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Sökning: WFRF:(Vaag A)

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1.
  • Horikoshi, Momoko, et al. (författare)
  • New loci associated with birth weight identify genetic links between intrauterine growth and adult height and metabolism.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 45:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Birth weight within the normal range is associated with a variety of adult-onset diseases, but the mechanisms behind these associations are poorly understood. Previous genome-wide association studies of birth weight identified a variant in the ADCY5 gene associated both with birth weight and type 2 diabetes and a second variant, near CCNL1, with no obvious link to adult traits. In an expanded genome-wide association meta-analysis and follow-up study of birth weight (of up to 69,308 individuals of European descent from 43 studies), we have now extended the number of loci associated at genome-wide significance to 7, accounting for a similar proportion of variance as maternal smoking. Five of the loci are known to be associated with other phenotypes: ADCY5 and CDKAL1 with type 2 diabetes, ADRB1 with adult blood pressure and HMGA2 and LCORL with adult height. Our findings highlight genetic links between fetal growth and postnatal growth and metabolism.
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2.
  • Nilsson, E., et al. (författare)
  • Altered DNA Methylation and Differential Expression of Genes Influencing Metabolism and Inflammation in Adipose Tissue From Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - : American Diabetes Association Inc.. - 0012-1797 .- 1939-327X. ; 63:9, s. 2962-2976
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genetics, epigenetics, and environment may together affect the susceptibility for type 2 diabetes (T2D). Our aim was to dissect molecular mechanisms underlying T2D using genome-wide expression and DNA methylation data in adipose tissue from monozygotic twin pairs discordant for T2D and independent case-control cohorts. In adipose tissue from diabetic twins, we found decreased expression of genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation; carbohydrate, amino acid, and lipid metabolism; and increased expression of genes involved in inflammation and glycan degradation. The most differentially expressed genes included ELOVL6, GYS2, FADS1, SPP1 (OPN), CCL18, and IL1RN. We replicated these results in adipose tissue from an independent case-control cohort. Several candidate genes for obesity and T2D (e.g., IRS1 and VEGFA) were differentially expressed in discordant twins. We found a heritable contribution to the genome-wide DNA methylation variability in twins. Differences in methylation between monozygotic twin pairs discordant for T2D were subsequently modest. However, 15,627 sites, representing 7,046 genes including PPARG, KCNQ1, TCF7L2, and IRS1, showed differential DNA methylation in adipose tissue from unrelated subjects with T2D compared with control subjects. A total of 1,410 of these sites also showed differential DNA methylation in the twins discordant for T2D. For the differentially methylated sites, the heritability estimate was 0.28. We also identified copy number variants (CNVs) in monozygotic twin pairs discordant for T2D. Taken together, subjects with T2D exhibit multiple transcriptional and epigenetic changes in adipose tissue relevant to the development of the disease.
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3.
  • Parikh, Hemang, et al. (författare)
  • TXNIP regulates peripheral glucose metabolism in humans
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: PLoS Medicine. - : Public Library of Science. - 1549-1676. ; 4:5, s. 868-879
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Type 2 diabetes mellitus ( T2DM) is characterized by defects in insulin secretion and action. Impaired glucose uptake in skeletal muscle is believed to be one of the earliest features in the natural history of T2DM, although underlying mechanisms remain obscure. Methods and Findings We combined human insulin/glucose clamp physiological studies with genome-wide expression profiling to identify thioredoxin interacting protein ( TXNIP) as a gene whose expression is powerfully suppressed by insulin yet stimulated by glucose. In healthy individuals, its expression was inversely correlated to total body measures of glucose uptake. Forced expression of TXNIP in cultured adipocytes significantly reduced glucose uptake, while silencing with RNA interference in adipocytes and in skeletal muscle enhanced glucose uptake, confirming that the gene product is also a regulator of glucose uptake. TXNIP expression is consistently elevated in the muscle of prediabetics and diabetics, although in a panel of 4,450 Scandinavian individuals, we found no evidence for association between common genetic variation in the TXNIP gene and T2DM. Conclusions TXNIP regulates both insulin-dependent and insulin- independent pathways of glucose uptake in human skeletal muscle. Combined with recent studies that have implicated TXNIP in pancreatic beta-cell glucose toxicity, our data suggest that TXNIP might play a key role in defective glucose homeostasis preceding overt T2DM.
