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  • Bergman, Louise E., et al. (författare)
  • Comparing Depressive Symptoms, Emotional Exhaustion, and Sleep Disturbances in Self-Employed and Employed Workers : Application of Approximate Bayesian Measurement Invariance
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychology. - : FRONTIERS MEDIA SA. - 1664-1078 .- 1664-1078. ; 11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Studies investigating differences in mental health problems between self-employed and employed workers have provided contradictory results. Many of the studies utilized scales validated for employed workers, without collecting validity evidence for making comparisons with self-employed. The aim of this study was (1) to collect validity evidence for three different scales assessing depressive symptoms, emotional exhaustion, and sleep disturbances for employed workers, and combinators; and (2) to test if these groups differed. We first conducted approximate measurement invariance analysis and found that all scales were invariant at the scalar level. Self-employed workers had least mental health problems and employed workers had most, but differences were small. Though we found the scales invariant, we do not find them optimal for comparison of means. To be more precise in describing differences between groups, we recommend using clinical cut-offs or scales developed with the specific purpose of assessing mental health problems at work.
  • Bruno Pena Gralle, Ana Paula, et al. (författare)
  • Job strain and binge eating among Brazilian workers participating in the ELSA-Brasil study : does BMI matter?
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of Occupational Health. - 1341-9145 .- 1348-9585. ; 59:3, s. 247-255
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: To assess the association between job strain and binge eating as well as the effect-modifying influence of body mass index (BMI) on this association. Methods: A total of 11,951 active civil servants from the multicenter Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) was included in this cross-sectional analysis. Job strain was assessed using the Demand-Control-Support Questionnaire. Binge eating was defined as eating a large amount of food with a sense of lack of control over what and how much is eaten in less than 2 hours at least twice a week. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine the association between binge eating and job strain as well as its interaction with BMI. Results: After adjustment, and using low-strain job as the reference category, binge eating was associated with high-strain job (high demand/low control: odds ratio [OR]=1.58, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.26-1.98), active job (high demand/high control: OR=1.35, 95% CI 1.07-1.70), and passive job (low demand/low control: OR=1.24, 95% CI 1.01-1.53). Psychological job demands were positively associated with binge eating (OR=1.04, 95% CI 1.01-1.07), while greater job control and social support at work were each inversely associated with binge eating (OR=0.95, 95% CI 0.92-0.97 and OR=0.96, 95% CI 0.94-0.98, respectively). BMI modified the association between job strain and binge eating: Heavier psychological job demands were associated with higher odds of binge eating among obese participants, while a stronger inverse association between job control and binge eating was seen among slimmer participants. Conclusions: Job strain increases the odds of binge eating and this association is modified by BMI.
  • Bujacz, Aleksandra, et al. (författare)
  • Not All Are Equal : A Latent Profile Analysis of Well-Being among the Self-Employed
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Happiness Studies. - : Springer Netherlands. - 1389-4978 .- 1573-7780. ; 21:5, s. 1661-1680
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This study uses a person-centered approach to distinguish between subpopulations of self-employed individuals using multidimensional well-being indicators. Data were obtained from European Social Survey including a sample of 3461 self-employed individuals from 29 European countries. The analysis has empirically identified six distinct profiles named ‘unhappy’, ‘languishing’, ‘happy’, ‘satisfied’, ‘passionate’, and ‘flourishing’. The profiles were associated with significant differences in well-being, health and work-related variables. The results highlight the heterogeneity of the self-employed population, and describe the complex—both hedonic and eudaimonic—character of the well-being concept in this population.
  • Canivet, Catarina, et al. (författare)
  • Precarious employment is a risk factor for poor mental health in young individuals in Sweden : a cohort study with multiple follow-ups
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: BMC Public Health. - : BioMed Central. - 1471-2458 .- 1471-2458. ; 16
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The globalisation of the economy and the labour markets has resulted in a growing proportion of individuals who find themselves in a precarious labour market situation, especially among the young. This pertains also to the Nordic countries, despite their characterisation as well developed welfare states with active labour market policies. This should be viewed against the background of a number of studies, which have shown that several aspects of precarious employment are detrimental to mental health. However, longitudinal studies from the Nordic region that examine the impact of precarious labour market conditions on mental health in young individuals are currently lacking. The present study aims to examine this impact in a general cohort of Swedish young people.METHODS: Postal questionnaires were sent out in 1999/2000 to a stratified random sample of the Scania population, Sweden; the response rate was 58 %. All of those who responded at baseline were invited to follow-ups after 5 and 10 years. Employment precariousness was determined based on detailed questions about present employment, previous unemployment, and self-rated risk of future unemployment. Mental health was assessed by GHQ-12. For this study individuals in the age range of 18-34 years at baseline, who were active in the labour market (employed or seeking job) and had submitted complete data from 1999/2000, 2005, and 2010 on employment precariousness and mental health status, were selected (N = 1135).RESULTS: Forty-two percent of the participants had a precarious employment situation at baseline. Labour market trajectories that included precarious employment in 1999/2000 or 2005 predicted poor mental health in 2010: the incidence ratio ratio was 1.4 (95 % CI: 1.1-2.0) when excluding all individuals with mental health problems at baseline and adjusting for age, gender, social support, social capital, and economic difficulties in childhood. The population attributable fraction regarding poor mental health in the studied age group was 18 %.CONCLUSIONS: This study supported the hypothesis that precarious employment should be regarded as an important social determinant for subsequent development of mental health problems in previously mentally healthy young people.
