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1.
  • Abouzayed, Ayman, et al. (författare)
  • Preclinical Evaluation of 99mTc-Labeled GRPR Antagonists maSSS/SES-PEG2-RM26 for Imaging of Prostate Cancer
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Pharmaceutics. - 1999-4923 .- 1999-4923. ; 13:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) is an important target for imaging of prostate cancer. The wide availability of single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) and the generator-produced 99mTc can be utilized to facilitate the use of GRPR-targeting radiotracers for diagnostics of prostate cancers.Methods: Synthetically produced mercaptoacetyl-Ser-Ser-Ser (maSSS)-PEG2-RM26 and mercaptoacetyl-Ser-Glu-Ser (maSES)-PEG2-RM26 (RM26 = d-Phe-Gln-Trp-Ala-Val-Gly-His-Sta-Leu-NH2) were radiolabeled with 99mTc and characterized in vitro using PC-3 cells and in vivo, using NMRI or PC-3 tumor bearing mice. SPECT/CT imaging and dosimetry calculations were performed for [99mTc]Tc-maSSS-PEG2-RM26.Results: Peptides were radiolabeled with high yields (>98%), demonstrating GRPR specific binding and slow internalization in PC-3 cells. [99mTc]Tc-maSSS-PEG2-RM26 outperformed [99mTc]Tc-maSES-PEG2-RM26 in terms of GRPR affinity, with a lower dissociation constant (61 pM vs 849 pM) and demonstrating higher tumor uptake. [99mTc]Tc-maSSS-PEG2-RM26 had tumor-to-blood, tumor-to-muscle, and tumor-to-bone ratios of 97 ± 56, 188 ± 32, and 177 ± 79, respectively. SPECT/CT images of [99mTc]Tc-maSSS-PEG2-RM26 clearly visualized the GRPR-overexpressing tumors. The dosimetry estimated for [99mTc]Tc-maSSS-PEG2-RM26 showed the highest absorbed dose in the small intestine (1.65 × 10−3 mGy/MBq), and the effective dose is 3.49 × 10−3 mSv/MBq.Conclusion: The GRPR antagonist maSSS-PEG2-RM26 is a promising GRPR-targeting agent that can be radiolabeled through a single-step with the generator-produced 99mTc and used for imaging of GRPR-expressing prostate cancer.
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2.
  • Bragina, Olga, et al. (författare)
  • Phase I study of 99mTc-ADAPT6, a scaffold protein-based probe for visualization of HER2 expression in breast cancer
  • Annan publikation (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Radionuclide molecular imaging of human epidermal growth factor (HER2) expression may be helpful to stratify breast and gastroesophageal cancer patients for HER2-targeting therapies. ADAPTs (albumin-binding domain derived affinity proteins) are a new type of small (46-59 amino acids) proteins useful as probes for molecular imaging. The aim of this first in-human study was to evaluate biodistribution, dosimetry, and safety of HER2-specific 99mTc-ADAPT6.METHODS. Twenty-two patients with HER2-positive (n=11) or HER2-negative (n=11) primary breast cancer were intravenously injected with 385125 MBq. The injected amount of protein was either 500 μg (n=11) or 1000 μg (n=11). Planar scintigraphy followed by SPECT imaging was performed after 2, 4, 6 and 24 h. An additional cohort received a dose of 250 μg, and the planar scintigraphy followed by SPECT imaging was performed after 2 h only.RESULTS. Injection of 99mTc-ADAPT6 was well tolerated for all doses evaluated in the study, and was not associated with any adverse effects. 99mTc-ADAPT6 cleared rapidly from the blood and the majority of tissues. The normal organs with the highest accumulation were kidney, liver and lung. The effective doses were determined to 0.0090.002 and 0.0100.003 mSv/MBq when injecting protein amounts of 500 and 1000 μg, respectively. Injection of 500 μg resulted in excellent discrimination between HER2-positive and HER2-negative tumors already 2 h after injection (tumor-to-contralateral breast ratio was 3719 vs 52, p < 0.01). The tumor-to-contralateral breast ratios for HER2-positive tumors were significantly (p < 0.5) higher for the injected  mass of 500 μg than for both 250 and 1000 μg. In one patient, the imaging using 99mTc-ADAPT6 revealed three bone metastases, which were not found at the time of diagnosis by CT or 99mTcpyrophosphate bone scan. MRI imaging confirmed this finding.CONCLUSION. Injections of 99mTc-ADAPT6 are safe and associated with low absorbed and effective doses. A protein dose of 500 μg is preferable for discrimination between tumors with high and low expression of HER2. 99mTc-ADAPT6 is a promising imaging probe for the stratification of patients for HER2-targeting therapy.
