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1.
  • Bakker, M. K., et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association study of intracranial aneurysms identifies 17 risk loci and genetic overlap with clinical risk factors
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036. ; 52:12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Rupture of an intracranial aneurysm leads to subarachnoid hemorrhage, a severe type of stroke. To discover new risk loci and the genetic architecture of intracranial aneurysms, we performed a cross-ancestry, genome-wide association study in 10,754 cases and 306,882 controls of European and East Asian ancestry. We discovered 17 risk loci, 11 of which are new. We reveal a polygenic architecture and explain over half of the disease heritability. We show a high genetic correlation between ruptured and unruptured intracranial aneurysms. We also find a suggestive role for endothelial cells by using gene mapping and heritability enrichment. Drug-target enrichment shows pleiotropy between intracranial aneurysms and antiepileptic and sex hormone drugs, providing insights into intracranial aneurysm pathophysiology. Finally, genetic risks for smoking and high blood pressure, the two main clinical risk factors, play important roles in intracranial aneurysm risk, and drive most of the genetic correlation between intracranial aneurysms and other cerebrovascular traits. Cross-ancestry genome-wide association analyses in individuals of European and East Asian ancestry identify 11 new risk loci for intracranial aneurysms and highlight a polygenic architecture explaining a substantial fraction of disease heritability.
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2.
  • Tolvanen, A. D., et al. (författare)
  • TIA model is attainable in Wistar rats by intraluminal occlusion of the MCA for 10 min or shorter
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Brain Research. - 0006-8993. ; 1663, s. 166-173
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Transient ischemic attack (TIA) has received only little attention in the experimental research field. Recently, we introduced a TIA model for mice, and here we set similar principles for simulating this human condition in Wistar rats. In the model: 1) transient nature of the event is ensured, and 2) 24 h after the event animals are free from any sensorimotor deficit and from any detectable lesion by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Animals experienced varying durations of ischemia (5, 10, 12.5, 15, 25, and 30 min, n = 6-8 per group) by intraluminal middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Ischemia severity and reperfusion rates were controlled by cerebral blood flow measurements. Sensorimotor neurological evaluations and MRI at 24 h differentiated between TIA and ischemic stroke. Hematoxylin and eosin staining and apoptotic cell counts revealed pathological correlates of the event. We found that already 12.5 min of ischemia was long enough to induce ischemic stroke in Wistar rats. Ten min or shorter durations induced neither gross neurological deficits nor infarcts visible on MRI, but histologically caused selective neuronal necrosis. A separate group of animals with 10 min of ischemia followed up to 1 week after reperfusion remained free of infarction and any MRI signal change. Thus, 10 min or shorter focal cerebral ischemia induced by intraluminal MCAO in Wistar rats provides a clinically relevant TIA the rat. This model is useful for studying molecular correlates of TIA. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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3.
  • Aarnio, K., et al. (författare)
  • Cancer in Young Adults With Ischemic Stroke
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Stroke. - 0039-2499. ; 46:6, s. 1601-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background and Purpose-Cancer is a risk factor for ischemic stroke. Little is known about cancer among young adults with ischemic stroke. We studied the frequency of cancer and its association with long-term risk of death among young patients with first-ever ischemic stroke. Methods-1002 patients aged 15 to 49 years, registered in the Helsinki Young Stroke Registry, and with a median follow-up of 10.0 years (interquartile range 6.5-13.8) after stroke were included. Historical and follow-up data were derived from the Finnish Care Register and Statistics Finland. Survival between groups was compared with the Kaplan-Meier life-table method, and Cox proportional hazard models were used to identify factors associated with mortality. Results-One or more cancer diagnosis was made in 77 (7.7%) patients, of whom 39 (3.9%) had cancer diagnosed prestroke. During the poststroke follow-up, 41 (53.2%) of the cancer patients died. Median time from prestroke cancer to stroke was 4.9 (1.0-9.5) years and from stroke to poststroke cancer was 6.7 (2.7-10.9) years. Poststroke cancer was associated with age >40 years, heavy drinking, and cigarette smoking. The cumulative mortality was significantly higher among the cancer patients (68.6%, 95% confidence interval 52.0%-85.3%) compared with patients without cancer (19.7%, 95% confidence interval 16.3%-23.2%). Active cancer at index stroke, melanoma, and lung/respiratory tract cancer had the strongest independent association with death during the follow-up when adjusted for known poststroke mortality prognosticators. Conclusions-Cancer, and especially active cancer and no other apparent cause for stroke, is associated with unfavorable survival among young stroke patients.
