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  • Lundstedt-Enkel, Katrin, et al. (författare)
  • A Statistical Resampling Method To Calculate Biomagnification Factors Exemplified with Organochlorine Data from Herring (Clupea harengus) Muscle and Guillemot (Uria aalge) Egg from the Baltic Sea
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY. - : American Chemical Society (ACS). - 0013-936X .- 1520-5851. ; 39:21, s. 8395-8402
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A novel method for calculating biomagnification factors is presented and demonstrated using contaminant concentration data from the Swedish national monitoring program regarding organochlorine contaminants (OCs) in herring (Clupea harengus) muscle and guillemot (Uria aalge) egg, sampled from 1996 to 1999 from the Baltic Sea. With this randomly sampled ratios (RSR) method, biomagnification factors (BMFRSR) were generated and denoted with standard deviation (0) as a measure of the variation. The BMFRSR were calculated by randomly selecting one guillemot egg out of a total of 29 and one herring out of a total of 74, and the ratio was determined between the concentration of a given OC in that egg and the concentration of the same OC in that herring. With the resampling technique, this was performed 50 000 times for any given OC, and from this new distribution of ratios, BMFRSR for each OC were calculated and given as geometric mean (GM) with GM standard deviation (GMSD) range, arithmetic mean (AM) with AMSD range, and minimum (BMFMIN) as well as maximum (BMFMAX) biomagnification factors. The 14 analyzed OCs were p,p'DDT and its metabolites p,p'DDE and p,p'DDD, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB congeners: CB28, CB52, CB101, CB118, CB138, CB153, and CB180), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (alpha-, beta-, and gamma HCH), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). Multivariate data analysis (MVDA) methods, including principal components analysis (PCA), partial least squares regression (PLS), and PLS discriminant analyses (PLS-DA), were first used to extract information from the complex biological and chemical data generated from each individual animal. MVDA were used to model similarities/dissimilarities regarding species (PCA, PLS-DA), sample years (PLS), and sample location (PLS-DA) to give a deeper understanding of the data that the BMF modeling was based upon. Contaminants that biomagnify, that had BMFRSR significantly higher than one, were p,p'DDE, CB118, HCB, CB138, CB180, CB153, beta HCH, and CB28. The contaminants that did not biomagnify were p,p'DDT, p,p'DDD, alpha HCH, CB101, and CB52. Eventual biomagnification for gamma HCH could not be determined. The BMFRSR for OCs present in herring muscle and guillemot egg showed a broad span with large variations for each contaminant. To be able to make reliable calculations of BMFs for different contaminants, we emphasize the importance of using data based upon large numbers of, as well as well-defined, individuals.
  • Bidleman, Terry F., et al. (författare)
  • Bromoanisoles and Methoxylated Bromodiphenyl Ethers in Macroalgae from Nordic Coastal Regions
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Environmental Science. - London : Royal Society of Chemistry. - 2050-7887 .- 2050-7895. ; , s. 881-892
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Marine macroalgae are used worldwide for human consumption, animal feed, cosmetics and agriculture. In addition to beneficial nutrients, macroalgae contain halogenated natural products (HNPs), some of which have toxic properties similar to those of well-known anthropogenic contaminants. Sixteen species of red, green and brown macroalgae were collected in 2017–2018 from coastal waters of the northern Baltic Sea, Sweden Atlantic and Norway Atlantic, and analyzed for bromoanisoles (BAs) and methoxylated bromodiphenyl ethers (MeO-BDEs). Target compounds were quantified by gas chromatography-low resolution mass spectrometry (GC-LRMS), with qualitative confirmation in selected species by GC-high resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS). Quantified compounds were 2,4-diBA, 2,4,6-triBA, 2′-MeO-BDE68, 6-MeO-BDE47, and two tribromo-MeO-BDEs and one tetrabromo-MeO-BDE with unknown bromine substituent positions. Semiquantitative results for pentabromo-MeO-BDEs were also obtained for a few species by GC-HRMS. Three extraction methods were compared; soaking in methanol, soaking in methanol–dichloromethane, and blending with mixed solvents. Extraction yields of BAs did not differ significantly (p > 0.05) with the three methods and the two soaking methods gave equivalent yields of MeO-BDEs. Extraction efficiencies of MeO-BDEs were significantly lower using the blend method (p < 0.05). For reasons of simplicity and efficiency, the soaking methods are preferred. Concentrations varied by orders of magnitude among species: ∑2BAs 57 to 57 700 and ∑5MeO-BDEs < 10 to 476 pg g−1 wet weight (ww). Macroalgae standing out with ∑2BAs >1000 pg g−1 ww were Ascophyllum nodosum, Ceramium tenuicorne, Ceramium virgatum, Fucus radicans, Fucus serratus, Fucus vesiculosus, Saccharina latissima, Laminaria digitata, and Acrosiphonia/Spongomorpha sp. Species A. nodosum, C. tenuicorne, Chara virgata, F. radicans and F. vesiculosus (Sweden Atlantic only) had ∑5MeO-BDEs >100 pg g−1ww. Profiles of individual compounds showed distinct differences among species and locations.
