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Sökning: WFRF:(Tiono Alfred B)

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1.
  • Ajayi, IkeOluwapo O, et al. (författare)
  • Feasibility of Malaria Diagnosis and Management in Burkina Faso, Nigeria, and Uganda: A Community-Based Observational Study.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. - 1537-6591. ; 63:suppl 5, s. S245-S255
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Malaria-endemic countries are encouraged to increase, expedite, and standardize care based on parasite diagnosis and treat confirmed malaria using oral artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) or rectal artesunate plus referral when patients are unable to take oral medication. In 172 villages in 3 African countries, trained community health workers (CHWs) assessed and diagnosed children aged between 6 months and 6 years using rapid histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2)-based diagnostic tests (RDTs). Patients coming for care who could take oral medication were treated with ACTs, and those who could not were treated with rectal artesunate and referred to hospital. The full combined intervention package lasted 12 months. Changes in access and speed of care and clinical course were determined through 1746 random household interviews before and 3199 during the intervention. A total of 15 932 children were assessed: 6394 in Burkina Faso, 2148 in Nigeria, and 7390 in Uganda. Most children assessed (97.3% [15 495/15 932]) were febrile and most febrile cases (82.1% [12 725/15 495]) tested were RDT positive. Almost half of afebrile episodes (47.6% [204/429]) were RDT positive. Children eligible for rectal artesunate contributed 1.1% of episodes. The odds of using CHWs as the first point of care doubled (odds ratio [OR], 2.15; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.9-2.4; P < .0001). RDT use changed from 3.2% to 72.9% (OR, 80.8; 95% CI, 51.2-127.3; P < .0001). The mean duration of uncomplicated episodes reduced from 3.69 ± 2.06 days to 3.47 ± 1.61 days, Degrees of freedom (df) = 2960, Student's t (t) = 3.2 (P = .0014), and mean duration of severe episodes reduced from 4.24 ± 2.26 days to 3.7 ± 1.57 days, df = 749, t = 3.8, P = .0001. There was a reduction in children with danger signs from 24.7% before to 18.1% during the intervention (OR, 0.68; 95% CI, .59-.78; P < .0001). Provision of diagnosis and treatment via trained CHWs increases access to diagnosis and treatment, shortens clinical episode duration, and reduces the number of severe cases. This approach, recommended by the World Health Organization, improves malaria case management. ISRCTN13858170.
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2.
  • Castellani, Joëlle, et al. (författare)
  • Impact of Improving Community-Based Access to Malaria Diagnosis and Treatment on Household Costs.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. - 1537-6591. ; 63:suppl 5, s. S256-S263
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Community health workers (CHWs) were trained in Burkina Faso, Nigeria, and Uganda to diagnose febrile children using malaria rapid diagnostic tests, and treat positive malaria cases with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) and those who could not take oral medicines with rectal artesunate. We quantified the impact of this intervention on private household costs for childhood febrile illness. Households with recent febrile illness in a young child in previous 2 weeks were selected randomly before and during the intervention and data obtained on household costs for the illness episode. Household costs included consultation fees, registration costs, user fees, diagnosis, bed, drugs, food, and transport costs. Private household costs per episode before and during the intervention were compared. The intervention's impact on household costs per episode was calculated and projected to districtwide impacts on household costs. Use of CHWs increased from 35% of illness episodes before the intervention to 50% during the intervention (P < .0001), and total household costs per episode decreased significantly in each country: from US Dollars (USD) $4.36 to USD $1.54 in Burkina Faso, from USD $3.90 to USD $2.04 in Nigeria, and from USD $4.46 to USD $1.42 in Uganda (all P < .0001). There was no difference in the time used by the child's caregiver to care for a sick child (59% before intervention vs 51% during intervention spent ≤2 days). Using the most recent population figures for each study district, we estimate that the intervention could save households a total of USD $29 965, USD $254 268, and USD $303 467, respectively, in the study districts in Burkina Faso, Nigeria, and Uganda. Improving access to malaria diagnostics and treatments in malaria-endemic areas substantially reduces private household costs. The key challenge is to develop and strengthen community human resources to deliver the intervention, and ensure adequate supplies of commodities and supervision. We demonstrate feasibility and benefit to populations living in difficult circumstances. ISRCTN13858170.
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3.
  • Stepniewska, Kasia, et al. (författare)
  • Efficacy of single dose primaquine with artemisinin combination therapy on P. falciparum gametocytes and transmission : A WWARN individual patient meta-analysis.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Infectious Diseases. - : Oxford University Press (OUP). - 0022-1899 .- 1537-6613. ; 225:7, s. 1215-1226
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Since the World Health Organization recommended single low-dose (0.25mg/kg) primaquine (PQ) in combination with artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) in areas of low transmission or artemisinin-resistant P. falciparum, several single-site studies have been conducted to assess its efficacy.METHODS: An individual patient meta-analysis to assess the gametocytocidal and transmission-blocking efficacy of PQ used in combination with different ACTs was conducted. Random effects logistic regression was used to quantify PQ effect on (i) gametocyte carriage in the first two weeks post-treatment; (ii) the probability of infecting at least one mosquito or of a mosquito becoming infected.RESULTS: In 2,574 participants from fourteen studies, PQ reduced PCR-determined gametocyte carriage on days 7 and 14, most apparently in patients presenting with gametocytaemia on day 0 (Odds Ratio (OR)=0.22; 95%CI 0.17-0.28 and OR=0.12; 95%CI 0.08-0.16, respectively). The rate of decline in gametocyte carriage was faster when PQ was combined with artemether-lumefantrine (AL) compared to dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) (p=0.010 for day 7). Addition of 0.25mg/kg PQ was associated with near complete prevention of transmission to mosquitoes.CONCLUSION: Primaquine's transmission-blocking effects are achieved with 0.25 mg/kg PQ. Gametocyte persistence and infectivity are lower when PQ is combined with AL compared to DP.