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4.
  • Aarnio, K., et al. (författare)
  • Cardiovascular events after ischemic stroke in young adults: A prospective follow-up study
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Neurology. - 0028-3878. ; 86:20, s. 1872-1879
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives:To study the long-term risk of recurrent cardiac, arterial, and venous events in young stroke patients, and whether these risks differed between etiologic subgroups.Methods:The study population comprised 970 patients aged 15-49 years from the Helsinki Young Stroke Registry (HYSR) who had an ischemic stroke in 1994-2007. We obtained follow-up data until 2012 from the Finnish Care Register and Statistics Finland. Cumulative 15-year risks were analyzed with life tables, whereas relative risks and corresponding confidence intervals (CI) were based on hazard ratios (HR) from Cox regression analyses.Results:There were 283 (29.2%) patients with a cardiovascular event during the median follow-up of 10.1 years (range 0.1-18.0). Cumulative 15-year risk for venous events was 3.9%. Cumulative 15-year incidence rate for composite vascular events was 34.0 (95% CI 30.1-38.2) per 1,000 person-years. When adjusted for age and sex, patients with an index stroke caused by high-risk sources of cardioembolism had the highest HR for any subsequent cardiovascular events (3.7; 95% CI 2.6-5.4), whereas the large-artery atherosclerosis group had the highest HR (2.7; 95% CI 1.6-4.6) for recurrent stroke compared with patients with stroke of undetermined etiology.Conclusions:The risk for future cardiovascular events after ischemic stroke in young adults remains high for years after the index stroke, in particular when the index stroke is caused by high-risk sources of cardioembolism or large-artery atherosclerosis.
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5.
  • Aarnio, Karoliina, et al. (författare)
  • Outcome of pregnancies and deliveries before and after ischaemic stroke
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: European Stroke Journal. ; 2:4, s. 346-355
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: Limited data exist on the outcome of pregnancies and deliveries in women with ischaemic stroke. We investigated the incidence of pregnancy- and delivery-related complications in women with ischaemic stroke before and after pregnancy compared with stroke-free matched controls. Patients and methods: Of our 1008 consecutive patients aged 15–49 years with first-ever ischaemic stroke, 1994– 2007, we included women with pregnancy data before or after stroke recorded in the Medical Birth Register (MBR) (n¼152), and for them searched stroke-free controls matched by age, parity, year of birth, residential area and multiplicity (n¼608). Data on hospital admissions and deaths (1987–2014) came from national health registries. Poisson regression mixed models allowed comparison of the incidence of complications. Results: A total of 124 stroke mothers had 207 singleton pregnancies before and 45 mothers 68 pregnancies after stroke. The incidence rate ratio (IRR) for the composite outcome of pregnancy and delivery complications adjusted for socioeconomic status and maternal smoking was 1.43 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.00–2.03, p¼0.05) for pre-stroke mothers, and 1.09 (95% CI 0.66–1.78) for post-stroke mothers, compared with matched controls. Similarly, the adjusted IRR for post-stroke hospital admission during pregnancy was 1.85 (95% CI 1.03–3.31). The IRR for perinatal death of the child was 3.43 (95% CI 0.57–20.53) before and 8.88 (95% CI 0.81–97.95) after stroke. Discussion and conclusions: Compared with stroke-free mothers, we found a higher incidence of pregnancy- and delivery-related complications in mothers with ischaemic stroke. Larger studies are needed to verify our results.
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6.