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3.
  • Bragina, Olga, et al. (författare)
  • Phase I study of 99mTc-ADAPT6, a scaffold protein-based probe for visualization of HER2 expression in breast cancer
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Journal of Nuclear Medicine. - : Society of Nuclear Medicine. - 0161-5505 .- 1535-5667. ; 62:4, s. 493-499
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Radionuclide molecular imaging of human epidermal growth factor (HER2) expression may be helpful to stratify breast and gastroesophageal cancer patients for HER2-targeting therapies. ADAPTs (albumin-binding domain derived affinity proteins) are a new type of small (46-59 amino acids) proteins useful as probes for molecular imaging. The aim of this first-in-human study was to evaluate biodistribution, dosimetry, and safety of the HER2-specific 99mTc-ADAPT6.METHODS: Twenty-nine patients with primary breast cancerwere included. In 22 patients with HER2-positive (n = 11) or HER2-negative (n = 11) histopathology an intravenous injection with 385±125 MBq 99mTc-ADAPT6 was performed, randomized to an injected protein mass of either 500 µg (n = 11) or 1000 µg (n = 11). Planar scintigraphy followed by SPECT imaging was performed after 2, 4, 6 and 24 h. An additional cohort (n = 7) was injected with 165±29 MBq (injected protein mass 250 µg) and imaging was performed after 2 h only.RESULTS: Injections of 99mTc-ADAPT6 at all injected mass levels were well tolerated and not associated with adverse effects. 99mTc-ADAPT6 cleared rapidly from blood and most other tissues. The normal organs with the highest accumulation were kidney, liver and lung. Effective doses were 0.009±0.002 and 0.010±0.003 mSv/MBq for injected protein masses of 500 and 1000 µg, respectively. Injection of 500 µg resulted in excellent discrimination between HER2-positive and HER2-negative tumors already 2 h after injection (tumor-to-contralateral breast ratio was 37±19 vs 5±2, p<0.01). The tumor-to-contralateral breast ratios for HER2-positive tumors were significantly (p<0.05) higher for injected mass of 500 µg than for both 250 and 1000 µg.CONCLUSION: Injections of 99mTc-ADAPT6 are safe and associated with low absorbed and effective doses. Protein dose of 500 µg is preferable for discrimination between tumors with high and low expression of HER2. Further studies are justified to evaluate if 99mTc-ADAPT6 can be used as an imaging probe for stratification of patients for HER2-targeting therapy in the areas where PET imaging is not readily available.
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4.
