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  • Oksanen, Minna, et al. (författare)
  • NF-E2-related factor 2 activation boosts antioxidant defenses and ameliorates inflammatory and amyloid properties in human Presenilin-1 mutated Alzheimer's disease astrocytes
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: GLIA. - : John Wiley & Sons Inc.. - 0894-1491 .- 1098-1136. ; 68:3, s. 589-599
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common dementia affecting a vast number of individuals and significantly impairing quality of life. Despite extensive research in animal models and numerous promising treatment trials, there is still no curative treatment for AD. Astrocytes, the most common cell type of the central nervous system, have been shown to play a role in the major AD pathologies, including accumulation of amyloid plaques, neuroinflammation, and oxidative stress. Here, we show that inflammatory stimulation leads to metabolic activation of human astrocytes and reduces amyloid secretion. On the other hand, the activation of oxidative metabolism leads to increased reactive oxygen species production especially in AD astrocytes. While healthy astrocytes increase glutathione (GSH) release to protect the cells, Presenilin-1-mutated AD patient astrocytes do not. Thus, chronic inflammation is likely to induce oxidative damage in AD astrocytes. Activation of NRF2, the major regulator of cellular antioxidant defenses, encoded by the NFE2L2 gene, poses several beneficial effects on AD astrocytes. We report here that the activation of NRF2 pathway reduces amyloid secretion, normalizes cytokine release, and increases GSH secretion in AD astrocytes. NRF2 induction also activates the metabolism of astrocytes and increases the utilization of glycolysis. Taken together, targeting NRF2 in astrocytes could be a potent therapeutic strategy in AD.
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  • Tikka, Saara, et al. (författare)
  • Congruence between NOTCH3 mutations and GOM in 131 CADASIL patients
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Brain. - 0006-8950 .- 1460-2156. ; 132, s. 933-939
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is the most common hereditary subcortical vascular dementia. It is caused by mutations in NOTCH3 gene, which encodes a large transmembrane receptor Notch3. The key pathological finding is the accumulation of granular osmiophilic material (GOM), which contains extracellular domains of Notch3, on degenerating vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). GOM has been considered specifically diagnostic for CADASIL, but the reports on the sensitivity of detecting GOM in patients skin biopsy have been contradictory. To solve this contradiction, we performed a retrospective investigation of 131 Finnish, Swedish and French CADASIL patients, who had been adequately examined for both NOTCH3 mutation and presence of GOM. The patients were examined according to the diagnostic practice in each country. NOTCH3 mutations were assessed by restriction enzyme analysis of specific mutations or by sequence analysis. Presence of GOM was examined by electron microscopy (EM) in skin biopsies. Biopsies of 26 mutation-negative relatives from CADASIL families served as the controls. GOM was detected in all 131 mutation positive patients. Altogether our patients had 34 different pathogenic mutations which included three novel point mutations (p.Cys67Ser, p.Cys251Tyr and p.Tyr1069Cys) and a novel duplication (p.Glu434_Leu436dup). The detection of GOM by EM in skin biopsies was a highly reliable diagnostic method: in this cohort the congruence between NOTCH3 mutations and presence of GOM was 100. However, due to the retrospective nature of this study, exact figure for sensitivity cannot be determined, but it would require a prospective study to exclude possible selection bias. The identification of a pathogenic NOTCH3 mutation is an indisputable evidence for CADASIL, but demonstration of GOM provides a cost-effective guide for estimating how far one should proceed with the extensive search for a new or an uncommon mutations among the presently known over 170 different NOTCH3 gene defects. The diagnostic skin biopsy should include the border zone between deep dermis and upper subcutis, where small arterial vessels of correct size are located. Detection of GOM requires technically adequate biopsies and distinction of true GOM from fallacious deposits. If GOM is not found in the first vessel or biopsy, other vessels or additional biopsies should be examined.
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