  • Aarnio, K., et al. (författare)
  • Return to work after ischemic stroke in young adults: A registry-based follow-up study
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Neurology. - 1526-632X. ; 91:20, s. e1909-e1917
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the proportion of young patients not returning to work (NRTW) at 1 year after ischemic stroke (IS) and during follow-up, and clinical factors associated with NRTW. METHODS: Patients from the Helsinki Young Stroke Registry with an IS occurring in the years 1994-2007, who were at paid employment within 1 year before IS, and with NIH Stroke Scale score ≤15 points at hospital discharge, were included. Data on periods of payment came from the Finnish Centre for Pensions, and death data from Statistics Finland. Multivariate logistic regression analyses assessed factors associated with NRTW 1 year after IS, and lasagna plots visualized the proportion of patients returning to work over time. RESULTS: We included a total of 769 patients, of whom 289 (37.6%) were not working at 1 year, 323 (42.0%) at 2 years, and 361 (46.9%) at 5 years from IS. When adjusted for age, sex, socioeconomic status, and NIH Stroke Scale score at admission, factors associated with NRTW at 1 year after IS were large anterior strokes, strokes caused by large artery atherosclerosis, high-risk sources of cardioembolism, and rare causes other than dissection compared with undetermined cause, moderate to severe aphasia vs no aphasia, mild and moderate to severe limb paresis vs no paresis, and moderate to severe visual field deficit vs no deficit. CONCLUSIONS: NRTW is a frequent adverse outcome after IS in young adults with mild to moderate IS. Clinical variables available during acute hospitalization may allow prediction of NRTW. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. on behalf of the American Academy of Neurology.
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7.
  • Acciarresi, M., et al. (författare)
  • Prestroke CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc Score and Severity of Acute Stroke in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation: Findings from RAF Study
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of Stroke & Cerebrovascular Diseases. - 1052-3057. ; 26:6, s. 1363-1368
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background and Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate for a possible association between both prestroke CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc score and the severity of stroke at presentation, as well as disability and mortality at 90 days, in patients with acute stroke and atrial fibrillation (AF). Methods: This prospective study enrolled consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke, AF, and assessment of prestroke CHA2DS2-VASc score. Severity of stroke was assessed on admission using the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score (severe stroke: NIHSS >= 10). Disability and mortality at 90 days were assessed by the modified Rankin Scale (mRS < 3 or >= 3). Multiple logistic regression was used to correlate prestroke CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc and severity of stroke, as well as disability and mortality at 90 days. Results: Of the 1020 patients included in the analysis, 606 patients had an admission NIHSS score lower and 414 patients higher than 10. At 90 days, 510 patients had mRS >= 3. A linear correlation was found between the prestroke CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc score and severity of stroke (P = .001). On multivariate analysis, CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc score correlated with severity of stroke (P = .041) and adverse functional outcome (mRS = 3) (P = .001). A logistic regression with the receiver operating characteristic graph procedure (C-statistics) evidenced an area under the curve of .60 (P = .0001) for severe stroke. Furthermore, a correlation was found between prestroke CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc score and lesion size. Conclusions: In patients with AF, in addition to the risk of stroke, a high CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc score was independently associated with both stroke severity at onset and disability and mortality at 90 days.
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8.
  • Afifi, K., et al. (författare)
  • Features of intracranial hemorrhage in cerebral venous thrombosis
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Neurology. - 0340-5354. ; 267
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is associated with intracranial hemorrhage. Aim To identify clinical and imaging features of CVT-associated intracranial hemorrhage. We hypothesized that higher clot burden would be associated with a higher risk of intracranial hemorrhage. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of an international, multicenter cohort of patients with confirmed cerebral venous thrombosis who underwent computed tomography within 2 weeks of symptom onset. Clinical and imaging features were compared between patients with and without intracranial hemorrhage. Clot burden was assessed by counting the number of thrombosed venous sinuses and veins on confirmatory imaging. Results We enrolled 260 patients from 10 institutions in Europe and Mexico. The mean age was 42 years and 74% were female. Intracranial hemorrhage was found in 102 (39%). Among them parenchymal hemorrhage occurred in 64 (63%), in addition, small juxta-cortical hemorrhage was found in 30 (29%), subarachnoid hemorrhage in 24 (24%) and subdural hemorrhage in 11 (11%). Multiple concomitant types of hemorrhage occurred in 23 (23%). Older age and superior sagittal thrombosis involvement were associated with presence of hemorrhage. The number of thrombosed venous sinuses was not associated with intracranial hemorrhage (median number IQRInterquartile ratio] of sinuses/veins involved with hemorrhage 2 (1-3) vs. 2 (1-3) without hemorrhage,p = 0.4). Conclusion The high rate of intracranial hemorrhage in cerebral venous thrombosis is not explained by widespread involvement of the venous sinuses. Superior sagittal sinus involvement is associated with higher bleeding risk.
