.7×10−4 d−1 deg−2, and a transient surface density of 1.5 × 10−5 deg−2, at a 7.9-Jy limiting flux density and ∼10-min time-scale. The campaign data were also searched for transients at a range of other time-scales, from 0.5 to 297 min, which allowed us to place a range of limits on transient rates at 60 MHz as a function of observation duration.
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8.
  • Birkin, Jack E., et al. (författare)
  • An ALMA/NOEMA survey of the molecular gas properties of high-redshift star-forming galaxies
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. - 0035-8711 .- 1365-2966. ; 501:3, s. 3926-3950
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We have used ALMA and NOEMA to study the molecular gas reservoirs in 61 ALMA-identified submillimetre galaxies (SMGs) in the COSMOS, UDS, and ECDFS fields. We detect 12CO (Jup = 2-5) emission lines in 50 sources, and [C I](3P1 -3P0) emission in eight, at z = 1.2-4.8 and with a median redshift of 2.9±0.2. By supplementing our data with literature sources, we construct a statistical CO spectral line energy distribution and find that the 12CO line luminosities in SMGs peak at Jup ∼ 6, consistent with similar studies. We also test the correlations of the CO, [C I], and dust as tracers of the gas mass, finding the three to correlate well, although the CO and dust mass as estimated from the 3-mm continuum are preferable. We estimate that SMGs lie mostly on or just above the star-forming main sequence, with a median gas depletion timescale, tdep = Mgas/SFR, of 210±40 Myr for our sample. Additionally, tdep declines with redshift across z ∼ 1-5, while the molecular gas fraction, μgas = Mgas/M*, increases across the same redshift range. Finally, we demonstrate that the distribution of total baryonic mass and dynamical line width, Mbaryon-σ, for our SMGs is consistent with that followed by early-type galaxies in the Coma cluster, providing strong support to the suggestion that SMGs are progenitors of massive local spheroidal galaxies. On the basis of this, we suggest that the SMG populations above and below an 870-μm flux limit of S870 ∼ 5mJy may correspond to the division between slow and fast rotators seen in local early-type galaxies.
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9.
  • Boone, F., et al. (författare)
  • An extended Herschel drop-out source in the center of AS1063: A normal dusty galaxy at z = 6.1 or SZ substructures?
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 559, s. L1-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In the course of our 870 μm APEX/LABOCA follow-up of the Herschel Lensing Survey we have detected a source in AS1063 (RXC J2248.7-4431) that has no counterparts in any of the Herschel PACS/SPIRE bands, it is a Herschel "drop-out" with S870=S500 ≥ 0:5. The 870 μm emission is extended and centered on the brightest cluster galaxy, suggesting either a multiply imaged background source or substructure in the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich increment due to inhomogeneities in the hot cluster gas of this merging cluster. We discuss both interpretations with emphasis on the putative lensed source. Based on the observed properties and on our lens model we find that this source may be the first submillimeter galaxy (SMG) with a moderate far-infrared (FIR) luminosity (LFIR. © ESO 2013.
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10.
  • Chen, C. C., et al. (författare)
  • A Spatially Resolved Study of Cold Dust, Molecular Gas, H II Regions, and Stars in the z = 2.12 Submillimeter Galaxy ALESS67.1
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 1538-4357 .- 0004-637X. ; 846:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present detailed studies of a z = 2.12 submillimeter galaxy, ALESS67.1, using sub-arcsecond resolution ALMA, adaptive optics-aided VLT/SINFONI, and Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/CANDELS data to investigate the kinematics and spatial distributions of dust emission (870 ?m continuum), 12CO(J = 3-2), strong optical emission lines, and visible stars. Dynamical modeling of the optical emission lines suggests that ALESS67.1 is not a pure rotating disk but a merger, consistent with the apparent tidal features revealed in the HST imaging. Our sub-arcsecond resolution data set allows us to measure half-light radii for all the tracers, and we find a factor of 4-6 smaller sizes in dust continuum compared to all the other tracers, including 12CO; also, ultraviolet (UV) and H? emission are significantly offset from the dust continuum. The spatial mismatch between the UV continuum and the cold dust and gas reservoir supports the explanation that geometrical effects are responsible for the offset of the dusty galaxy on the IRX-? diagram. Using a dynamical method we derive an , consistent with other submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) that also have resolved CO and dust measurements. Assuming a single value we also derive resolved gas and star formation rate surface densities, and find that the core region of the galaxy ( kpc) follows the trend of mergers on the Schmidt-Kennicutt relationship, whereas the outskirts ( kpc) lie on the locus of normal star-forming galaxies, suggesting different star formation efficiencies within one galaxy. Our results caution against using single size or morphology for different tracers of the star formation activity and gas content of galaxies, and therefore argue the need to use spatially resolved, multi-wavelength observations to interpret the properties of SMGs, and perhaps even for galaxies in general.
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