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Sökning: WFRF:(Velakoulis Dennis)

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1.
  • Ducharme, Simon, et al. (författare)
  • Recommendations to distinguish behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia from psychiatric disorders
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Brain. - : Oxford University Press (OUP). - 0006-8950 .- 1460-2156. ; 143:6, s. 1632-1650
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The behavioural variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) is a frequent cause of early-onset dementia. The diagnosis of bvFTD remains challenging because of the limited accuracy of neuroimaging in the early disease stages and the absence of molecular biomarkers, and therefore relies predominantly on clinical assessment. BvFTD shows significant symptomatic overlap with non-degenerative primary psychiatric disorders including major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, autism spectrum disorders and even personality disorders. To date, ∼50% of patients with bvFTD receive a prior psychiatric diagnosis, and average diagnostic delay is up to 5-6 years from symptom onset. It is also not uncommon for patients with primary psychiatric disorders to be wrongly diagnosed with bvFTD. The Neuropsychiatric International Consortium for Frontotemporal Dementia was recently established to determine the current best clinical practice and set up an international collaboration to share a common dataset for future research. The goal of the present paper was to review the existing literature on the diagnosis of bvFTD and its differential diagnosis with primary psychiatric disorders to provide consensus recommendations on the clinical assessment. A systematic literature search with a narrative review was performed to determine all bvFTD-related diagnostic evidence for the following topics: bvFTD history taking, psychiatric assessment, clinical scales, physical and neurological examination, bedside cognitive tests, neuropsychological assessment, social cognition, structural neuroimaging, functional neuroimaging, CSF and genetic testing. For each topic, responsible team members proposed a set of minimal requirements, optimal clinical recommendations, and tools requiring further research or those that should be developed. Recommendations were listed if they reached a ≥ 85% expert consensus based on an online survey among all consortium participants. New recommendations include performing at least one formal social cognition test in the standard neuropsychological battery for bvFTD. We emphasize the importance of 3D-T1 brain MRI with a standardized review protocol including validated visual atrophy rating scales, and to consider volumetric analyses if available. We clarify the role of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET for the exclusion of bvFTD when normal, whereas non-specific regional metabolism abnormalities should not be over-interpreted in the case of a psychiatric differential diagnosis. We highlight the potential role of serum or CSF neurofilament light chain to differentiate bvFTD from primary psychiatric disorders. Finally, based on the increasing literature and clinical experience, the consortium determined that screening for C9orf72 mutation should be performed in all possible/probable bvFTD cases or suspected cases with strong psychiatric features.
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2.
  • Eratne, Dhamidhu, et al. (författare)
  • Cerebrospinal fluid neurofilament light chain differentiates behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia progressors from non-progressors
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Journal of the Neurological Sciences. - : Elsevier BV. - 0022-510X. ; 442
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Distinguishing behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) from non-neurodegenerative ‘non-progressor’ mimics of frontal lobe dysfunction, can be one of the most challenging clinical dilemmas. A biomarker of neuronal injury, neurofilament light chain (NfL), could reduce misdiagnosis and delay. Methods: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) NfL, amyloid beta 1–42 (AB42), total and phosphorylated tau (T-tau, P-tau) levels were examined in patients with an initial diagnosis of bvFTD. Based on follow-up information, patients were categorised as Progressors or Non-Progressors: further subtyped into Non-Progressor Revised (non-neurological/neurodegenerative final diagnosis), and Non-Progressor Static (static deficits, not fully explained by non-neurological/neurodegenerative causes). Results: Forty-three patients were included: 20 Progressors, 23 Non-Progressors (15 Non-Progressor Revised, 8 Non-Progressor Static), and 20 controls. NfL concentrations were lower in Non-Progressors (Non-Progressors Mean, M = 554 pg/mL, 95%CI:[461, 675], Non-Progressor Revised M = 459 pg/mL, 95%CI:[385, 539], and Non-Progressor Static M = 730 pg/mL, 95%CI:[516, 940]), compared to Progressors (M = 2397 pg/mL, 95%CI:[1607, 3332]). NfL distinguished Progressors from Non-Progressors with the highest accuracy (area under the curve 0.92, 90%/87% sensitivity/specificity, 86%/91% positive/negative predictive value, 88% accuracy). Non-Progressor Static tended to have higher T-tau and P-tau levels compared to Non-Progressor Revised Diagnoses. Conclusion: This study demonstrated strong diagnostic utility of CSF NfL to distinguish bvFTD from non-progressor variants, at baseline, with high accuracy, in a real-world clinical setting. This has important clinical implications, to improve outcomes for patients and clinicians facing this challenging clinical dilemma, healthcare services, and clinical trials. Further research is required to investigate heterogeneity within the non-progressor group and potential diagnostic algorithms, and prospective studies are underway assessing plasma NfL.