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9.
  • Altavilla, R., et al. (författare)
  • Anticoagulation After Stroke in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation: To Bridge or Not With Low-Molecular-Weight Heparin?
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Stroke. - 0039-2499. ; 50:8, s. 2093-2100
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background and Purpose- Bridging therapy with low-molecular-weight heparin reportedly leads to a worse outcome for acute cardioembolic stroke patients because of a higher incidence of intracerebral bleeding. However, this practice is common in clinical settings. This observational study aimed to compare (1) the clinical profiles of patients receiving and not receiving bridging therapy, (2) overall group outcomes, and (3) outcomes according to the type of anticoagulant prescribed. Methods- We analyzed data of patients from the prospective RAF and RAF-NOACs studies. The primary outcome was defined as the composite of ischemic stroke, transient ischemic attack, systemic embolism, symptomatic cerebral bleeding, and major extracerebral bleeding observed at 90 days after the acute stroke. Results- Of 1810 patients who initiated oral anticoagulant therapy, 371 (20%) underwent bridging therapy with full-dose low-molecular-weight heparin. Older age and the presence of leukoaraiosis were inversely correlated with the use of bridging therapy. Forty-two bridged patients (11.3%) reached the combined outcome versus 72 (5.0%) of the nonbridged patients (P=0.0001). At multivariable analysis, bridging therapy was associated with the composite end point (odds ratio, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.4-3.7; P<0.0001), as well as ischemic (odds ratio, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.3-3.9; P=0.005) and hemorrhagic (odds ratio, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.2-4.9; P=0.01) end points separately. Conclusions- Our findings suggest that patients receiving low-molecular-weight heparin have a higher risk of early ischemic recurrence and hemorrhagic transformation compared with nonbridged patients.
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10.
  • Antonenko, Kateryna, et al. (författare)
  • Sex-related differences in risk factors, type of treatment received and outcomes in patients with atrial fibrillation and acute stroke: Results from the RAF-study (Early Recurrence and Cerebral Bleeding in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke and Atrial Fibrillation)
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: European Stroke Journal. ; 2:1, s. 46-53
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: Atrial fibrillation is an independent risk factor of thromboembolism. Women with atrial fibrillation are at a higher overall risk for stroke compared to men with atrial fibrillation. The aim of this study was to evaluate for sex differences in patients with acute stroke and atrial fibrillation, regarding risk factors, treatments received and outcomes. Methods: Data were analyzed from the ‘‘Recurrence and Cerebral Bleeding in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke and Atrial Fibrillation’’ (RAF-study), a prospective, multicenter, international study including only patients with acute stroke and atrial fibrillation. Patients were followed up for 90 days. Disability was measured by the modified Rankin Scale (0–2 favorable outcome, 3–6 unfavorable outcome). Results: Of the 1029 patients enrolled, 561 were women (54.5%) (p<0.001) and younger (p<0.001) compared to men. In patients with known atrial fibrillation, women were less likely to receive oral anticoagulants before index stroke (p¼0.026) and were less likely to receive anticoagulants after stroke (71.3% versus 78.4%, p¼0.01). There was no observed sex difference regarding the time of starting anticoagulant therapy between the two groups (6.4�11.7 days for men versus 6.5�12.4 days for women, p¼0.902). Men presented with more severe strokes at onset (mean NIHSS 9.2�6.9 versus 8.1�7.5, p<0.001). Within 90 days, 46 (8.2%) recurrent ischemic events (stroke/TIA/systemic embolism) and 19 (3.4%) symptomatic cerebral bleedings were found in women compared to 30 (6.4%) and 18 (3.8%) in men (p¼0.28 and p¼0.74). At 90 days, 57.7% of women were disabled or deceased, compared to 41.1% of the men (p<0.001). Multivariate analysis did not confirm this significance. Conclusions: Women with atrial fibrillation were less likely to receive oral anticoagulants prior to and after stroke compared to men with atrial fibrillation, and when stroke occurred, regardless of the fact that in our study women were younger and with less severe stroke, outcomes did not differ between the sexes.
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