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4.
  • Davegårdh, Cajsa, et al. (författare)
  • VPS39-deficiency observed in type 2 diabetes impairs muscle stem cell differentiation via altered autophagy and epigenetics
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - : Springer Nature. - 2041-1723 .- 2041-1723. ; 12:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Insulin resistance and lower muscle quality (strength divided by mass) are hallmarks of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Here, we explore whether alterations in muscle stem cells (myoblasts) from individuals with T2D contribute to these phenotypes. We identify VPS39 as an important regulator of myoblast differentiation and muscle glucose uptake, and VPS39 is downregulated in myoblasts and myotubes from individuals with T2D. We discover a pathway connecting VPS39-deficiency in human myoblasts to impaired autophagy, abnormal epigenetic reprogramming, dysregulation of myogenic regulators, and perturbed differentiation. VPS39 knockdown in human myoblasts has profound effects on autophagic flux, insulin signaling, epigenetic enzymes, DNA methylation and expression of myogenic regulators, and gene sets related to the cell cycle, muscle structure and apoptosis. These data mimic what is observed in myoblasts from individuals with T2D. Furthermore, the muscle of Vps39+/− mice display reduced glucose uptake and altered expression of genes regulating autophagy, epigenetic programming, and myogenesis. Overall, VPS39-deficiency contributes to impaired muscle differentiation and reduced glucose uptake. VPS39 thereby offers a therapeutic target for T2D. 
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5.
  • Gillberg, Linn, et al. (författare)
  • Adipose tissue transcriptomics and epigenomics in low birthweight men and controls : role of high-fat overfeeding
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Diabetologia. - : Springer. - 0012-186X .- 1432-0428. ; 59:4, s. 799-812
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims/hypothesis Individuals who had a low birthweight (LBW) are at an increased risk of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes when exposed to high-fat overfeeding (HFO). We studied genome-wide mRNA expression and DNA methylation in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) after 5 days of HFO and after a control diet in 40 young men, of whom 16 had LBW. Methods mRNA expression was analysed using Affymetrix Human Gene 1.0 ST arrays and DNA methylation using Illumina 450K BeadChip arrays. Results We found differential DNA methylation at 53 sites in SAT from LBW vs normal birthweight (NBW) men (false discovery rate < 5%), including sites in the FADS2 and CPLX1 genes previously associated with type 2 diabetes. When we used reference-free cell mixture adjustments to potentially adjust for cell composition, 4,323 sites had differential methylation in LBW vs NBW men. However, no differences in SAT gene expression levels were identified between LBW and NBW men. In the combined group of all 40 participants, 3,276 genes (16.5%) were differentially expressed in SAT after HFO (false discovery rate < 5%) and there was no difference between LBW men and controls. The most strongly upregulated genes were ELOVL6, FADS2 and NNAT; in contrast, INSR, IRS2 and the SLC27A2 fatty acid transporter showed decreased expression after HFO. Interestingly, SLC27A2 expression correlated negatively with diabetes- and obesity-related traits in a replication cohort of 142 individuals. DNA methylation at 652 CpG sites (including in CDK5, IGFBP5 and SLC2A4) was altered in SAT after overfeeding in this and in another cohort. Conclusions/interpretation Young men who had a LBW exhibit epigenetic alterations in their adipose tissue that potentially influence insulin resistance and risk of type 2 diabetes. Short-term overfeeding influences gene transcription and, to some extent, DNA methylation in adipose tissue; there was no major difference in this response between LBW and control participants.
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6.
