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2.
  • Andersson, Eva, 1955, et al. (författare)
  • Lung function and paper dust exposure among workers in a soft tissue paper mill.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: International archives of occupational and environmental health. - 1432-1246.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To study respiratory effects of exposure to soft paper dust exposure, a relationship that is rarely studied.Soft tissue paper mill workers at a Swedish paper mill were investigated using a questionnaire and lung function and atopy screening. Spirometry without bronchodilation was performed with a dry wedge spirometer, and forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) were obtained and expressed as percent predicted. Exposure to soft paper dust was assessed from historical stationary and personal measurements of total dust, in addition to historical information about the work, department, and production. The impact of high exposure to soft paper dust (> 5 mg/m3) vs. lower exposure ≤ 5 mg/m3, as well as cumulative exposure, was analyzed using multiple linear regression models. Multivariate models were adjusted for smoking, atopy, gender, and body mass index.One hundred ninety-eight current workers (124 male and 74 female) were included. There were significant associations between both cumulative exposure and years of high exposure to soft paper dust and impaired lung function. Each year of high exposure to soft paper dust was associated with a 0.87% decrease in FEV1 [95% confidence interval (CI) - 1.39 to - 0.35] and decreased FVC (- 0.54%, 95% CI - 1.00 to - 0.08) compared to the lower exposed workers.The present study shows that occupational exposure to soft paper dust (years exceeding 5 mg/m3 total dust) is associated with lung function impairment and increased prevalence of obstructive lung function impairment.
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  • Axelsson, Malin, 1964, et al. (författare)
  • Personality, adherence, asthma control and health-related quality of life in young adult asthmatics.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Respiratory medicine. - : Elsevier. - 1532-3064 .- 0954-6111. ; 103:7, s. 1033-40
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Striving for improved adherence and asthma control is of vital concern in today's asthma management. Several influential factors have been identified, but the importance of personality traits has been insufficiently explored. The aim was first to determine whether personality traits in young adult asthmatics are related to asthma control and health-related quality of life (HRQL), and second to examine the influences of personality traits on adherence to regular asthma medication treatment. METHODS: Young adult asthmatics, 22 years of age (n=268) completed questionnaires. Statistical analyses were performed. RESULTS: The personality traits Negative Affectivity and Impulsivity correlated negatively with asthma control, whereas in women Hedonic Capacity correlated positively with asthma control. Negative Affectivity, Impulsivity, Hedonic Capacity, Alexithymia and asthma control predicted the mental dimension of HRQL. Asthma control and physical activity predicted the physical dimension of HRQL. Among respondents with regular asthma medication (n=109), Impulsivity correlated negatively with adherence. In men, Antagonism and Alexithymia were associated with low adherence. Additionally, Alexithymia, Hedonic Capacity and Negative Affectivity showed non-linear relationships with adherence, meaning that initially increased scores on these personality traits scales were associated with increased adherence but higher scores did not increase adherence. Respondents who were prescribed a single inhaler combining ICS and LABA reported higher adherence than those with monotherapies. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that personality can influence how asthma patients adhere to asthma medication treatment, and report their control and HRQL. Tools determining personality traits may be useful in the future in individualizing management of asthma patients.
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  • Fardell, Camilla, et al. (författare)
  • High IQ in Early Adulthood is Associated with Parkinson´s Disease
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Parkinson's Disease. - 1877-7171 .- 1877-718X. ; 10:4, s. 1649-1656
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: High education level and high occupational complexity have been implicated as risk factors for Parkinson’s disease (PD). Objective: The objective was to determine whether cognitive capacity, measured as IQ, in early adulthood is associated with the subsequent development of PD. Method: Data on IQ were retrieved from the Swedish Military Service Conscription Registry, comprising Swedish males who enlisted for military service in the period 1968–1993 (N = 1,319,235). After exclusion, 1,189,134 subjects in total were included in the present study. Individuals who later developed PD (N = 1,724) were identified using the Swedish National Patient Register and the Swedish Cause of Death Register. Results: High education level was associated with PD. High IQ was associated with PD (p < 0.0001), both when analyzed as a continuous variable and when divided into three categories. The hazard ratio for the high IQ category compared to the low IQ category was 1.35 (95% confidence interval 1.17–1.55). Strong test results on the subtests, measuring verbal, logic, visuospatial and technical abilities, were also associated with PD. In a subgroup, smoking was inversely associated with PD, as well as with IQ. Conclusions: This study identifies high IQ to be a risk factor for PD.
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5.
