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Sökning: WFRF:(Thoene K)

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  • Escala-Garcia, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association study of germline variants and breast cancer-specific mortality
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Cancer. - : NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 0007-0920 .- 1532-1827. ; 120:6, s. 647-657
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: We examined the associations between germline variants and breast cancer mortality using a large meta-analysis of women of European ancestry. METHODS: Meta-analyses included summary estimates based on Cox models of twelve datasets using similar to 10.4 million variants for 96,661 women with breast cancer and 7697 events (breast cancer-specific deaths). Oestrogen receptor (ER)-specific analyses were based on 64,171 ER-positive (4116) and 16,172 ER-negative (2125) patients. We evaluated the probability of a signal to be a true positive using the Bayesian false discovery probability (BFDP). RESULTS: We did not find any variant associated with breast cancer-specific mortality at P<5 x 10(-8). For ER-positive disease, the most significantly associated variant was chr7:rs4717568 (BFDP = 7%, P = 1.28 x 10(-7), hazard ratio [HR] = 0.88, 95% confidence interval [ CI] = 0.84-0.92); the closest gene is AUTS2. For ER-negative disease, the most significant variant was chr7: rs67918676 (BFDP = 11%, P = 1.38 x 10(-7), HR = 1.27, 95% CI = 1.16-1.39); located within a long intergenic non-coding RNA gene (AC004009.3), close to the HOXA gene cluster. CONCLUSIONS: We uncovered germline variants on chromosome 7 at BFDP <15% close to genes for which there is biological evidence related to breast cancer outcome. However, the paucity of variants associated with mortality at genome-wide significance underpins the challenge in providing genetic-based individualised prognostic information for breast cancer patients.
  • Sakamoto, T., et al. (författare)
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 0004-637X .- 1538-4357. ; 766:1, s. 41-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present our successful Chandra program designed to identify, with subarcsecond accuracy, the X-ray afterglow of the short GRB 111117A, which was discovered by Swift and Fermi. Thanks to our rapid target of opportunity request, Chandra clearly detected the X-ray afterglow, though no optical afterglow was found in deep optical observations. The host galaxy was clearly detected in the optical and near-infrared band, with the best photometric redshift of z = 1.31(-0.23)(+0.46) (90% confidence), making it one of the highest known short gamma-ray burst ( GRB) redshifts. Furthermore, we see an offset of 1.0 +/- 0.2 arcsec, which corresponds to 8.4 +/- 1.7 kpc, between the host and the afterglow position. We discuss the importance of using Chandra for obtaining subarcsecond X-ray localizations of short GRB afterglows to study GRB environments.
  • Cano, Z., et al. (författare)
  • A trio of gamma-ray burst supernovae : GRB 120729A, GRB 130215A/SN 2013ez, and GRB 130831A/SN 2013fu
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 568
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present optical and near-infrared (NIR) photometry for three gamma-ray burst supernovae (GRB-SNe): GRB 120729A, GRB 130215A/SN 2013ez, and GRB 130831A/SN 2013fu. For GRB 130215A/SN 2013ez, we also present optical spectroscopy at t-t(0) = 16.1 d, which covers rest-frame 3000-6250 angstrom. Based on Fell lambda 5169 and Sill lambda 6355, our spectrum indicates an unusually low expansion velocity of similar to 4000-6350 km s(-1), the lowest ever measured for a GRB-SN. Additionally, we determined the brightness and shape of each accompanying SN relative to a template supernova (SN 1998bw), which were used to estimate the amount of nickel produced via nucleosynthesis during each explosion. We find that our derived nickel masses are typical of other GRB-SNe, and greater than those of SNe Ibc that are not associated with GRBs. For GRB 130831A/SN 2013fu, we used our well-sampled R-band light curve (LC) to estimate the amount of ejecta mass and the kinetic energy of the SN, finding that these too are similar to other GRB-SNe. For GRB 130215A, we took advantage of contemporaneous optical/NIR observations to construct an optical/NIR bolometric LC of the afterglow. We fit the bolometric LC with the millisecond magnetar model of Zhang & Meszros (2001, ApJ, 552, L35), which considers dipole radiation as a source of energy injection to the forward shock powering the optical/NIR afterglow. Using this model we derive an initial spin period of P = 12 ms and a magnetic field of B = 1.1 x 10(15) G, which are commensurate with those found for proposed magnetar central engines of other long-duration GRBs.