  • Koeck, Thomas, et al. (författare)
  • A common variant in TFB1M is associated with reduced insulin secretion and increased future risk of type 2 diabetes.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Cell Metabolism. - : Cell Press. - 1550-4131 .- 1932-7420. ; 13:1, s. 80-91
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Type 2 diabetes (T2D) evolves when insulin secretion fails. Insulin release from the pancreatic β cell is controlled by mitochondrial metabolism, which translates fluctuations in blood glucose into metabolic coupling signals. We identified a common variant (rs950994) in the human transcription factor B1 mitochondrial (TFB1M) gene associated with reduced insulin secretion, elevated postprandial glucose levels, and future risk of T2D. Because islet TFB1M mRNA levels were lower in carriers of the risk allele and correlated with insulin secretion, we examined mice heterozygous for Tfb1m deficiency. These mice displayed lower expression of TFB1M in islets and impaired mitochondrial function and released less insulin in response to glucose in vivo and in vitro. Reducing TFB1M mRNA and protein in clonal β cells by RNA interference impaired complexes of the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation system. Consequently, nutrient-stimulated ATP generation was reduced, leading to perturbed insulin secretion. We conclude that a deficiency in TFB1M and impaired mitochondrial function contribute to the pathogenesis of T2D.
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7.
  • Larsen, Claus M., et al. (författare)
  • Interleukin-1-receptor antagonist in type 2 diabetes mellitus
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: New England Journal of Medicine. - : Massachusetts Medical Society. - 0028-4793 .- 1533-4406. ; 356:15, s. 1517-1526
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The expression of interleukin-1-receptor antagonist is reduced in pancreatic islets of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and high glucose concentrations induce the production of interleukin-1(beta) in human pancreatic beta cells, leading to impaired insulin secretion, decreased cell proliferation, and apoptosis. Methods: In this double-blind, parallel-group trial involving 70 patients with type 2 diabetes, we randomly assigned 34 patients to receive 100 mg of anakinra (a recombinant human interleukin-1-receptor antagonist) subcutaneously once daily for 13 weeks and 36 patients to receive placebo. At baseline and at 13 weeks, all patients underwent an oral glucose-tolerance test, followed by an intravenous bolus of 0.3 g of glucose per kilogram of body weight, 0.5 mg of glucagon, and 5 g of arginine. In addition, 35 patients underwent a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp study. The primary end point was a change in the level of glycated hemoglobin, and secondary end points were changes in beta-cell function, insulin sensitivity, and inflammatory markers. Results: At 13 weeks, in the anakinra group, the glycated hemoglobin level was 0.46 percentage point lower than in the placebo group (P=0.03); C-peptide secretion was enhanced (P=0.05), and there were reductions in the ratio of proinsulin to insulin (P=0.005) and in levels of interleukin-6 (P<0.001) and C-reactive protein (P=0.002). Insulin resistance, insulin-regulated gene expression in skeletal muscle, serum adipokine levels, and the body-mass index were similar in the two study groups. Symptomatic hypoglycemia was not observed, and there were no apparent drug-related serious adverse events. Conclusions: The blockade of interleukin-1 with anakinra improved glycemia and beta-cell secretory function and reduced markers of systemic inflammation.
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8.