  • Fardell, Camilla, et al. (författare)
  • The erythrocyte sedimentation rate in male adolescents and subsequent risk of Parkinson’s disease: an observational study
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Journal of Neurology. - 0340-5354 .- 1432-1459. ; 268, s. 1508-1516
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Systemic inflammation may be implicated in the pathophysiology of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Since PD occurs usually in later life, most studies of causal factors are conducted in older populations, so potentially important influences from early life cannot be adequately captured. We investigated whether the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) in early adulthood is associated with the subsequent development of PD in men. As part of Swedish national conscription testing conducted from 1968 through 1983 (N = 716,550), the erythrocyte sedimentation rate, as a measure of inflammation, was measured in 659,278 young men. The cohort was observed for subsequent PD events (N = 1513) through December 2016. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the hazard ratios (HR) with 95% CI with adjustment for potential confounders. Individuals with higher ESRs were significantly less likely to be diagnosed with PD, as ESR was linearly and inversely associated with PD risk. The magnitude of the association between ESR and PD risk was similar for increases up to 15 mm/h, leveled off thereafter, and was non-significant for ESR values > 20 mm/h. The HR for PD with basic adjustments (age at conscription, year of conscription, test center and erythrocyte volume fraction) was 0.94 (95% CI 0.89–0.99, P = 0.02) per log2 increase in ESR, corresponding to a two-fold increase in ESR. Further adjustments for potential confounders (parental education, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and IQ) scarcely altered the HR. The results suggest a prospective association between high ESR and reduced risk for PD.
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6.
  • Fredriksson, Sofie, 1983, et al. (författare)
  • Preschool teachers have an increased risk of hearing-related symptoms and report more occupational noise exposure compared to randomly selected women
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Occupational Health: Think Globally, Act Locally, EPICOH 2016, September 4–7, 2016, Barcelona, Spain. Occupational & Environmental Medicine. ; 73:A191
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Noise-induced hearing disorder has been thoroughly studied among workers in industry-like settings, but less so in female-dominated occupations. In Sweden, noise-related occupational disease among women are reported most frequently in the education sector. We analysed questionnaires from 4,932 women with preschool teacher’s degree who have worked in preschool compared to 5,065 randomly selected women without preschool work-history (response rate 51% vs. 38%). The age range was 24–71 in both cohorts (mean 46 [SD 11] among preschool teachers and 51 [11] among controls). Prevalence and prevalence ratio in age-strata and Mantel-Haenszel pooled risk were calculated for hearing-related symptoms. Noise exposure was compared between the cohorts. A 5% level of significance was applied. Occupational noise exposure and noise annoyance were significantly more common among teachers than controls: 75% vs.31% and 69% vs.26%, respectively. Still, significantly fewer teachers used hearing protection: 3% vs. 4%. Prevalence of hearing-related symptoms was much higher among teachers than controls: sound-induced auditory fatigue (71% [95% CI: 70–72] vs. 31% [30–32]), difficulty perceiving speech (46% [45–47] vs. 26% [25–27] and hyperacusis (38% [37–39] vs. 18% [17–19] and slightly higher for hearing loss (19% [18–20] vs. 17% [6–18] and tinnitus (19% [18–20] vs. 15% [14–16]. Teachers had a twofold risk of sound-induced auditory fatigue (PR-MH 2.2 [95% CI: 2.1–2.3] and hyperacusis (PR-MH 2.1 [1.9–2.2] compared to controls, when adjusted for age. The risk was also increased for difficulty perceiving speech (PR-MH 1.8 [1.7–1.9], tinnitus (PR-MH 1.4 [1.3–1.6] and hearing loss (PR-MH 1.4 [1.3–1.5]. Mean age of onset was significantly lower among teachers for all symptoms, except for hyperacusis (p = 0.902). Leisure-noise was significantly more common among controls. Family history of hearing loss did not differ (p = 0.411). The study is the first to show that preschool teachers have an increased risk of hearing-related symptoms, which may be caused by the work environment.
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  • Kim, Jeong-Lim, et al. (författare)
  • Trends in the prevalence of asthma, rhinitis, and eczema in 15 year old adolescents over an 8 year period
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Respiratory Medicine. - 0954-6111. ; 108:5, s. 701-708
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Trends in prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases are still controversial, and rarely studied among adolescents at midpoint of puberty. Methods: In 2000, a questionnaire was mailed to adolescents (n = 18,158) attending 9th grade at school and living in Vastra Gotaland County, Sweden. Eight years later, the same questionnaire was mailed to adolescents (n = 21,651), using identical inclusion criteria as previously. Altogether, 10,837 adolescents completed the questionnaire in 2000 and 11,754 in 2008. Differences in prevalence of physician diagnosed asthma, asthma symptoms, rhinitis, and eczema between the periods were analyzed by Chi-square test. Multiple logistic regression models were performed to test for trends in prevalence of these diseases, adjusting for potential con-founders. Results: Physician diagnosed asthma and lifetime and current rhinitis were increased in 2008, while wheeze decreased (p < 0.05). Taking sex, foreign descent, body mass index, and parents' education into account, the prevalence of physician diagnosed asthma (OR 1.3 [95% CI 1.2-1.4]) and lifetime (1.7 [1.6-1.8]) and current rhinitis (1.5 [1.4-1.6]) had increased. Eczema had decreased (0.9 [0.8-0.98]). These trends were consistent in boys and girls, but more prominent in those with obesity. In physician diagnosed asthmatics, there was no change in wheeze, asthma symptoms, or asthma medication. Conclusions: The prevalence of physician diagnosed asthma has increased over the last decade, maybe due to combinations of changes in diagnostics and increased general awareness, rather than a real increase. Results showed an increase in rhinitis and a decrease in eczema. Obesity seems to have a modifying effect, which calls for further investigation. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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