  • Schulze, S., et al. (författare)
  • GRB 120422A/SN 2012bz : Bridging the gap between low- and high-luminosity gamma-ray bursts
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 566
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. At low redshift, a handful of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have been discovered with luminosities that are substantially lower (L-iso less than or similar to 10(48.5) erg s(-1)) than the average of more distant ones (L-iso greater than or similar to 10(49.5) erg s(-1)). It has been suggested that the properties of several low-luminosity (low-L) GRBs are due to shock break-out, as opposed to the emission from ultrarelativistic jets. This has led to much debate about how the populations are connected. Aims. The burst at redshift z = 0.283 from 2012 April 22 is one of the very few examples of intermediate-L GRBs with a gamma-ray luminosity of L-iso similar to 10(49.6-49.9) erg s(-1) that have been detected up to now. With the robust detection of its accompanying supernova SN 2012bz, it has the potential to answer important questions on the origin of low-and high-L GRBs and the GRB-SN connection. Methods. We carried out a spectroscopy campaign using medium-and low-resolution spectrographs with 6-10-m class telescopes, which covered a time span of 37.3 days, and a multi-wavelength imaging campaign, which ranged from radio to X-ray energies over a duration of similar to 270 days. Furthermore, we used a tuneable filter that is centred at H alpha to map star-formation in the host and the surrounding galaxies. We used these data to extract and model the properties of different radiation components and fitted the spectral energy distribution to extract the properties of the host galaxy. Results. Modelling the light curve and spectral energy distribution from the radio to the X-rays revealed that the blast wave expanded with an initial Lorentz factor of Gamma(0) similar to 50, which is a low value in comparison to high-L GRBs, and that the afterglow had an exceptionally low peak luminosity density of less than or similar to 2 x 10(30) erg s(-1) Hz(-1) in the sub-mm. Because of the weak afterglow component, we were able to recover the signature of a shock break-out in an event that was not a genuine low-L GRB for the first time. At 1.4 hr after the burst, the stellar envelope had a blackbody temperature of k(B)T similar to 16 eV and a radius of similar to 7 x 10(13) cm (both in the observer frame). The accompanying SN 2012bz reached a peak luminosity of M-V = -19.7 mag, which is 0.3 mag more luminous than SN 1998bw. The synthesised nickel mass of 0.58 M-circle dot, ejecta mass of 5.87 M-circle dot, and kinetic energy of 4.10x10(52) erg were among the highest for GRB-SNe, which makes it the most luminous spectroscopically confirmed SN to date. Nebular emission lines at the GRB location were visible, which extend from the galaxy nucleus to the explosion site. The host and the explosion site had close-to-solar metallicity. The burst occurred in an isolated star-forming region with an SFR that is 1/10 of that in the galaxy's nucleus. Conclusions. While the prompt gamma-ray emission points to a high-L GRB, the weak afterglow and the low Gamma(0) were very atypical for such a burst. Moreover, the detection of the shock break-out signature is a new quality for high-L GRBs. So far, shock break-outs were exclusively detected for low-L GRBs, while GRB 120422A had an intermediate L-iso of similar to 10(49.6-49.9) erg s(-1). Therefore, we conclude that GRB 120422A was a transition object between low-and high-L GRBs, which supports the failed-jet model that connects low-L GRBs that are driven by shock break-outs and high-L GRBs that are powered by ultra-relativistic jets.
