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Sökning: WFRF:(Trost S.)

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1.
  • Thompson, Paul M., et al. (författare)
  • The ENIGMA Consortium : large-scale collaborative analyses of neuroimaging and genetic data
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: BRAIN IMAGING BEHAV. - 1931-7557 .- 1931-7565. ; 8:2, s. 153-182
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium is a collaborative network of researchers working together on a range of large-scale studies that integrate data from 70 institutions worldwide. Organized into Working Groups that tackle questions in neuroscience, genetics, and medicine, ENIGMA studies have analyzed neuroimaging data from over 12,826 subjects. In addition, data from 12,171 individuals were provided by the CHARGE consortium for replication of findings, in a total of 24,997 subjects. By meta-analyzing results from many sites, ENIGMA has detected factors that affect the brain that no individual site could detect on its own, and that require larger numbers of subjects than any individual neuroimaging study has currently collected. ENIGMA's first project was a genome-wide association study identifying common variants in the genome associated with hippocampal volume or intracranial volume. Continuing work is exploring genetic associations with subcortical volumes (ENIGMA2) and white matter microstructure (ENIGMA-DTI). Working groups also focus on understanding how schizophrenia, bipolar illness, major depression and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affect the brain. We review the current progress of the ENIGMA Consortium, along with challenges and unexpected discoveries made on the way.
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  • Hibar, D. P., et al. (författare)
  • Cortical abnormalities in bipolar disorder: An MRI analysis of 6503 individuals from the ENIGMA Bipolar Disorder Working Group
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Molecular Psychiatry. - 1359-4184 .- 1476-5578. ; 23:4, s. 932-942
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Despite decades of research, the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD) is still not well understood. Structural brain differences have been associated with BD, but results from neuroimaging studies have been inconsistent. To address this, we performed the largest study to date of cortical gray matter thickness and surface area measures from brain magnetic resonance imaging scans of 6503 individuals including 1837 unrelated adults with BD and 2582 unrelated healthy controls for group differences while also examining the effects of commonly prescribed medications, age of illness onset, history of psychosis, mood state, age and sex differences on cortical regions. In BD, cortical gray matter was thinner in frontal, temporal and parietal regions of both brain hemispheres. BD had the strongest effects on left pars opercularis (Cohen's d='0.293; P=1.71 × 10 '21), left fusiform gyrus (d='0.288; P=8.25 × 10 '21) and left rostral middle frontal cortex (d='0.276; P=2.99 × 10 '19). Longer duration of illness (after accounting for age at the time of scanning) was associated with reduced cortical thickness in frontal, medial parietal and occipital regions. We found that several commonly prescribed medications, including lithium, antiepileptic and antipsychotic treatment showed significant associations with cortical thickness and surface area, even after accounting for patients who received multiple medications. We found evidence of reduced cortical surface area associated with a history of psychosis but no associations with mood state at the time of scanning. Our analysis revealed previously undetected associations and provides an extensive analysis of potential confounding variables in neuroimaging studies of BD. © 2018 Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature. All rights reserved.
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  • Hibar, D. P., et al. (författare)
  • Subcortical volumetric abnormalities in bipolar disorder
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Molecular Psychiatry. - 1359-4184 .- 1476-5578. ; 21:12, s. 1710-1716
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Considerable uncertainty exists about the defining brain changes associated with bipolar disorder (BD). Understanding and quantifying the sources of uncertainty can help generate novel clinical hypotheses about etiology and assist in the development of biomarkers for indexing disease progression and prognosis. Here we were interested in quantifying case-control differences in intracranial volume (ICV) and each of eight subcortical brain measures: nucleus accumbens, amygdala, caudate, hippocampus, globus pallidus, putamen, thalamus, lateral ventricles. In a large study of 1710 BD patients and 2594 healthy controls, we found consistent volumetric reductions in BD patients for mean hippocampus (Cohen's d=-0.232; P=3.50 × 10 -7) and thalamus (d=-0.148; P=4.27 × 10 -3) and enlarged lateral ventricles (d=-0.260; P=3.93 × 10 -5) in patients. No significant effect of age at illness onset was detected. Stratifying patients based on clinical subtype (BD type I or type II) revealed that BDI patients had significantly larger lateral ventricles and smaller hippocampus and amygdala than controls. However, when comparing BDI and BDII patients directly, we did not detect any significant differences in brain volume. This likely represents similar etiology between BD subtype classifications. Exploratory analyses revealed significantly larger thalamic volumes in patients taking lithium compared with patients not taking lithium. We detected no significant differences between BDII patients and controls in the largest such comparison to date. Findings in this study should be interpreted with caution and with careful consideration of the limitations inherent to meta-analyzed neuroimaging comparisons. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature.