  • Rönn, Tina, et al. (författare)
  • Impact of age, BMI and HbA1c levels on the genome-wide DNA methylation and mRNA expression patterns in human adipose tissue and identification of epigenetic biomarkers in blood.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Human Molecular Genetics. - : Oxford University Press. - 0964-6906 .- 1460-2083. ; 24:13, s. 3792-3813
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Increased age, BMI and HbA1c levels are risk factors for several non-communicable diseases. However, the impact of these factors on the genome-wide DNA methylation pattern in human adipose tissue remains unknown. We analyzed DNA methylation of ∼480,000 sites in human adipose tissue from 96 males and 94 females, and related methylation to age, BMI and HbA1c. We also compared epigenetic signatures in adipose tissue and blood. Age was significantly associated with both altered DNA methylation and expression of 1,050 genes (e.g. FHL2, NOX4 and PLG). Interestingly, many reported epigenetic biomarkers of ageing in blood, including ELOVL2, FHL2, KLF14 and GLRA1, also showed significant correlations between adipose tissue DNA methylation and age in our study. The most significant association between age and adipose tissue DNA methylation was found upstream of ELOVL2. We identified 2,825 genes (e.g. FTO, ITIH5, CCL18, MTCH2, IRS1 and SPP1) where both DNA methylation and expression correlated with BMI. Methylation at previously reported HIF3A sites correlated significantly with BMI in females only. HbA1c (range 28-46 mmol/mol) correlated significantly with methylation of 711 sites, annotated to e.g. RAB37, TICAM1 and HLA-DPB1. Pathway analyses demonstrated that methylation levels associated with age and BMI are overrepresented among genes involved in cancer, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Our results highlight the impact of age, BMI and HbA1c on epigenetic variation of candidate genes for metabolic diseases and cancer in human adipose tissue. Importantly, we demonstrate that epigenetic biomarkers in blood can mirror age-related epigenetic signatures in target tissues for metabolic diseases such as adipose tissue.
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9.
  • Fraga, MF, et al. (författare)
  • Epigenetic differences arise during the lifetime of monozygotic twins
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. - : National Acad Sciences. - 1091-6490. ; 102:30, s. 10604-10609
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Monozygous twins share a common genotype. However, most monozygotic twin pairs are not identical; several types of phenotypic discordance may be observed, such as differences in susceptibilities to disease and a wide range of anthropomorphic features. There are several possible explanations for these observations, but one is the existence of epigenetic differences. To address this issue, we examined the global and locus-specific differences in DNA methylation and histone acetylation of a large cohort of monozygotic twins. We found that, although twins are epigenetically indistinguishable during the early years of life, older monozygous twins exhibited remarkable differences in their overall content and genomic distribution of 5-methylcytosine DNA and histone acetylation, affecting their gene-expression portrait. These findings indicate how an appreciation of epigenetics is missing from our understanding of how different phenotypes can be originated from the same genotype.
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10.
  • Larsen, Claus M., et al. (författare)
  • Sustained Effects of Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist Treatment in Type 2 Diabetes
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Diabetes Care. - : American Diabetes Association. - 1935-5548. ; 32:9, s. 1663-1668
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE - Interleukin (IL)-1 impairs insulin secretion and induces P-cell apoptosis. Pancreatic beta-cell IL-1 expression is increased and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) expression reduced in patients with type 2 diabetes. Treatment with recombinant IL-1Ra improves glycemia and P-cell function and reduces inflammatory markers in patients with type 2 diabetes. Here we investigated the durability of these responses. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - Among 70 ambulatory patients who had type 2 diabetes, A1C >7.5%, and BMI >27 kg/m(2) and were randomly assigned to receive 13 weeks of anakinra, a recombinant human IL-1Ra, or placebo, 67 completed treatment and were included in this double-blind 39-week follow-up study. Primary outcome was change in P-cell function after anakinra withdrawal. Analysis was done by intention to treat. RESULTS - Thirty-nine weeks after anakinra withdrawal, the proinsulin-to-insulin (PI/I) ratio but not stimulated C-peptide remained improved (by -0.07 [95% CI -0.14 to -0.02], P = 0.011) compared with values in placebo-treated patients. Interestingly, a subgroup characterized by genetically determined low baseline IL-1Ra serum levels maintained the improved stimulated C-peptide obtained by 13 weeks of IL-1Ra treatment. Reductions in C-reactive protein (-3.2 mg/l [-6.2 to -1.1], P = 0.014) and in IL-6 (-1.4 mg/l [-2.6 to -0.3], P = 0.036) were maintained until the end of study. CONCLUSIONS - IL-1 blockade with anakinra induces improvement of the PIA ratio and markers of systemic inflammation lasting 39 weeks after treatment withdrawal.
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  • Resultat 1-10 av 46
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