  • Starling, R. L. C., et al. (författare)
  • Discovery of the nearby long, soft GRB 100316D with an associated supernova
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. - 0035-8711 .- 1365-2966. ; 411:4, s. 2792-2803
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report the Swift discovery of the nearby long, soft gamma-ray burst GRB 100316D, and the subsequent unveiling of its low-redshift host galaxy and associated supernova. We derive the redshift of the event to be z = 0.0591 +/- 0.0001 and provide accurate astrometry for the gamma-ray burst (GRB) supernova (SN). We study the extremely unusual prompt emission with time-resolved gamma-ray to X-ray spectroscopy and find that the spectrum is best modelled with a thermal component in addition to a synchrotron emission component with a low peak energy. The X-ray light curve has a remarkably shallow decay out to at least 800 s. The host is a bright, blue galaxy with a highly disturbed morphology and we use Gemini-South, Very Large Telescope and Hubble Space Telescope observations to measure some of the basic host galaxy properties. We compare and contrast the X-ray emission and host galaxy of GRB 100316D to a subsample of GRB-SNe. GRB 100316D is unlike the majority of GRB-SNe in its X-ray evolution, but resembles rather GRB 060218, and we find that these two events have remarkably similar high energy prompt emission properties. Comparison of the host galaxies of GRB-SNe demonstrates, however, that there is a great diversity in the environments in which GRB-SNe can be found. GRB 100316D is an important addition to the currently sparse sample of spectroscopically confirmed GRB-SNe, from which a better understanding of long GRB progenitors and the GRB-SN connection can be gleaned.
  • de Ugarte Postigo, A., et al. (författare)
  • The distribution of equivalent widths in long GRB afterglow spectra
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 548, s. A11-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. The extreme brightness of gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows and their simple spectral shape make them ideal beacons to study the interstellar medium of their host galaxies through absorption line spectroscopy at almost any redshift. Aims. We describe the distribution of rest-frame equivalent widths (EWs) of the most prominent absorption features in GRB afterglow spectra, providing the means to compare individual spectra to the sample and identify its peculiarities. Methods. Using 69 low-resolution GRB afterglow spectra, we conduct a study of the rest-frame EWs distribution of features with an average rest-frame EW larger than 0.5 angstrom. To compare an individual GRB with the sample, we develop EW diagrams as a graphical tool, and we give a catalogue with diagrams for the 69 spectra. We introduce a line strength parameter (LSP) that allows us to quantify the strength of the absorption features in a GRB spectrum as compared to the sample by a single number. Using the distributions of EWs of single-species features, we derive the distribution of their column densities by a curve of growth (CoG) fit. Results. We find correlations between the LSP and the extinction of the GRB, the UV brightness of the host galaxies and the neutral hydrogen column density. However, we see no significant evolution of the LSP with the redshift. There is a weak correlation between the ionisation of the absorbers and the energy of the GRB, indicating that, either the GRB event is responsible for part of the ionisation, or that galaxies with high-ionisation media produce more energetic GRBs. Spectral features in GRB spectra are, on average, 2.5 times stronger than those seen in QSO intervening damped Lyman-alpha (DLA) systems and slightly more ionised. In particular we find a larger excess in the EW of Civ lambda lambda 1549 relative to QSO DLAs, which could be related to an excess of Wolf-Rayet stars in the environments of GRBs. From the CoG fitting we obtain an average number of components in the absorption features of GRBs of 6.00(-1.25)(+1.00). The most extreme ionisation ratios in our sample are found for GRBs with low neutral hydrogen column density, which could be related to ionisation by the GRB emission.
  • Xu, D., et al. (författare)
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 0004-637X .- 1538-4357. ; 776:2, s. 98-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) at z < 1 are found in most cases to be accompanied by bright, broadlined Type Ic supernovae (SNe Ic-BL). The highest-energy GRBs are mostly located at higher redshifts, where the associated SNe are hard to detect observationally. Here, we present early and late observations of the optical counterpart of the very energetic GRB 130427A. Despite its moderate redshift, z = 0.3399+/-0.0002, GRB 130427A is at the high end of the GRB energy distribution, with an isotropic-equivalent energy release of E-iso similar to 9.6 x 10(53) erg, more than an order of magnitude more energetic than other GRBs with spectroscopically confirmed SNe. In our dense photometric monitoring, we detect excess flux in the host-subtracted r-band light curve, consistent with that expected from an emerging SN, similar to 0.2 mag fainter than the prototypical SN 1998bw. A spectrum obtained around the time of the SN peak (16.7 days after the GRB) reveals broad undulations typical of SNe Ic-BL, confirming the presence of an SN, designated SN 2013cq. The spectral shape and early peak time are similar to those of the high expansion velocity SN 2010bh associated with GRB 100316D. Our findings demonstrate that high-energy, long-duration GRBs, commonly detected at high redshift, can also be associated with SNe Ic-BL, pointing to a common progenitor mechanism.
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  • Resultat 1-8 av 8

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