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Sökning: WFRF:(Toivanen S)

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  • Toivanen, Susanna, 1961-, et al. (författare)
  • Hospitalization due to stroke and myocardial infarction in self-employed individuals and small business owners compared with paid employees in Sweden—a 5-year study
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Small Business Economics. - : Springer New York LLC. - 0921-898X .- 1573-0913. ; 53:2, s. 343-354
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Analysing Swedish population register data, the aim of the present study is to investigate differences in acute cardiovascular disease (CVD) in terms of stroke and myocardial infarction incidence between self-employed individuals and paid employees and to study whether the associations vary by gender or across industrial sectors. A cohort of nearly 4.8 million employed individuals (6.7% self-employed in 2003) is followed-up for hospitalization due to stroke and myocardial infarction (2004–2008). Self-employed individuals are defined as sole proprietors and limited liability company owners according to legal type of their enterprise. Negative binomial regression models are applied to compare hospitalization rates between the self-employed and paid employees, adjusted for socioeconomic and demographic confounders. Two- and three-way interaction are tested between occupational group, industrial sector, and gender. Limited liability company owners have significantly lower hospitalization for myocardial infarction than paid employees. Regarding two-way interaction, sole proprietors have higher myocardial infarction hospitalization in trade, transport and communication, and lower in agriculture, forestry, and fishing than paid employees. Limited liability company owners have lower hospitalization rate for myocardial infarction than employees in several industries. The results highlight the importance of enterprise legal type and industrial sector for CVD among self-employed individuals.
  • Dunlavy, Andrea C., et al. (författare)
  • Suicide risk among native- and foreign-origin persons in Sweden : a longitudinal examination of the role of unemployment status
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology. - : Dr. Dietrich Steinkopff Verlag GmbH and Co. KG. - 0933-7954 .- 1433-9285. ; 54:5, s. 579-590
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSE: Prior research has documented an association between unemployment and elevated suicide risk. Yet, few Swedish studies have explicitly considered how such risk may vary by different migration background characteristics among persons of foreign-origin, who often experience diverse forms of labor market marginalization. This study examines the extent to which unemployment status may differentially influence suicide risk among the foreign-origin by generational status, region of origin, age at arrival, and duration of residence.METHODS: Population-based registers were used to conduct a longitudinal, open cohort study of native-origin and foreign-origin Swedish residents of working age (25-64 years) from 1993 to 2008. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for suicide mortality were estimated using gender-stratified Cox proportional hazards models.RESULTS: Elevated suicide risk observed among foreign-origin unemployed groups was generally of a similar or lower magnitude than that found in unemployed native-origin, although unemployed second-generation Swedish men demonstrated significantly greater (p < 0.05) excess risk of suicide than that observed among their native-origin counterparts. Unemployed foreign-born men with a younger age at arrival and longer duration of residence demonstrated an increased risk of suicide, while those who arrived as adults, and a shorter duration of residence did not show any increased risk. Among foreign-born women, excess suicide risk persisted regardless of age at arrival and duration of residence in the long-term unemployed.CONCLUSIONS: Multiple migration background characteristics should be considered when examining relationships between employment status and suicide among the foreign-origin.
  • Griep Härter, Rosane, et al. (författare)
  • Years worked at night and body mass index among registered nurses from eighteen public hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: BMC Health Services Research. - 1472-6963 .- 1472-6963. ; 14, s. 603-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Employees working night shifts are at a greater risk of being overweight or obese. Few studies on obesity and weight gain analyze the years of exposure to night work. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the years of exposure to night work and body mass index (BMI) among registered nurses. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis was performed in 18 largest public hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A total of 2,372 registered nurses ( 2,100 women) completed a comprehensive questionnaire concerning sociodemographic, professional, lifestyle, and health behavioral data. Current and past exposures to night shifts as well as BMI values were measured as continuous variables. A gamma regression model was used with an identity link function to establish the association. Results: The association between years of exposure to night work and BMI was statistically significant for both women and men after adjusting for all covariates [beta = 0.036; CI95% = 0.009-0.063) and beta = 0.071 (CI95% = 0.012-0.129), respectively]. The effect of night work was greater among men than women. For example, for those women who have worked at night for 20 years the estimated average BMI was 25.6 kg/m(2) [range, 25.0-26.2]. In relation to men, after 20 years of exposure to night work the estimated average BMI was 26.9 kg/m(2) [range, 25.6-28.1]. Conclusions: These findings suggest that night shift exposure is related to BMI increases. Obesity prevention strategies should incorporate improvements in work environments, such as the provision of proper meals to night workers, in addition to educational programs on the health effects of night work.
