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Sökning: WFRF:(Tan EK)

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5.
  • Yap, AUJ, et al. (författare)
  • Prevalence of temporomandibular disorder subtypes, psychologic distress, and psychosocial dysfunction in Asian patients
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Journal of Orofacial Pain. - 1064-6655 .- 1945-3396. ; 17:1, s. 21-28
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims: To use the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) to investigate the physical diagnoses, psychologic distress, and psychosocial dysfunction in Asian TMD patients. The RDC/TMD Axis I and II findings were compared to those of Swedish and American TMD patients. Methods: One hundred ninety-one patients (53 male and 138 female) referred to 2 institutionalized TMD clinics in Singapore were enrolled in the study. The mean age of the predominantly Chinese population (83.2%) was 33.6 +/- 9.3 years. Data from a RDC/TMD history questionnaire and clinical examination were fed directly by patients and clinicians into a computerized diagnostic system (NUS TMDv1.1). Axis I and II findings were generated on-line, based on RDC/TMD rule engines. Data were automatically exported to SPSS for statistical analysis. Results: Group I (muscle) disorders were found in 31.4% of the patients, Group II (disc displacement) disorders were found in 15.1 % and 15.7% of the patients in the left and right temporomandibular joints, respectively, and Group III (arthralgia, arthritis, and arthrosis) disorders were found in 12.6% and 13.0% of the patients in the left and right joints, respectively. Axis II assessment of psychologic status showed that 39.8% of patients experienced moderate to severe depression and 47.6% had moderate to severe nonspecific physical symptom scores. Psychosocial dysfunction was observed in only 4.2% of patients based on graded chronic pain scores. Conclusion: Axis I and II findings of Asian TMD patients were generally similar to their Swedish and American cohorts. In all 3 populations, women of child-bearing age represented the majority of patients. Muscle disorders were the most prevalent type of TMD. A substantial portion of TMD patients were depressed and experienced moderate to severe somatization.
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  • Klionsky, Daniel J., et al. (författare)
  • Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Autophagy. - : Landes Bioscience. - 1554-8635 .- 1554-8627. ; 8:4, s. 445-544
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process vs. those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process); thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from stimuli that result in increased autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.
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7.
  • Chung, Sun Ju, et al. (författare)
  • Alpha-Synuclein Repeat Variants and Survival in Parkinson's Disease
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Movement Disorders. - : John Wiley and Sons. - 0885-3185. ; 29:8, s. 1053-1057
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: To determine whether alpha-synuclein dinucleotide repeat (REP1) genotypes are associated with survival in Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods: Investigators from the Genetic Epidemiology of Parkinson's Disease Consortium provided REP1 genotypes and baseline and follow-up clinical data for cases. The primary outcome was time to death. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to assess the association of REP1 genotypes with survival. Results: Twenty-one sites contributed data for 6,154 cases. There was no significant association between alpha-synuclein REP1 genotypes and survival in PD. However, there was a significant association between REP1 genotypes and age at onset of PD (hazard ratio: 1.06; 95% confidence interval: 1.01-1.10; P value = 0.01). Conclusions: In our large consortium study, alpha-synuclein REP1 genotypes were not associated with survival in PD. Further studies of alpha-synuclein's role in disease progression and long-term outcomes are needed. (C) 2014 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society
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8.
  • Concepcion Gil-Rodriguez, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • De Novo Heterozygous Mutations in SMC3 Cause a Range of Cornelia de Lange Syndrome-Overlapping Phenotypes
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Human Mutation. - : Wiley: 12 months. - 1059-7794 .- 1098-1004. ; 36:4, s. 454-462
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is characterized by facial dysmorphism, growth failure, intellectual disability, limb malformations, and multiple organ involvement. Mutations in five genes, encoding subunits of the cohesin complex (SMC1A, SMC3, RAD21) and its regulators (NIPBL, HDAC8), account for at least 70% of patients with CdLS or CdLS-like phenotypes. To date, only the clinical features from a single CdLS patient with SMC3 mutation has been published. Here, we report the efforts of an international research and clinical collaboration to provide clinical comparison of 16 patients with CdLS-like features caused by mutations in SMC3. Modeling of the mutation effects on protein structure suggests a dominant-negative effect on the multimeric cohesin complex. When compared with typical CdLS, many SMC3-associated phenotypes are also characterized by postnatal microcephaly but with a less distinctive craniofacial appearance, a milder prenatal growth retardation that worsens in childhood, few congenital heart defects, and an absence of limb deficiencies. While most mutations are unique, two unrelated affected individuals shared the same mutation but presented with different phenotypes. This work confirms that de novo SMC3 mutations account for approximate to 1%-2% of CdLS-like phenotypes.