  • Dunlavy, Andrea C., et al. (författare)
  • Suicide risk among native- and foreign-origin persons in Sweden : a longitudinal examination of the role of unemployment status
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology. - : Dr. Dietrich Steinkopff Verlag GmbH and Co. KG. - 0933-7954 .- 1433-9285. ; 54:5, s. 579-590
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSE: Prior research has documented an association between unemployment and elevated suicide risk. Yet, few Swedish studies have explicitly considered how such risk may vary by different migration background characteristics among persons of foreign-origin, who often experience diverse forms of labor market marginalization. This study examines the extent to which unemployment status may differentially influence suicide risk among the foreign-origin by generational status, region of origin, age at arrival, and duration of residence.METHODS: Population-based registers were used to conduct a longitudinal, open cohort study of native-origin and foreign-origin Swedish residents of working age (25-64 years) from 1993 to 2008. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for suicide mortality were estimated using gender-stratified Cox proportional hazards models.RESULTS: Elevated suicide risk observed among foreign-origin unemployed groups was generally of a similar or lower magnitude than that found in unemployed native-origin, although unemployed second-generation Swedish men demonstrated significantly greater (p < 0.05) excess risk of suicide than that observed among their native-origin counterparts. Unemployed foreign-born men with a younger age at arrival and longer duration of residence demonstrated an increased risk of suicide, while those who arrived as adults, and a shorter duration of residence did not show any increased risk. Among foreign-born women, excess suicide risk persisted regardless of age at arrival and duration of residence in the long-term unemployed.CONCLUSIONS: Multiple migration background characteristics should be considered when examining relationships between employment status and suicide among the foreign-origin.
  • Fahlén Bergh, Cecilia, et al. (författare)
  • Factors of importance for discontinuation of thiazides associated with hyponatremia in Sweden: A population-based register study.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety. - 1053-8569 .- 1099-1557.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSE: In a patient with clinically significant hyponatremia without other clear causes, thiazide treatment should be replaced with another drug. Data describing to which extent this is being done are scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors that may be of importance for the withdrawal of thiazide diuretics in patients hospitalized due to hyponatremia.METHODS: The study population was sampled from a case-control study investigating individuals hospitalized with a main diagnosis of hyponatremia. For every case, four matched controls were included. In the present study, cases (n = 5204) and controls (n = 7425) that had been dispensed a thiazide diuretic prior to index date were identified and followed onward regarding further dispensations. To investigate the influence of socioeconomic and sociodemographic factors, multiple logistic regression was used.RESULTS: The crude prevalence of thiazide withdrawal for cases and controls was 71.9% and 10.8%, respectively. Thiazide diuretics were more often withdrawn in medium-sized towns (adjusted OR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.21-1.90) and rural areas (aOR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.40-2.34) compared with metropolitan areas and less so among divorced (aOR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.53-0.97). However, education, employment status, income, age, country of birth, and gender did not influence withdrawal of thiazides among patients with hyponatremia.CONCLUSIONS: Thiazide diuretics were discontinued in almost three out of four patients hospitalized due to hyponatremia. Educational, income, gender, and most other sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors were not associated with withdrawal of thiazides.
  • Fernandes Portela, Luciana, et al. (författare)
  • Job strain and self-reported insomnia symptoms among nurses : What about the influence of emotional demands and social support?
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: BioMed Research International. - 2314-6133 .- 2314-6141.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Job strain, derived from high psychological demands and low job control, is associated with insomnia, but information on the role of emotional demands and social support in this relationship is scarce. The aims of this study were (i) to test the association between job strain and self-reported insomnia symptoms, (ii) to evaluate the combination of emotional demands and job control regarding insomnia symptoms, and (iii) to analyze the influence of social support in these relationships. This cross-sectional study refers to a sample of nurses (N = 3,013 and N = 3,035 for Job Strain and Emotional demand-control model, resp.) working at public hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Data were collected through a self-report questionnaire. The prevalence of insomnia symptoms was 34.3%. Job strain was associated with increased odds for insomnia symptoms (OR: 2.20); the same result was observed with the combination of emotional demands and low job control (OR: 1.99). In both models, the inclusion of low social support combined with high demands and low job control led to increased odds for insomnia symptoms, compared to groups with high social support from coworkers and supervisors. Besides job strain, the study of emotional demands and social support are promising with regards to insomnia symptoms, particularly among nurses.