  • Bragina, Olga, et al. (författare)
  • Phase I Trial of 99mTc-(HE)3-G3, a DARPin-Based Probe for Imaging of HER2 Expression in Breast Cancer
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Journal of Nuclear Medicine. - : Society of Nuclear Medicine. - 0161-5505 .- 1535-5667. ; 63:4, s. 528-535
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Radionuclide molecular imaging of human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2) expression may enable a noninvasive discrimination between HER2-positive and HER2-negative breast cancers for stratification of patients for HER2-targeted treatments. DARPin (designed ankyrin repeat proteins) G3 is a small (molecular weight, 14 kDa) scaffold protein with picomolar affinity to HER2. The aim of this first-in-humans study was to evaluate the safety, biodistribution, and dosimetry of 99mTc-(HE)3-G3.Methods: Three cohorts of patients with primary breast cancer (each including at least 4 patients with HER2-negative and 5 patients with HER2-positive tumors) were injected with 1,000, 2,000, or 3,000 μg of 99mTc-(HE)3-G3 (287 ± 170 MBq). Whole-body planar imaging followed by SPECT was performed at 2, 4, 6, and 24 h after injection. Vital signs and possible side effects were monitored during imaging and up to 7 d after injection.Results: All injections were well tolerated. No side effects were observed. The results of blood and urine analyses did not differ before and after studies. 99mTc-(HE)3-G3 cleared rapidly from the blood. The highest uptake was detected in the kidneys and liver followed by the lungs, breasts, and small intestinal content. The hepatic uptake after injection of 2,000 or 3,000 μg was significantly (P < 0.05) lower than the uptake after injection of 1,000 μg. Effective doses did not differ significantly between cohorts (average, 0.011 ± 0.004 mSv/MBq). Tumor–to–contralateral site ratios for HER-positive tumors were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than for HER2-negative at 2 and 4 h after injection.Conclusion: Imaging of HER2 expression using 99mTc-(HE)3-G3 is safe and well tolerated and provides a low absorbed dose burden on patients. This imaging enables discernment of HER2-positive and HER2-negative breast cancer. Phase I study data justify further clinical development of 99mTc-(HE)3-G3.
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5.
  • Chernov, Vladimir, et al. (författare)
  • Phase I Clinical Trial Using [Tc-99m]Tc-1-thio-D-glucose for Diagnosis of Lymphoma Patients
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Pharmaceutics. - : MDPI AG. - 1999-4923 .- 1999-4923. ; 14:6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Similar to [F-18]-FDG, [Tc-99m]Tc-1-thio-D-glucose ([Tc-99m]Tc-TG) also binds to GLUT receptors. The aim of this Phase I study was to evaluate the safety, biodistribution and dosimetry of [Tc-99m]Tc-TG. Twelve lymphoma patients were injected with 729 +/- 102 MBq [Tc-99m]Tc-TG. Whole-body planar imaging was performed in 10 patients at 2, 4, 6 and 24 h after injection. In all 12 patients, SPECT/CT (at 2 h) and SPECT (at 4 and 6 h) imaging was performed. Vital signs and possible side effects were monitored during imaging and up to 7 days after injection. [Tc-99m]Tc-TG injections were well-tolerated and no side effects or alterations in blood and urine analyses data were observed. The highest absorbed dose was in the kidneys and urinary bladder wall, followed by the adrenals, prostate, bone marrow, lungs, myocardium, ovaries, uterus, liver and gall bladder wall. [Tc-99m]Tc-TG SPECT/CT revealed foci of high activity uptake in the lymph nodes of all nine patients with known nodal lesions. Extranodal lesions were detected in all nine cases. In one patient, a lesion in the humerus head, which was not detected by CT, was visualized using [Tc-99m]Tc-TG. Potentially, [Tc-99m]Tc-TG can be considered as an additional diagnostic method for imaging GLUT receptors in lymphoma patients.
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6.
  • Deyev, Sergey, et al. (författare)
  • Comparative Evaluation of Two DARPin Variants : Effect of Affinity, Size, and Label on Tumor Targeting Properties
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Molecular Pharmaceutics. - : AMER CHEMICAL SOC. - 1543-8384 .- 1543-8392. ; 16:3, s. 995-1008
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Designed ankyrin repeat proteins (DARPins) are small engineered scaffold proteins that can be selected for binding to desirable molecular targets. High affinity and small size of DARPins render them promising probes for radionuclide molecular imaging. However, detailed knowledge on many factors influencing their imaging properties is still lacking. We have evaluated two human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2)-specific DARPins with different size and binding properties. DARPins 9_29-H-6 and G3-H-6 were radiolabeled with iodine-125 and tricarbonyl technetium-99m and evaluated in vitro. A side-by-side comparison of biodistribution and tumor targeting was performed. HER2-specific tumor accumulation of G3-H-6 was demonstrated. A combination of smaller size and higher affinity resulted in a higher tumor uptake of G3-H-6 in comparison to 9_29-H6. Technetium-99m labeled G3-H-6 demonstrated a better biodistribution profile than 9_29-H-6, with several-fold lower uptake in liver. Radioiodinated G3-H-6 showed the best tumor-to-organ ratios. The combined effect of affinity, molecular weight, scaffold composition, and nonresidualizing properties of iodine label provided radioiodinated G3-H-6 with high clinical potential for imaging of HER2.