  • Toivanen, Susanna, et al. (författare)
  • Mortality differences between self-employed and paid employees : a 5-year follow-up study of the working population in Sweden
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Occupational and Environmental Medicine. - 1351-0711 .- 1470-7926. ; 73:9, s. 627-636
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: Analyse mortality differences between self-employed and paid employees with a focus on industrial sector, educational level and gender using Swedish register data. Methods:A cohort of the total working population (4 776 135 individuals; 7.2% self-employed; 18–100 years of age at baseline 2003) in Sweden with a 5-year follow-up (2004–2008) for all-cause and cause-specific mortality (57 743 deaths). Self-employed individuals were categorised as sole proprietors or limited liability company (LLC) owners according to their enterprise's legal form. Cox proportional hazards models were applied to compare mortality rates between sole proprietors, LLC owners and paid employees, adjusted for sociodemographic confounders. Results: Mortality from cardiovascular diseases was 16% lower and from suicide 26% lower among LLC owners than among paid employees, adjusted for confounders. Within the industrial category, all-cause mortality was 13–15% lower among sole proprietors and LLC owners compared with employees in manufacturing and mining (MM) as well as personal and cultural services (PCS), and 11–20% higher in sole proprietors in trade, transport and communication and the welfare industry (W). A significant three-way interaction indicated 17–23% lower all-cause mortality among male LLC owners in MM and female sole proprietors in PCS, and 50% higher mortality in female sole proprietors in W than in employees in the same industries. Conclusions: Mortality differences between self-employed individuals and paid employees vary by the legal form of self-employment, across industries, and by gender. Differences in work environment exposures and working conditions, varying market competition across industries and gender segregation in the labour market are potential mechanisms underlying these findings.
  • Halme, P., et al. (författare)
  • Challenges of ecological restoration : Lessons from forests in northern Europe
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Biological Conservation. - : Elsevier. - 0006-3207 .- 1873-2917. ; 167, s. 248-256
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The alarming rate of ecosystem degradation has raised the need for ecological restoration throughout different biomes and continents. North European forests may appear as one of the least vulnerable ecosystems from a global perspective, since forest cover is not rapidly decreasing and many ecosystem services remain at high level. However, extensive areas of northern forests are heavily exploited and have lost a major part of their biodiversity value. There is a strong requirement to restore these areas towards a more natural condition in order to meet the targets of the Convention on Biological Diversity. Several northern countries are now taking up this challenge by restoring forest biodiversity with increasing intensity. The ecology and biodiversity of boreal forests are relatively well understood making them a good model for restoration activities in many other forest ecosystems. Here we introduce northern forests as an ecosystem, discuss the historical and recent human impact and provide a brief status report on the ecological restoration projects and research already conducted there. Based on this discussion, we argue that before any restoration actions commence, the ecology of the target ecosystem should be established with the need for restoration carefully assessed and the outcome properly monitored. Finally, we identify the most important challenges that need to be solved in order to carry out efficient restoration with powerful and long-term positive impacts on biodiversity: coping with unpredictability, maintaining connectivity in time and space, assessment of functionality, management of conflicting interests and social restrictions and ensuring adequate funding. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
  • Janhunen, P., et al. (författare)
  • Invited Article: Electric solar wind sail : Toward test missions
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Review of Scientific Instruments. - 0034-6748 .- 1089-7623. ; 81:11, s. 111301-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The electric solar wind sail (E-sail) is a space propulsion concept that uses the natural solar wind dynamic pressure for producing spacecraft thrust. In its baseline form, the E-sail consists of a number of long, thin, conducting, and centrifugally stretched tethers, which are kept in a high positive potential by an onboard electron gun. The concept gains its efficiency from the fact that the effective sail area, i.e., the potential structure of the tethers, can be millions of times larger than the physical area of the thin tethers wires, which offsets the fact that the dynamic pressure of the solar wind is very weak. Indeed, according to the most recent published estimates, an E-sail of 1 N thrust and 100 kg mass could be built in the rather near future, providing a revolutionary level of propulsive performance (specific acceleration) for travel in the solar system. Here we give a review of the ongoing technical development work of the E-sail, covering tether construction, overall mechanical design alternatives, guidance and navigation strategies, and dynamical and orbital simulations.