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9.
  • Evangelou, Evangelos, et al. (författare)
  • Non-replication of association for six polymorphisms from meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of Parkinson's disease : large-scale collaborative study
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics. - : International Society of Psychiatric Genetics. - 1552-4841. ; 153B:1, s. 220-228
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Early genome-wide association (GWA) studies on Parkinson's disease (PD) have not been able to yield conclusive, replicable signals of association, perhaps due to limited sample size. We aimed to investigate whether association signals derived from the meta-analysis of the first two GWA investigations might be replicable in different populations. We examined six single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs1000291, rs1865997, rs2241743, rs2282048, rs2313982, and rs3018626) that had reached nominal significance with at least two of three different strategies proposed in a previous analysis of the original GWA studies. Investigators from the "Genetic Epidemiology of Parkinson's Disease" (GEOPD) consortium were invited to join in this study. Ten teams contributed replication data from 3,458 PD cases and 3,719 controls. The data from the two previously published GWAs (599 PD cases, 592 controls and 443 sibling pairs) were considered as well. All data were synthesized using both fixed and random effects models. The summary allelic odds ratios were ranging from 0.97 to 1.09 by random effects, when all data were included. The summary estimates of the replication data sets (excluding the original GWA data) were very close to 1.00 (range 0.98-1.09) and none of the effects were nominally statistically significant. The replication data sets had significantly different results than the GWA data. Our data do not support evidence that any of these six SNPs reflect susceptibility markers for PD. Much stronger signals of statistical significance in GWA platforms are needed to have substantial chances of replication. Specifically in PD genetics, this would require much larger GWA studies and perhaps novel analytical techniques.
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10.
  • Kassebaum, Nicholas J, et al. (författare)
  • Global, regional, and national levels and causes of maternal mortality during 1990-2013 : a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: The Lancet. - 0140-6736 .- 1474-547X. ; 384:9947, s. 980-1004
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The fifth Millennium Development Goal (MDG 5) established the goal of a 75% reduction in the maternal mortality ratio (MMR; number of maternal deaths per 100 000 livebirths) between 1990 and 2015. We aimed to measure levels and track trends in maternal mortality, the key causes contributing to maternal death, and timing of maternal death with respect to delivery.METHODS: We used robust statistical methods including the Cause of Death Ensemble model (CODEm) to analyse a database of data for 7065 site-years and estimate the number of maternal deaths from all causes in 188 countries between 1990 and 2013. We estimated the number of pregnancy-related deaths caused by HIV on the basis of a systematic review of the relative risk of dying during pregnancy for HIV-positive women compared with HIV-negative women. We also estimated the fraction of these deaths aggravated by pregnancy on the basis of a systematic review. To estimate the numbers of maternal deaths due to nine different causes, we identified 61 sources from a systematic review and 943 site-years of vital registration data. We also did a systematic review of reports about the timing of maternal death, identifying 142 sources to use in our analysis. We developed estimates for each country for 1990-2013 using Bayesian meta-regression. We estimated 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs) for all values.FINDINGS: 292 982 (95% UI 261 017-327 792) maternal deaths occurred in 2013, compared with 376 034 (343 483-407 574) in 1990. The global annual rate of change in the MMR was -0·3% (-1·1 to 0·6) from 1990 to 2003, and -2·7% (-3·9 to -1·5) from 2003 to 2013, with evidence of continued acceleration. MMRs reduced consistently in south, east, and southeast Asia between 1990 and 2013, but maternal deaths increased in much of sub-Saharan Africa during the 1990s. 2070 (1290-2866) maternal deaths were related to HIV in 2013, 0·4% (0·2-0·6) of the global total. MMR was highest in the oldest age groups in both 1990 and 2013. In 2013, most deaths occurred intrapartum or postpartum. Causes varied by region and between 1990 and 2013. We recorded substantial variation in the MMR by country in 2013, from 956·8 (685·1-1262·8) in South Sudan to 2·4 (1·6-3·6) in Iceland.INTERPRETATION: Global rates of change suggest that only 16 countries will achieve the MDG 5 target by 2015. Accelerated reductions since the Millennium Declaration in 2000 coincide with increased development assistance for maternal, newborn, and child health. Setting of targets and associated interventions for after 2015 will need careful consideration of regions that are making slow progress, such as west and central Africa.
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