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3.
  • Eratne, Dhamidhu, et al. (författare)
  • Plasma neurofilament light chain is increased in Niemann-Pick Type C but glial fibrillary acidic protein remains normal
  • 2024
  • Ingår i: Acta Neuropsychiatrica. - 0924-2708 .- 1601-5215. ; , s. 1-6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: Niemann-Pick Type C (NPC) is a genetic neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorder commonly associated with psychiatric symptoms and delays to accurate diagnosis and treatment. This study investigated biomarker levels and diagnostic utility of plasma neurofilament light chain (NfL) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in NPC compared to healthy controls. METHODS: Patients with NPC were recruited from a specialist assessment and management service. Data was available from an age and sex-matched healthy control group. NfL and GFAP were measured on Quanterix Simoa HD-X analysers and groups compared using generalised linear models. NfL levels were compared to, and percentiles derived from, recently developed NfL reference ranges. RESULTS: Plasma NfL was significantly elevated in 11 patients with NPC compared to 25 controls (mean 17.1pg/mL vs 7.4pg/mL, p<0.001), and reference ranges (all >98th percentile). NfL distinguished NPC from controls with high accuracy. GFAP levels were not elevated in NPC (66.6pg/mL vs 75.1pg/mL). DISCUSSION: The study adds important evidence on the potential diagnostic utility of plasma NfL in NPC, extends the literature of NfL as a diagnostic tool to differentiate neurodegenerative from primary psychiatric disorders, and adds support to the pathology in NPC primarily involving neuronal, particularly axonal, degeneration.
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4.
  • Jakabek, David, et al. (författare)
  • Regional structural hypo- and hyperconnectivity of frontal–striatal and frontal–thalamic pathways in behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Human Brain Mapping. - : Wiley. - 1065-9471. ; 39:10, s. 4083-4093
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) has been predominantly considered as a frontotemporal cortical disease, with limited direct investigation of frontal–subcortical connections. We aim to characterize the grey and white matter components of frontal–thalamic and frontal–striatal circuits in bvFTD. Twenty-four patients with bvFTD and 24 healthy controls underwent morphological and diffusion imaging. Subcortical structures were manually segmented according to published protocols. Probabilistic pathways were reconstructed separately from the dorsolateral, orbitofrontal and medial prefrontal cortex to the striatum and thalamus. Patients with bvFTD had smaller cortical and subcortical volumes, lower fractional anisotropy, and higher mean diffusivity metrics, which is consistent with disruptions in frontal–striatal–thalamic pathways. Unexpectedly, regional volumes of the striatum and thalamus connected to the medial prefrontal cortex were significantly larger in bvFTD (by 135% in the striatum, p =.032, and 217% in the thalamus, p =.004), despite smaller dorsolateral prefrontal cortex connected regional volumes (by 67% in the striatum, p =.002, and 65% in the thalamus, p =.020), and inconsistent changes in orbitofrontal cortex connected regions. These unanticipated findings may represent compensatory or maladaptive remodeling in bvFTD networks. Comparisons are made to other neuropsychiatric disorders suggesting a common mechanism of changes in frontal–subcortical networks; however, longitudinal studies are necessary to test this hypothesis.
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5.