  • Griep Härter, Rosane, et al. (författare)
  • Years worked at night and body mass index among registered nurses from eighteen public hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: BMC Health Services Research. - 1472-6963 .- 1472-6963. ; 14, s. 603-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Employees working night shifts are at a greater risk of being overweight or obese. Few studies on obesity and weight gain analyze the years of exposure to night work. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the years of exposure to night work and body mass index (BMI) among registered nurses. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis was performed in 18 largest public hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A total of 2,372 registered nurses ( 2,100 women) completed a comprehensive questionnaire concerning sociodemographic, professional, lifestyle, and health behavioral data. Current and past exposures to night shifts as well as BMI values were measured as continuous variables. A gamma regression model was used with an identity link function to establish the association. Results: The association between years of exposure to night work and BMI was statistically significant for both women and men after adjusting for all covariates [beta = 0.036; CI95% = 0.009-0.063) and beta = 0.071 (CI95% = 0.012-0.129), respectively]. The effect of night work was greater among men than women. For example, for those women who have worked at night for 20 years the estimated average BMI was 25.6 kg/m(2) [range, 25.0-26.2]. In relation to men, after 20 years of exposure to night work the estimated average BMI was 26.9 kg/m(2) [range, 25.6-28.1]. Conclusions: These findings suggest that night shift exposure is related to BMI increases. Obesity prevention strategies should incorporate improvements in work environments, such as the provision of proper meals to night workers, in addition to educational programs on the health effects of night work.
  • Griep, Rosane Haerter, et al. (författare)
  • Job strain and unhealthy lifestyle : results from the baseline cohort study, Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: BMC Public Health. - 1471-2458 .- 1471-2458. ; 15
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Unhealthy lifestyle choices, such as smoking and sedentary behavior, are among the main modifiable risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases. The workplace is regarded as an important site of potential health risks where preventive strategies can be effective. We investigated independent associations among psychosocial job strain, leisure-time physical inactivity, and smoking in public servants in the largest Brazilian adult cohort. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)-a multicenter prospective cohort study of civil servants. Our analytical samples comprised 11,779 and 11,963 current workers for, respectively, analyses of job strain and leisure-time physical activity and analyses of job strain and smoking. Job strain was assessed using the Brazilian version of the Swedish Demand-Control-Support Questionnaire; physical activity was evaluated using a short form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. We also examined smoking status and number of cigarettes smoked per day. The association reported in this paper was assessed by means of multinomial and logistic regression, stratified by sex. Results: Among men, compared with low-strain activities (low demand and high control), job strain showed an association with physical inactivity (odds ratio [OR] = 1.34; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.09-1.64) or with the practice of physical activities of less than recommended duration (OR = 1.44; 95% CI = 1.15-1.82). Among women, greater likelihood of physical inactivity was identified among job-strain and passive-job groups (OR = 1.47; 95% CI = 1.22-1.77 and OR = 1.42; 95% CI = 1.20-1.67, respectively). Greater control at work was a protective factor for physical inactivity among both men and women. Social support at work was a protective factor for physical inactivity among women, as was smoking for both genders. We observed no association between demand or control dimensions and smoking. Conclusions: Job strain, job control, and social support were associated with physical activity. Social support at work was protective of smoking. Our results are comparable to those found in more developed countries; they provide additional evidence of an association between an adverse psychosocial work environment and health-related behaviors.
  • Harter Griep, R, et al. (författare)
  • Beyond simple approaches to studying the association between work characteristics and absenteeism : Combining the DCS and ERI models
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Work & Stress. - 0267-8373 .- 1464-5335. ; 24:2, s. 179-195
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Demand-Control-Support (DCS) and the Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) models assess different psychosocial factors. This study investigates whether a combination of these models increases their ability to predict sickness absence, as compared to results based on each model separately. A cross-sectional study with nursing personnel (N = 1307) in Brazil was performed. Regression analyses were conducted in three stages: analysis of each scale of the models and sickness absences; assessment of the independent association of each model with sickness absences; assessment of the associations of three combinations of models/scales with sickness absences: DC and social support (SS), ERI and overcommitment, and DC and ERI. As regards comparisons between the stress models, ERI was shown to be independently associated with short (up to 9 days) and long (10 days or more) spells of absenteeism. The same result held true for low social support. The combinations DC-ERI and DC-SS were better predictors for short spells than each model/scale separately, whereas for long spells, the combination DC-SS was the best predictor. ERI seems to be a good instrument for predicting absenteeism if used alone, whereas DC performed better when combined with ERI or SS. An improved risk estimation of sickness absences by combining information from the two models was observed.
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