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7.
  • Oroujeni, Maryam, PhD, 1982-, et al. (författare)
  • Preclinical Evaluation of Tc-99m-ZHER2:41071, a Second-Generation Affibody-Based HER2-Visualizing Imaging Probe with a Low Renal Uptake
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Molecular Sciences. - : MDPI. - 1661-6596 .- 1422-0067. ; 22:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Radionuclide imaging of HER2 expression in tumours may enable stratification of patients with breast, ovarian, and gastroesophageal cancers for HER2-targeting therapies. A first-generation HER2-binding affibody molecule [Tc-99m]Tc-ZHER2:V2 demonstrated favorable imaging properties in preclinical studies. Thereafter, the affibody scaffold has been extensively modified, which increased its melting point, improved storage stability, and increased hydrophilicity of the surface. In this study, a second-generation affibody molecule (designated ZHER2:41071) with a new improved scaffold has been prepared and characterized. HER2-binding, biodistribution, and tumour-targeting properties of [Tc-99m]Tc-labelled ZHER2:41071 were investigated. These properties were compared with properties of the first-generation affibody molecules, [Tc-99m]Tc-ZHER2:V2 and [Tc-99m]Tc-ZHER2:2395. [Tc-99m]Tc-ZHER2:41071 bound specifically to HER2 expressing cells with an affinity of 58 +/- 2 pM. The renal uptake for [Tc-99m]Tc-ZHER2:41071 and [Tc-99m]Tc-ZHER2:V2 was 25-30 fold lower when compared with [Tc-99m]Tc-ZHER2:2395. The uptake in tumour and kidney for [Tc-99m]Tc-ZHER2:41071 and [Tc-99m]Tc-ZHER2:V2 in SKOV-3 xenografts was similar. In conclusion, an extensive re-engineering of the scaffold did not compromise imaging properties of the affibody molecule labelled with Tc-99m using a GGGC chelator. The new probe, [Tc-99m]Tc-ZHER2:41071 provided the best tumour-to-blood ratio compared to HER2-imaging probes for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) described in the literature so far. [Tc-99m]Tc-ZHER2:41071 is a promising candidate for further clinical translation studies.
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8.
  • Tolmachev, Vladimir, et al. (författare)
  • Targeted nuclear medicine. Seek and destroy
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Russian Chemical Reviews. - : IOP Publishing. - 0036-021X .- 1468-4837. ; 91:3
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The targeted delivery of radionuclides to tumours holds great promise for diagnosis and treatment of malignant neoplasms. The development of scaffold proteins has significantly simplified the design of targeting agents with desirable properties. This review comprehensively describes the key aspects of the design of radionuclide compounds, including classification of radionuclides, methodology for their attachment to targeting agents and characteristics of these agents that affect their behaviour in the body. Various targeting molecules are compared in terms of their ability to specifically find malignant foci in the body. The most recent achievements of cancer theranostics that aim at increasing the selectivity of antitumour effect are described, such as the fusion of targeting scaffold proteins with the albumin-binding domain and pretargeting. Special attention is paid to the creation of targeted radionanomaterials. Advantages and disadvantages of different strategies are analyzed and approaches for improving the delivery to tumours and for minimizing the undesirable impact on healthy organs and tissues are proposed. Particular emphasis is placed on the results of studies published in 2020 ?? 2021 that have not yet been covered by reviews.