  • Jakabek, David, et al. (författare)
  • Structural and microstructural thalamocortical network disruption in sporadic behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia
  • 2023
  • Ingår i: NeuroImage: Clinical. - 2213-1582. ; 39, s. 1-11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Using multi-block methods we combined multimodal neuroimaging metrics of thalamic morphology, thalamic white matter tract diffusion metrics, and cortical thickness to examine changes in behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia. (bvFTD). Method: Twenty-three patients with sporadic bvFTD and 24 healthy controls underwent structural and diffusion MRI scans. Clinical severity was assessed using the Clinical Dementia Rating scale and behavioural severity using the Frontal Behaviour Inventory by patient caregivers. Thalamic volumes were manually segmented. Anterior and posterior thalamic radiation fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity were extracted using Tract-Based Spatial Statistics. Finally, cortical thickness was assessed using Freesurfer. We used shape analyses, diffusion measures, and cortical thickness as features in sparse multi-block partial least squares (PLS) discriminatory analyses to classify participants within bvFTD or healthy control groups. Sparsity was tuned with five-fold cross-validation repeated 10 times. Final model fit was assessed using permutation testing. Additionally, sparse multi-block PLS was used to examine associations between imaging features and measures of dementia severity. Results: Bilateral anterior-dorsal thalamic atrophy, reduction in mean diffusivity of thalamic projections, and frontotemporal cortical thinning, were the main features predicting bvFTD group membership. The model had a sensitivity of 96%, specificity of 68%, and was statistically significant using permutation testing (p = 0.012). For measures of dementia severity, we found similar involvement of regional thalamic and cortical areas as in discrimination analyses, although more extensive thalamo-cortical white matter metric changes. Conclusions: Using multimodal neuroimaging, we demonstrate combined structural network dysfunction of anterior cortical regions, cortical-thalamic projections, and anterior thalamic regions in sporadic bvFTD.
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6.
  • Kang, Matthew J.Y., et al. (författare)
  • Cerebrospinal fluid neurofilament light predicts longitudinal diagnostic change in patients with psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders
  • 2023
  • Ingår i: Acta Neuropsychiatrica. - 0924-2708. ; 36:1, s. 17-28
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective People with neuropsychiatric symptoms often experience delay in accurate diagnosis. Although cerebrospinal fluid neurofilament light (CSF NfL) shows promise in distinguishing neurodegenerative disorders (ND) from psychiatric disorders (PSY), its accuracy in a diagnostically challenging cohort longitudinally is unknown. Methods We collected longitudinal diagnostic information (mean=36 months) from patients assessed at a neuropsychiatry service, categorising diagnoses as ND/mild cognitive impairment/other neurological disorders (ND/MCI/other), and PSY. We pre-specified NfL>582pg/mL as indicative of ND/MCI/other. Results Diagnostic category changed from initial to final diagnosis for 23% (49/212) of patients. NfL predicted the final diagnostic category for 92% (22/24) of these and predicted final diagnostic category overall (ND/MCI/other vs. PSY) in 88% (187/212), compared to 77% (163/212) with clinical assessment alone. Conclusions CSF NfL improved diagnostic accuracy, with potential to have led to earlier, accurate diagnosis in a real-world setting using a pre-specified cut-off, adding weight to translation of NfL into clinical practice.
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7.
  • Kang, Matthew J.Y., et al. (författare)
  • Plasma neurofilament light chain is not elevated in people with first-episode psychosis or those at ultra-high risk for psychosis
  • 2024
  • Ingår i: Schizophrenia Research. - 0920-9964. ; 267, s. 269-272
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: Neurofilament light chain (NfL), a blood biomarker of neuronal injury, shows promise in distinguishing neurodegenerative disorders from psychiatric conditions. This is especially relevant in psychosis, given neurological conditions such as autoimmune encephalitis and Niemann Pick Type C disease (NPC) may initially present with psychotic symptoms. Whilst NfL levels have been studied in established schizophrenia cases, their levels in first-episode psychosis (FEP) and ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis individuals remain largely unexplored. This study aimed to compare plasma NfL in people with FEP or UHR with healthy controls, as well as explore its associations with clinical data. Method: We retrospectively analysed plasma NfL in 63 participants, consisting of 29 individuals with FEP, 10 individuals with UHR, and 24 healthy controls. We used general linear models (GLM), which were bootstrapped, to compute bias-corrected and accelerated (BCa) 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). Results: Mean NfL levels were 5.2 pg/mL in FEP, 4.9 pg/mL in UHR, and 5.9 pg/mL in healthy controls. Compared to healthy controls, there were no significant differences in NfL levels in the FEP group (β = −0.22, 95 % CI [−0.86, 0.39], p = 0.516) nor UHR group (β = −0.37, 95 % CI [−0.90, 0.19], p = 0.182). There were no significant associations between NfL levels and clinical variables in the FEP group. Discussion: Our study is the first to demonstrate that plasma NfL levels are not significantly elevated in individuals at UHR for psychosis compared to healthy controls, a finding also observed in the FEP cohort. These findings bolster the potential diagnostic utility of NfL in differentiating between psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders.
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8.