  • Lundstedt-Enkel, Katrin, et al. (författare)
  • Multivariate Data Analyses of Chlorinated and Brominated Contaminants and Biological Characteristics in Adult Guillemot (Uria aalge) from the Baltic Sea
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY. - : American Chemical Society (ACS). - 0013-936X .- 1520-5851. ; 39:22, s. 8630-7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Adult guillemot (Uria aalge) birds, 10 females and 10 males, drowned in trawl nets near Stora Karlso in the Baltic Sea, were collected in 2000. Several of the animals' biological characteristics were recorded. The birds' pectoral muscles were individually analyzed for their concentrations of organochlorines (M) and brominated flame retardants (BFRs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorocyclohexanes, trans-nonachlor, hexachlorobenzene, hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The dominating contaminant was p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) with a geometric mean concentration of 12 900 ng/g lipid weight (Iw). The concentration of Sigma PBDE (80 ng/g Iw) was similar to that of HBCD (65 ng/g Iw). The total concentration of all OCs was approximately 150 times higher than that of all BFRs. For the statistical evaluation of the data, we used multivariate analysis techniques such as principal components analysis, partial least-squares (PLS) regression, and PLS discriminant analyses. No differences between the two sexes were found, either in contaminant concentrations or in biological characteristics. We found that some biological characteristics covaried with the concentrations of several Us and BFRs, e.g., a negative correlation between liver weight and concentration of contaminants. The concentrations of most Us but not of BFRs showed a decrease with increasing lipid content. Further, a PLS model with M as X and BFRs as Y showed that the contaminants formed two groups, each with distinctive correlation patterns. The PLS model could be used to predict with varying accuracy the concentration of BFRs in the individual muscles from their concentration of OCs.
  • Lundstedt-Enkel, Katrin, et al. (författare)
  • Multivariate data analysis of organochlorines and brominated flame retardants in Baltic Sea guillemot (Uria aalge) egg and muscle.
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Chemosphere. - : Elsevier BV. - 0045-6535 .- 1879-1298. ; 65, s. 1591-1599
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Concentrations of organochlorines (OCs) and brominated flame-retardants (BFRs) were determined in guillemot (Uria aalge) eggs from the island of Stora Karlso in the Baltic Sea where 10 eggs/year were collected in the years 2000, 2001 and 2002. The dominating contaminant in egg was p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) with a geometric mean (GM) concentration of 18200 ng/g lipid weight (lw). The GM concentration in egg of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) of 140 ng/glw, was significantly higher than that of polybrominated diphenyl ether (summation operatorPBDE) of 77 ng/glw. For the evaluation of the data multivariate data analysis techniques namely principal components analysis (PCA), partial least squares regression (PLS), soft independent modelling of class analogy (SIMCA classification), and PLS discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), were used. We investigated whether the eggs' biological characteristics co-varied with egg concentrations of OCs and BFRs, and found e.g., significant negative correlations between egg weight and concentrations of HCB and p,p'-DDE. A PLS model with analyzed BFRs as the Y matrix and OCs as the X matrix could, with varying accuracy, calculate the concentrations of BFRs in the individual egg from their concentrations of OCs (e.g., R(2)Y of 0.89 for BDE47, and of 0.50 for HBCD). Lastly, we compared the contaminant concentrations in the eggs to those in previously analyzed pectoral muscles from adult guillemots from Stora Karlso, from the year 2000. A PLS-DA model, showed that some of the contaminants (e.g., HBCD and CB28) had significantly higher concentrations in egg than in muscle, although 7 of the 14 contaminants showed no difference in concentrations between the two matrices.
  • Aeppli, Christoph, et al. (författare)
  • Use of Cl and C Isotopic Fractionation to Identify Degradation and Sources of Polychlorinated Phenols : Mechanistic Study and Field Application
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Environmental Science and Technology. - : American Chemical Society (ACS). - 0013-936X .- 1520-5851. ; 47:2, s. 790-797
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The widespread use of chlorinated phenols (CPs) as a wood preservative has led to numerous contaminated sawmill sites. However, it remains challenging to assess the extent of in situ degradation of CPs. We evaluated the use of compound-specific chlorine and carbon isotope analysis (Cl- and C-CSLA) to assess CP biotransformation. In a laboratory system, we measured isotopic fractionation during oxidative 2,4,6-trichlorophenol dechlorination by representative soil enzymes (C. fumago chloroperoxidase, horseradish peroxidase, and laccase from T. versicolor). Using a mathematical model, the validity of the Rayleigh approach to evaluate apparent kinetic isotope effects (AKIE) was confirmed. A small but significant Cl-AKIE of 1.0022 +/- 0.0006 was observed for all three enzymes, consistent with a reaction pathway via a cationic radical species. For carbon, a slight inverse isotope effect was observed (C-AKIE = 0.9945 +/- 0.0019). This fractionation behavior is clearly distinguishable from reported reductive dechlorination mechanisms. Based on these results we then assessed degradation and apportioned different types of technical CP mixtures used at two former sawmill sites. To our knowledge, this is the first study that makes use of two-element CSIA to study sources and transformation of CPs in the environment.
  • Andersson, Agneta, et al. (författare)
  • Projected future climate change and Baltic Sea ecosystem management
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Ambio. - : Springer. - 0044-7447 .- 1654-7209. ; 44:Supplement 3, s. S345-S356
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Climate change is likely to have large effects on the Baltic Sea ecosystem. Simulations indicate 2-4 degrees C warming and 50-80 % decrease in ice cover by 2100. Precipitation may increase similar to 30 % in the north, causing increased land runoff of allochthonous organic matter (AOM) and organic pollutants and decreased salinity. Coupled physical-biogeochemical models indicate that, in the south, bottom-water anoxia may spread, reducing cod recruitment and increasing sediment phosphorus release, thus promoting cyanobacterial blooms. In the north, heterotrophic bacteria will be favored by AOM, while phytoplankton production may be reduced. Extra trophic levels in the food web may increase energy losses and consequently reduce fish production. Future management of the Baltic Sea must consider the effects of climate change on the ecosystem dynamics and functions, as well as the effects of anthropogenic nutrient and pollutant load. Monitoring should have a holistic approach, encompassing both autotrophic (phytoplankton) and heterotrophic (e.g., bacterial) processes.
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