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9.
  • Vorobyeva, Anzhelika, et al. (författare)
  • Comparative Evaluation of Radioiodine and Technetium-Labeled DARPin 9_29 for Radionuclide Molecular Imaging of HER2 Expression in Malignant Tumors
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging. - : WILEY-HINDAWI. - 1555-4309 .- 1555-4317.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • High expression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) in breast and gastroesophageal carcinomas is a predictive biomarker for treatment using HER2-targeted therapeutics (antibodies trastuzumab and pertuzumab, antibody-drug conjugate trastuzumab DM1, and tyrosine kinase inhibitor lapatinib). Radionuclide molecular imaging of HER2 expression might permit stratification of patients for HER2-targeting therapies. In this study, we evaluated a new HER2-imaging probe based on the designed ankyrin repeat protein (DARPin) 9_29. DARPin 9_29 was labeled with iodine-125 by direct radioiodination and with [Tc-99m] Tc(CO)(3) using the C-terminal hexahistidine tag. DARPin 9_29 preserved high specificity and affinity of binding to HER2-expressing cells after labeling. Uptake of [I-125] I-DARPin 9_29 and [Tc-99m] Tc(CO)(3)-DARPin 9_29 in HER2-positive SKOV-3 xenografts in mice at 6 h after injection was 3.4 +/- 0.7 % ID/g and 2.9 +/- 0.7 % ID/g, respectively. This was significantly (p < 0.00005) higher than the uptake of the same probes in HER2-negative Ramos lymphoma xenografts, 0.22 +/- 0.09 % ID/g and 0.30 +/- 0.05 % ID/g, respectively. Retention of [I-125] I-DARPin 9_29 in the lung, liver, spleen, and kidneys was appreciably lower compared with [Tc-99m] Tc(CO)(3)-DARPin 9_29, which resulted in significantly (p < 0.05) higher tumor-to-organ ratios. The biodistribution data were confirmed by SPECT/CT imaging. In conclusion, radioiodine is a preferable label for DARPin 9_29.
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10.
  • Vorobyeva, Anzhelika, et al. (författare)
  • Optimal composition and position of histidine-containing tags improves biodistribution of Tc-99m-labeled DARP in G3
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - : NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 2045-2322. ; 9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Radionuclide molecular imaging of HER2 expression in disseminated cancer enables stratification of patients for HER2-targeted therapies. DARP in G3, a small (14 kDa) engineered scaffold protein, is a promising probe for imaging of HER2. We hypothesized that position (C- or N-terminus) and composition (hexahistidine or (HE)(3)) of histidine-containing tags would influence the biodistribution of [Tc-99m]Tc(CO)(3)-labeled DARP in G3. To test the hypothesis, G3 variants containing tags at N-terminus (H-6-G3 and (HE)(3)-G3) or at C-terminus (G3-H-6 and G3-(HE)(3)) were labeled with [Tc-99m]Tc(CO)(3). Labeling yield, label stability, specificity and affinity of the binding to HER2, biodistribution and tumor targeting properties of these variants were compared side-by-side. There was no substantial influence of position and composition of the tags on binding of [Tc-99m]Tc(CO)(3)-labeled variants to HER2. The specificity of HER2 targeting in vivo was confirmed. The tumor uptake in BALB/c nu/nu mice bearing SKOV3 xenografts was similar for all variants. On the opposite, there was a strong influence of the tags on uptake in normal tissues. The tumor-to-liver ratio for [Tc-99m]Tc(CO)(3)-(HE)(3)-G3 was three-fold higher compared to the hexahistidine-tag containing variants. Overall, [Tc-99m]Tc(CO)(3)-(HE)(3)-G3 variant provided the highest tumor-to-lung, tumor-to-liver, tumor-to-bone and tumor-to-muscle ratios, which should improve sensitivity of HER2 imaging in these common metastatic sites.
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