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Sökning: WFRF:(Szajewska H.)

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1.
  • Zuberbier, T., et al. (författare)
  • Proposal of 0.5 mg of protein/100 g of processed food as threshold for voluntary declaration of food allergen traces in processed food-A first step in an initiative to better inform patients and avoid fatal allergic reactions: A GA(2)LEN position paper
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Allergy. - 0105-4538. ; 77:6, s. 1736-1750
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Food anaphylaxis is commonly elicited by unintentional ingestion of foods containing the allergen above the tolerance threshold level of the individual. While labeling the 14 main allergens used as ingredients in food products is mandatory in the EU, there is no legal definition of declaring potential contaminants. Precautionary allergen labeling such as "may contain traces of" is often used. However, this is unsatisfactory for consumers as they get no information if the contamination is below their personal threshold. In discussions with the food industry and technologists, it was suggested to use a voluntary declaration indicating that all declared contaminants are below a threshold of 0.5 mg protein per 100 g of food. This concentration is known to be below the threshold of most patients, and it can be technically guaranteed in most food production. However, it was also important to assess that in case of accidental ingestion of contaminants below this threshold by highly allergic patients, no fatal anaphylactic reaction could occur. Therefore, we performed a systematic review to assess whether a fatal reaction to 5mg of protein or less has been reported, assuming that a maximum portion size of 1kg of a processed food exceeds any meal and thus gives a sufficient safety margin. Methods MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched until 24 January 2021 for provocation studies and case reports in which one of the 14 major food allergens was reported to elicit fatal or life-threatening anaphylactic reactions and assessed if these occurred below the ingestion of 5mg of protein. A Delphi process was performed to obtain an expert consensus on the results. Results In the 210 studies included, in our search, no reports of fatal anaphylactic reactions reported below 5 mg protein ingested were identified. However, in provocation studies and case reports, severe reactions below 5 mg were reported for the following allergens: eggs, fish, lupin, milk, nuts, peanuts, soy, and sesame seeds. Conclusion Based on the literature studied for this review, it can be stated that cross-contamination of the 14 major food allergens below 0.5 mg/100 g is likely not to endanger most food allergic patients when a standard portion of food is consumed. We propose to use the statement "this product contains the named allergens in the list of ingredients, it may contain traces of other contaminations (to be named, e.g. nut) at concentrations less than 0.5 mg per 100 g of this product" for a voluntary declaration on processed food packages. This level of avoidance of cross-contaminations can be achieved technically for most processed foods, and the statement would be a clear and helpful message to the consumers. However, it is clearly acknowledged that a voluntary declaration is only a first step to a legally binding solution. For this, further research on threshold levels is encouraged.
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2.
  • Vriezinga, S. L., et al. (författare)
  • Randomized feeding intervention in infants at high risk for celiac disease
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: New England Journal of Medicine. - : Massachusetts Medical Society. - 0028-4793 .- 1533-4406. ; 371:14, s. 1304-1315
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND A window of opportunity has been suggested for reducing the risk of celiac disease by introducing gluten to infants at 4 to 6 months of age. METHODS We performed a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled dietary-intervention study involving 944 children who were positive for HLA-DQ2 or HLA-DQ8 and had at least one first-degree relative with celiac disease. From 16 to 24 weeks of age, 475 participants received 100 mg of immunologically active gluten daily, and 469 received placebo. Anti-transglutaminase type 2 and antigliadin antibodies were periodically measured. The primary outcome was the frequency of biopsy-confirmed celiac disease at 3 years of age. RESULTS Celiac disease was confirmed by means of biopsies in 77 children. To avoid underestimation of the frequency of celiac disease, 3 additional children who received a diagnosis of celiac disease according to the 2012 European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition diagnostic criteria (without having undergone biopsies) were included in the analyses (80 children; median age, 2.8 years; 59% were girls). The cumulative incidence of celiac disease among patients 3 years of age was 5.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.6 to 6.8), with similar rates in the gluten group and the placebo group (5.9% [95% CI, 3.7 to 8.1] and 4.5% [95% CI, 2.5 to 6.5], respectively; hazard ratio in the gluten group, 1.23; 95% CI, 0.79 to 1.91). Rates of elevated levels of anti-transglutaminase type 2 and antigliadin antibodies were also similar in the two study groups (7.0% [95% CI, 4.7 to 9.4] in the gluten group and 5.7% [95% CI, 3.5 to 7.9] in the placebo group; hazard ratio, 1.14; 95% CI, 0.76 to 1.73). Breast-feeding, regardless of whether it was exclusive or whether it was ongoing during gluten introduction, did not significantly influence the development of celiac disease or the effect of the intervention. CONCLUSIONS As compared with placebo, the introduction of small quantities of gluten at 16 to 24 weeks of age did not reduce the risk of celiac disease by 3 years of age in this group of high-risk children. (Funded by the European Commission and others; PreventCD Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN74582487.)
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5.
