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Sökning: WFRF:(Tolboom Nelleke)

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1.
  • Fällmar, David, et al. (författare)
  • Arterial spin labeling-based Z-maps have high specificity and positive predictive value for neurodegenerative dementia compared to FDG-PET.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: European Radiology. - 0938-7994 .- 1432-1084. ; 27:10, s. 4237-4246
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: Cerebral perfusion analysis based on arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI has been proposed as an alternative to FDG-PET in patients with neurodegenerative disease. Z-maps show normal distribution values relating an image to a database of controls. They are routinely used for FDG-PET to demonstrate disease-specific patterns of hypometabolism at the individual level. This study aimed to compare the performance of Z-maps based on ASL to FDG-PET.METHODS: Data were combined from two separate sites, each cohort consisting of patients with Alzheimer's disease (n = 18 + 7), frontotemporal dementia (n = 12 + 8) and controls (n = 9 + 29). Subjects underwent pseudocontinuous ASL and FDG-PET. Z-maps were created for each subject and modality. Four experienced physicians visually assessed the 166 Z-maps in random order, blinded to modality and diagnosis.RESULTS: Discrimination of patients versus controls using ASL-based Z-maps yielded high specificity (84%) and positive predictive value (80%), but significantly lower sensitivity compared to FDG-PET-based Z-maps (53% vs. 96%, p < 0.001). Among true-positive cases, correct diagnoses were made in 76% (ASL) and 84% (FDG-PET) (p = 0.168).CONCLUSION: ASL-based Z-maps can be used for visual assessment of neurodegenerative dementia with high specificity and positive predictive value, but with inferior sensitivity compared to FDG-PET.KEY POINTS: • ASL-based Z-maps yielded high specificity and positive predictive value in neurodegenerative dementia. • ASL-based Z-maps had significantly lower sensitivity compared to FDG-PET-based Z-maps. • FDG-PET might be reserved for ASL-negative cases where clinical suspicion persists. • Findings were similar at two study sites.
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3.
  • Heeman, Fiona, et al. (författare)
  • [11C]PIB amyloid quantification : effect of reference region selection
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: EJNMMI Research. - : BioMed Central (BMC). - 2191-219X. ; 10:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The standard reference region (RR) for amyloid-beta (Aβ) PET studies is the cerebellar grey matter (GMCB), while alternative RRs have mostly been utilized without prior validation against the gold standard. This study compared five commonly used RRs to gold standard plasma input-based quantification using the GMCB. Methods: Thirteen subjects from a test–retest (TRT) study and 30 from a longitudinal study were retrospectively included (total: 17 Alzheimer’s disease, 13 mild cognitive impairment, 13 controls). Dynamic [11C]PiB PET (90 min) and T1-weighted MR scans were co-registered and time–activity curves were extracted for cortical target regions and the following RRs: GMCB, whole cerebellum (WCB), white matter brainstem/pons (WMBS), whole brainstem (WBS) and eroded subcortical white matter (WMES). A two-tissue reversible plasma input model (2T4k_Vb) with GMCB as RR, reference Logan and the simplified reference tissue model were used to derive distribution volume ratios (DVRs), and standardized uptake value (SUV) ratios were calculated for 40–60 min and 60–90 min intervals. Parameter variability was evaluated using TRT scans, and correlations and agreements with the gold standard (DVR from 2T4k_Vb with GMCB RR) were also assessed. Next, longitudinal changes in SUVs (both intervals) were assessed for each RR. Finally, the ability to discriminate between visually Aβ positive and Aβ negative scans was assessed. Results: All RRs yielded stable TRT performance (max 5.1% variability), with WCB consistently showing lower variability. All approaches were able to discriminate between Aβ positive and Aβ negative scans, with highest effect sizes obtained for GMCB (range − 0.9 to − 0.7), followed by WCB (range − 0.8 to − 0.6). Furthermore, all approaches provided good correlations with the gold standard (r ≥ 0.78), while the highest bias (as assessed by the regression slope) was observed using WMES (range slope 0.52–0.67), followed by WBS (range slope 0.58–0.92) and WMBS (range slope 0.62–0.91). Finally, RR SUVs were stable across a period of 2.6 years for all except WBS and WMBS RRs (60–90 min interval). Conclusions: GMCB and WCB are considered the best RRs for quantifying amyloid burden using [11C]PiB PET.
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4.