  • Lindberg, Olof, et al. (författare)
  • Hippocampal Shape Analysis in Alzheimer's Disease and Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration Subtypes
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease. - 1387-2877 .- 1875-8908. ; 30:2, s. 355-365
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Hippocampal pathology is central to Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other forms of dementia such as frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Autopsy studies have shown that certain hippocampal subfields are more vulnerable than others to AD and FTLD pathology, in particular the subiculum and cornu ammonis 1 (CA1). We conducted shape analysis of hippocampi segmented from structural T1 MRI images on clinically diagnosed dementia patients and controls. The subjects included 19 AD and 35 FTLD patients [13 frontotemporal dementia (FTD), 13 semantic dementia (SD), and 9 progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA)] and 21 controls. Compared to controls, SD displayed severe atrophy of the whole left hippocampus. PNFA and FTD also displayed atrophy on the left side, restricted to the hippocampal head in FTD. Finally, AD displayed most atrophy in left hippocampal body with relative sparing of the hippocampal head. Consistent with neuropathological studies, most atrophic deformation was found in CA1 and subiculum areas in FTLD and AD.
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9.
  • Looi, Jeffrey C. L., et al. (författare)
  • Morphometric analysis of subcortical structures in progressive supranuclear palsy: In vivo evidence of neostriatal and mesencephalic atrophy
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging. - : Elsevier BV. - 0925-4927. ; 194:2, s. 163-175
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by gait and postural disturbance, gaze palsy, apathy, decreased verbal fluency and dysexecutive symptoms, with some of these clinical features potentially having origins in degeneration of frontostriatal circuits and the mesencephalon. This hypothesis was investigated by manual segmentation of the caudate and putamen on MRI scans, using previously published protocols, in 15 subjects with PSP and 15 healthy age-matched controls. Midbrain atrophy was assessed by measurement of mid-sagittal area of the midbrain and pons. Shape analysis of the caudate and putamen was performed using spherical harmonics (SPHARM-PDM, University of North Carolina). The sagittal pons area/midbrain area ratio (P/M ratio) was significantly higher in the PSP group, consistent with previous findings. Significantly smaller striatal volumes were found in the PSP group - putamina were 10% smaller and caudate volumes were 17% smaller than in controls after controlling for age and intracranial volume. Shape analysis revealed significant shape deflation in PSP in the striatum, compared to controls; with regionally significant change relevant to frontostriatal and corticostriatal circuits in the caudate. Thus, in a clinically diagnosed and biomarker-confirmed cohort with early PSP, we demonstrate that neostriatal volume and shape are significantly reduced in vivo. The findings suggest a neostriatal and mesencephalic structural basis for the clinical features of PSP leading to frontostriatal and mesocortical-striatal circuit disruption. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
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10.
  • Looi, Jefferey Chee Leong, et al. (författare)
  • Shape analysis of the neostriatum in frontotemporal lobar degeneration, Alzheimer's disease, and controls
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: NeuroImage. - : Elsevier BV. - 1053-8119 .- 1095-9572. ; 51:3, s. 970-986
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background and purpose: Frontostriatal circuit mediated cognitive dysfunction has been implicated in frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), but not Alzheimer's disease, or healthy aging. We measured the neostriatum (caudate nucleus and putamen) volume in FTLD (n=34), in comparison with controls (n=27) and Alzheimer's disease (AD, n=19) subjects. Methods: Diagnoses were based on international consensus criteria. Manual bilateral segmentation of the caudate nucleus and putamen was conducted blind to diagnosis by a single analyst, on MRI scans using a standardized protocol. Intra-cranial volume was calculated via a stereological point counting technique and was used for scaling the shape analysis. The manual segmentation binaries were analyzed using UNC Shape Analysis tools (University of North Carolina) to perform comparisons among FTLD, AD, and controls for global shape, local p-value significance maps, and mean magnitude of shape displacement. Results: Shape analysis revealed that there was significant shape difference between FTLD, AD, and controls, consistent with the predicted frontostriatal dysfunction and of significant magnitude, as measured by displacement maps. There was a lateralized difference in shape for the left caudate for FTLD compared to AD; non-specific global atrophy in AD compared to controls; while FTLD showed a more specific pattern in regions relaying fronto- and corticostriatal circuits. Conclusions: Shape analysis shows regional specificity of atrophy, manifest as shape deflation, with implications for frontostriatal and corticostriatal motoric circuits, in FTLD, AD, and controls.
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