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  • Huber, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • Metabolic correlates of dopaminergic loss in dementia with lewy bodies
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Movement Disorders. - : WILEY. - 0885-3185 .- 1531-8257.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Striatal dopamine deficiency and metabolic changes are well-known phenomena in dementia with Lewy bodies and can be quantified in vivo by I-123-Ioflupane brain single-photon emission computed tomography of dopamine transporter and F-18-fluorodesoxyglucose PET. However, the linkage between both biomarkers is ill-understood. Objective We used the hitherto largest study cohort of combined imaging from the European consortium to elucidate the role of both biomarkers in the pathophysiological course of dementia with Lewy bodies. Methods We compared striatal dopamine deficiency and glucose metabolism of 84 dementia with Lewy body patients and comparable healthy controls. After normalization of data, we tested their correlation by region-of-interest-based and voxel-based methods, controlled for study center, age, sex, education, and current cognitive impairment. Metabolic connectivity was analyzed by inter-region coefficients stratified by dopamine deficiency and compared to healthy controls. Results There was an inverse relationship between striatal dopamine availability and relative glucose hypermetabolism, pronounced in the basal ganglia and in limbic regions. With increasing dopamine deficiency, metabolic connectivity showed strong deteriorations in distinct brain regions implicated in disease symptoms, with greatest disruptions in the basal ganglia and limbic system, coincident with the pattern of relative hypermetabolism. Conclusions Relative glucose hypermetabolism and disturbed metabolic connectivity of limbic and basal ganglia circuits are metabolic correlates of dopamine deficiency in dementia with Lewy bodies. Identification of specific metabolic network alterations in patients with early dopamine deficiency may serve as an additional supporting biomarker for timely diagnosis of dementia with Lewy bodies. (c) 2019 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.
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  • Augustin, S., et al. (författare)
  • Signatures of autoionization in the angular electron distribution in two-photon double ionization of Ar
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Physical Review A. - : American Physical Society. - 2469-9926. ; 98:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A kinematically complete experiment on two-photon double ionization of Ar by free-electron laser radiation with a photon energy of 27.93 eV was performed. The electron energy spectra show that double ionization is dominated by the sequential process. Comparison of the electron angular distributions to our data for single ionization and to theory confirms that even in the sequential process the electrons from both ionization steps are correlated with each other through polarization of the intermediate Ar+ state. Furthermore, a very important role of autoionization in both ionization steps is found.
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10.
  • De La Fuente, Alerie Guzman, et al. (författare)
  • Pericytes Stimulate Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cell Differentiation during CNS Remyelination
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Cell reports. - 2211-1247 .- 2211-1247. ; 20:8, s. 1755-1764
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The role of the neurovascular niche in CNS myelin regeneration is incompletely understood. Here, we show that, upon demyelination, CNS-resident pericytes (PCs) proliferate, and parenchymal non-vessel-associated PC-like cells (PLCs) rapidly develop. During remyelination, mature oligodendrocytes were found in close proximity to PCs. In Pdgfb(ret/ret) mice, which have reduced PC numbers, oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) differentiation was delayed, although remyelination proceeded to completion. PC-conditioned medium accelerated and enhanced OPC differentiation in vitro and increased the rate of remyelination in an ex vivo cerebellar slice model of demyelination. We identified Lama2 as a PC-derived factor that promotes OPC differentiation. Thus, the functional role of PCs is not restricted to vascular homeostasis but includes the modulation of adult CNS progenitor cells involved in regeneration.
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