  • Lopes Alves, Isadora, et al. (författare)
  • Strategies to reduce sample sizes in Alzheimer’s disease primary and secondary prevention trials using longitudinal amyloid PET imaging
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Alzheimer's Research and Therapy. - : BioMed Central (BMC). - 1758-9193. ; 13
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Detecting subtle-to-moderate biomarker changes such as those in amyloid PET imaging becomes increasingly relevant in the context of primary and secondary prevention of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). This work aimed to determine if and when distribution volume ratio (DVR; derived from dynamic imaging) and regional quantitative values could improve statistical power in AD prevention trials. Methods: Baseline and annualized % change in [11C]PIB SUVR and DVR were computed for a global (cortical) and regional (early) composite from scans of 237 cognitively unimpaired subjects from the OASIS-3 database (www.oasis-brains.org). Bland-Altman and correlation analyses were used to assess the relationship between SUVR and DVR. General linear models and linear mixed effects models were used to determine effects of age, sex, and APOE-ε4 carriership on baseline and longitudinal amyloid burden. Finally, differences in statistical power of SUVR and DVR (cortical or early composite) were assessed considering three anti-amyloid trial scenarios: secondary prevention trials including subjects with (1) intermediate-to-high (Centiloid > 20.1), or (2) intermediate (20.1 < Centiloid ≤ 49.4) amyloid burden, and (3) a primary prevention trial focusing on subjects with low amyloid burden (Centiloid ≤ 20.1). Trial scenarios were set to detect 20% reduction in accumulation rates across the whole population and in APOE-ε4 carriers only. Results: Although highly correlated to DVR (ρ =.96), cortical SUVR overestimated DVR cross-sectionally and in annual % change. In secondary prevention trials, DVR required 143 subjects per arm, compared with 176 for SUVR. Both restricting inclusion to individuals with intermediate amyloid burden levels or to APOE-ε4 carriers alone further reduced sample sizes. For primary prevention, SUVR required less subjects per arm (n = 855) compared with DVR (n = 1508) and the early composite also provided considerable sample size reductions (n = 855 to n = 509 for SUVR, n = 1508 to n = 734 for DVR). Conclusion: Sample sizes in AD secondary prevention trials can be reduced by the acquisition of dynamic PET scans and/or by restricting inclusion to subjects with intermediate amyloid burden or to APOE-ε4 carriers only. Using a targeted early composite only leads to reductions of sample size requirements in primary prevention trials. These findings support strategies to enable smaller Proof-of-Concept Phase II clinical trials to better streamline drug development.
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5.
  • van Assema, Danielle M. E., et al. (författare)
  • Blood-brain barrier P-glycoprotein function in Alzheimer's disease
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Brain. - 0006-8950 .- 1460-2156. ; 135, s. 181-189
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A major pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease is accumulation of amyloid-beta in senile plaques in the brain. Evidence is accumulating that decreased clearance of amyloid-beta from the brain may lead to these elevated amyloid-beta levels. One of the clearance pathways of amyloid-beta is transport across the blood-brain barrier via efflux transporters. P-glycoprotein, an efflux pump highly expressed at the endothelial cells of the blood-brain barrier, has been shown to transport amyloid-beta. P-glycoprotein function can be assessed in vivo using (R)-[C-11]verapamil and positron emission tomography. The aim of this study was to assess blood-brain barrier P-glycoprotein function in patients with Alzheimer's disease compared with age-matched healthy controls using (R)-[C-11]verapamil and positron emission tomography. In 13 patients with Alzheimer's disease (age 65 +/- 7 years, Mini-Mental State Examination 23 +/- 3), global (R)-[C-11]verapamil binding potential values were increased significantly (P = 0.001) compared with 14 healthy controls (aged 62 +/- 4 years, Mini-Mental State Examination 30 +/- 1). Global (R)-[C-11]verapamil binding potential values were 2.18 +/- 0.25 for patients with Alzheimer's disease and 1.77 +/- 0.41 for healthy controls. In patients with Alzheimer's disease, higher (R)-[C-11]verapamil binding potential values were found for frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital cortices, and posterior and anterior cingulate. No significant differences between groups were found for medial temporal lobe and cerebellum. These data show altered kinetics of (R)-[C-11]verapamil in Alzheimer's disease, similar to alterations seen in studies where P-glycoprotein is blocked by a pharmacological agent. As such, these data indicate that P-glycoprotein function is decreased in patients with Alzheimer's disease. This is the first direct evidence that the P-glycoprotein transporter at the blood-brain barrier is compromised in sporadic Alzheimer's disease and suggests that decreased P-glycoprotein function may be involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease.
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