  • Aggett, PJ, et al. (författare)
  • Nondigestible carbohydrates in the diets of infants and young children: A commentary by the ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - Jpgn. - : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 1536-4801. ; 36:3, s. 329-337
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The consumption of nondigestible carbohydrates is perceived as beneficial by health professionals and the general public, but the translation of this information into dietary practice, public health recommendations, and regulatory policy has proved difficult. Nondiaestible carbohydrates are a heterogeneous entity, and their definition is problematic. Without a means to characterize the dietary components associated with particular health benefits, specific attributions of these cannot be made. Food labeling for "fiber" constituents can be given only in a general context, and the development of health policy, dietary advice, and education, and informed public understanding of nondigestible carbohydrates are limited. There have, however, been several important developments in our thinking about nondigestible carbohydrates during the past few years. The concept of fiber has expanded to include a range of nondigestible carbohydrates. Their fermentation, fate, and effects in the colon have become a defining characteristic; human milk, hitherto regarded as devoid of nondigestible carbo-hydrates, is now recognized as a source for infants, and the inclusion of nondigestible carbohydrates in the diet has been promoted for their "prebiotic" effects. Therefore, a review of the importance of nondigestible carbohydrates in the diets of infants and young children is timely. The aims of this commentary are to clarify the current definitions of nondigestible carbohydrates, to review published evidence for their biochemical, physiologic, nutritional, and clinical effects, and to discuss issues involved in defining dietary guidelines for infants and young children. (C) 2003 Lippincott Williams Wilkins, Inc.
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6.
  • Agostoni, C, et al. (författare)
  • Enteral nutrient supply for preterm infants : commentary from the European society of paediatric gastroenterology, hepatology and nutrition committee on nutrition
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - JPGN. - New York : Raven P.. - 0277-2116 .- 1536-4801. ; 50:1, s. 85-91
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The number of surviving children born prematurely has increased substantially during the last 2 decades. The major goal of enteral nutrient supply to these infants is to achieve growth similar to foetal growth coupled with satisfactory functional development. The accumulation of knowledge since the previous guideline on nutrition of preterm infants from the Committee on Nutrition of the European Society of Paediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition in 1987 has made a new guideline necessary. Thus, an ad hoc expert panel was convened by the Committee on Nutrition of the European Society of Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition in 2007 to make appropriate recommendations. The present guideline, of which the major recommendations are summarised here (for the full report, see http://links.lww.com/A1480), is consistent with, but not identical to, recent guidelines from the Life Sciences Research Office of the American Society for Nutritional Sciences published in 2002 and recommendations from the handbook Nutrition of the Preterm Infant. Scientific Basis and Practical Guidelines, 2nd ed, edited by Tsang et al, and published in 2005. The preferred food for premature infants is fortified human milk from the infant's own mother, or, alternatively, formula designed for premature infants. This guideline aims to provide proposed advisable ranges for nutrient intakes for stable-growing preterm infants up to a weight of approximately 1800 g, because most data are available for these infants. These recommendations are based on a considered review of available scientific reports on the subject, and on expert consensus for which the available scientific data are considered inadequate.
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7.
  • Agostoni, C, et al. (författare)
  • Prebiotic oligosaccharides in dietetic products for infants: A commentary by the ESPGHAN committee on nutrition
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - Jpgn. - : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 1536-4801. ; 39:5, s. 465-473
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This article by the ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition summarizes available information on the effects of adding prebiotic oligosaccharides to infant and follow-on formulae. Currently there are only limited studies evaluating prebiotic substances in dietetic products for infants. Although administration of prebiotic oligosaccharides has the potential to increase the total number of bifidobacteria in feces and may also soften stools, there is no published evidence of clinical benefits of adding prebiotic oligosaccharides to dietetic products for infants. Data on oligosaccharide mixtures in infant formulae do not demonstrate adverse effects, but further evaluation is recommended. Combinations and dosages in addition to those so far studied need to be fully evaluated with respect to both safety and efficacy before their use in commercial infant food products. Well-designed and carefully conducted randomized controlled trials with relevant inclusion/exclusion criteria, adequate sample sizes and validated clinical outcome measures are needed both in preterm and term infants. Future trials should define optimal quantity and types of oligosaccharides with prebiotic function, optimal dosages and duration of intake, short and long term benefits and safety. At the present time, therefore, the Committee takes the view that no general recommendation on the use of oligosaccharide supplementation in infancy as a prophylactic or therapeutic measure can be made.
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  • Agostoni, C, et al. (författare)
  • The need for nutrition support teams in pediatric units: A commentary by the ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - Jpgn. - : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 1536-4801. ; 41:1, s. 8-11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The reported prevalence of malnutrition in pediatric hospitals ranges from 15% to 30% of patients, with an impact on growth, morbidity and mortality. Major deficits in nutrition care have been highlighted in European hospitals, and the implementation of nutrition support teams (NSTs) has been suggested as a means to improve malnutrition diagnosis and nutrition care for hospitalized patients. This comment by the ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition reviews disease related-mechanisms causing malnutrition and consequences of malnutrition and suggests a framework for implementation of NSTs in pediatric units. The recommendations by the Committee on Nutrition include: 1) Implementation of NSTs in hospitals is recommended to improve nutritional management of sick children; 2) The main tasks of the NST should include screening for nutritional risk, identification of patients who require nutritional support, provision of adequate nutritional management, education and training of hospital staff and audit of practice; 3) The NST should be multidisciplinary, with expertise in all aspects of clinical nutrition care; 4) The funds needed to support NSTs should be raised from the health care system; and 5) Further research is needed to evaluate the effects of NSTs in prevention and management of pediatric nutritional disorders, including cost effectiveness in different settings.
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