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4.
  • Stepniewska, Kasia, et al. (författare)
  • Safety of single-dose primaquine as a Plasmodium falciparum gametocytocide : a systematic review and meta-analysis of individual patient data
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: BMC Medicine. - : Springer Nature. - 1741-7015. ; 20:1
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundIn 2012, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended single low-dose (SLD, 0.25 mg/kg) primaquine to be added as a Plasmodium (P.) falciparum gametocytocide to artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) without glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) testing, to accelerate malaria elimination efforts and avoid the spread of artemisinin resistance. Uptake of this recommendation has been relatively slow primarily due to safety concerns.MethodsA systematic review and individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis of single-dose (SD) primaquine studies for P. falciparum malaria were performed. Absolute and fractional changes in haemoglobin concentration within a week and adverse effects within 28 days of treatment initiation were characterised and compared between primaquine and no primaquine arms using random intercept models.ResultsData comprised 20 studies that enrolled 6406 participants, of whom 5129 (80.1%) had received a single target dose of primaquine ranging between 0.0625 and 0.75 mg/kg. There was no effect of primaquine in G6PD-normal participants on haemoglobin concentrations. However, among 194 G6PD-deficient African participants, a 0.25 mg/kg primaquine target dose resulted in an additional 0.53 g/dL (95% CI 0.17-0.89) reduction in haemoglobin concentration by day 7, with a 0.27 (95% CI 0.19-0.34) g/dL haemoglobin drop estimated for every 0.1 mg/kg increase in primaquine dose. Baseline haemoglobin, young age, and hyperparasitaemia were the main determinants of becoming anaemic (Hb < 10 g/dL), with the nadir observed on ACT day 2 or 3, regardless of G6PD status and exposure to primaquine. Time to recovery from anaemia took longer in young children and those with baseline anaemia or hyperparasitaemia. Serious adverse haematological events after primaquine were few (9/3, 113, 0.3%) and transitory. One blood transfusion was reported in the primaquine arms, and there were no primaquine-related deaths. In controlled studies, the proportions with either haematological or any serious adverse event were similar between primaquine and no primaquine arms.ConclusionsOur results support the WHO recommendation to use 0.25 mg/kg of primaquine as a P. falciparum gametocytocide, including in G6PD-deficient individuals. Although primaquine is associated with a transient reduction in haemoglobin levels in G6PD-deficient individuals, haemoglobin levels at clinical presentation are the major determinants of anaemia in these patients.
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5.
  • van Beek, Stijn W., et al. (författare)
  • Model-based assessment of the safety of community interventions with primaquine in sub-Saharan Africa
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Parasites & Vectors. - : BMC. - 1756-3305 .- 1756-3305. ; 14:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Single low-dose primaquine (SLD-PQ) is recommended in combination with artemisinin-based combination therapy to reduce Plasmodium falciparum transmission in areas threatened by artemisinin resistance or aiming for malaria elimination. SLD-PQ may be beneficial in mass drug administration (MDA) campaigns to prevent malaria transmission but uptake is limited by concerns of hemolysis in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-deficient individuals. The aim of this study was to improve the evidence on the safety of MDA with SLD-PQ in a sub-Saharan African setting. Methods A nonlinear mixed-effects model describing the pharmacokinetics and treatment-induced hemolysis of primaquine was developed using data from an adult (n = 16, G6PD deficient) and pediatric study (n = 38, G6PD normal). The relationship between primaquine pharmacokinetics and hemolysis was modeled using an established erythrocyte lifespan model. The safety of MDA with SLD-PQ was explored through Monte Carlo simulations for SLD-PQ at 0.25 or 0.4 mg/kg using baseline data from a Tanzanian setting with detailed information on hemoglobin concentrations and G6PD status. Results The predicted reduction in hemoglobin levels following SLD-PQ was small and returned to pre-treatment levels after 25 days. G6PD deficiency (African A- variant) was associated with a 2.5-fold (95% CI 1.2-8.2) larger reduction in hemoglobin levels. In the Tanzanian setting where 43% of the population had at least mild anemia (hemoglobin < 11-13 g/dl depending on age and sex) and 2.73% had severe anemia (hemoglobin < 7-8 g/dl depending on age and sex), an additional 3.7% and 6.0% of the population were predicted to develop at least mild anemia and 0.25% and 0.41% to develop severe anemia after 0.25 and 0.4 mg/kg SLD-PQ, respectively. Children < 5 years of age and women >= 15 years of age were found to have a higher chance to have low pre-treatment hemoglobin. Conclusions This study supports the feasibility of MDA with SLD-PQ in a sub-Saharan African setting by predicting small and transient reductions in hemoglobin levels. In a setting where a substantial proportion of the population had low hemoglobin concentrations, our simulations suggest treatment with SLD-PQ would result in small increases in the prevalence of anemia which would most likely be transient.
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