  • Toivanen, Susanna, et al. (författare)
  • Self‐employed persons in Sweden ‐ mortality differentials by industrial sector and enterprise legal form : A five-year follow-up study
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Industrial Medicine. - 0271-3586 .- 1097-0274. ; 58:1, s. 21-32
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: This study investigated mortality differentials between self-employed persons in Sweden, considering industrial sector, enterprise characteristics and socio-demographic factors.Methods: Data on 321,274 self-employed persons were obtained from population registers in Sweden. Cox proportional hazards models were used to compare all-cause and cause-specific mortality rate ratios by industrial sector and enterprise legal form, adjusted for confounders.Results: All-cause mortality was 10–32% higher in self-employed persons in Manufacturing and Mining, Trade and Communication, and Not Specified and Other sectors than in Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing. Mortality from cardiovascular disease was 23% higher in Trade and Communication, and from neoplasms 17–51% higher in Manufacturing and Mining, Not Specified, and Other. Mortality from suicide was 45–60% lower in Personal and Cultural Services, and in Not Specified. Mortality was 8–16% higher in sole proprietorship than limited partnership.Conclusions: Further research of working conditions is warranted, considering industry and enterprise legal form.
  • Bergman, Louise E., et al. (författare)
  • Comparing Depressive Symptoms, Emotional Exhaustion, and Sleep Disturbances in Self-Employed and Employed Workers : Application of Approximate Bayesian Measurement Invariance
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychology. - : FRONTIERS MEDIA SA. - 1664-1078 .- 1664-1078. ; 11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Studies investigating differences in mental health problems between self-employed and employed workers have provided contradictory results. Many of the studies utilized scales validated for employed workers, without collecting validity evidence for making comparisons with self-employed. The aim of this study was (1) to collect validity evidence for three different scales assessing depressive symptoms, emotional exhaustion, and sleep disturbances for employed workers, and combinators; and (2) to test if these groups differed. We first conducted approximate measurement invariance analysis and found that all scales were invariant at the scalar level. Self-employed workers had least mental health problems and employed workers had most, but differences were small. Though we found the scales invariant, we do not find them optimal for comparison of means. To be more precise in describing differences between groups, we recommend using clinical cut-offs or scales developed with the specific purpose of assessing mental health problems at work.
  • Bruno Pena Gralle, Ana Paula, et al. (författare)
  • Job strain and binge eating among Brazilian workers participating in the ELSA-Brasil study : does BMI matter?
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of Occupational Health. - 1341-9145 .- 1348-9585. ; 59:3, s. 247-255
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: To assess the association between job strain and binge eating as well as the effect-modifying influence of body mass index (BMI) on this association. Methods: A total of 11,951 active civil servants from the multicenter Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) was included in this cross-sectional analysis. Job strain was assessed using the Demand-Control-Support Questionnaire. Binge eating was defined as eating a large amount of food with a sense of lack of control over what and how much is eaten in less than 2 hours at least twice a week. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine the association between binge eating and job strain as well as its interaction with BMI. Results: After adjustment, and using low-strain job as the reference category, binge eating was associated with high-strain job (high demand/low control: odds ratio [OR]=1.58, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.26-1.98), active job (high demand/high control: OR=1.35, 95% CI 1.07-1.70), and passive job (low demand/low control: OR=1.24, 95% CI 1.01-1.53). Psychological job demands were positively associated with binge eating (OR=1.04, 95% CI 1.01-1.07), while greater job control and social support at work were each inversely associated with binge eating (OR=0.95, 95% CI 0.92-0.97 and OR=0.96, 95% CI 0.94-0.98, respectively). BMI modified the association between job strain and binge eating: Heavier psychological job demands were associated with higher odds of binge eating among obese participants, while a stronger inverse association between job control and binge eating was seen among slimmer participants. Conclusions: Job strain increases the odds of binge eating and this association is modified by BMI.
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