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Sökning: WFRF:(Visvanathan K)

  • Resultat 1-10 av 47
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1.
  • Elena, J. W., et al. (författare)
  • Diabetes and risk of pancreatic cancer : a pooled analysis from the pancreatic cancer cohort consortium
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Cancer Causes and Control. - 0957-5243 .- 1573-7225. ; 24:1, s. 13-25
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: Diabetes is a suspected risk factor for pancreatic cancer, but questions remain about whether it is a risk factor or a result of the disease. This study prospectively examined the association between diabetes and the risk of pancreatic adenocarcinoma in pooled data from the NCI pancreatic cancer cohort consortium (PanScan). Methods: The pooled data included 1,621 pancreatic adenocarcinoma cases and 1,719 matched controls from twelve cohorts using a nested case-control study design. Subjects who were diagnosed with diabetes near the time (<2 years) of pancreatic cancer diagnosis were excluded from all analyses. All analyses were adjusted for age, race, gender, study, alcohol use, smoking, BMI, and family history of pancreatic cancer. Results: Self-reported diabetes was associated with a forty percent increased risk of pancreatic cancer (OR = 1.40, 95 % CI: 1.07, 1.84). The association differed by duration of diabetes; risk was highest for those with a duration of 2-8 years (OR = 1.79, 95 % CI: 1.25, 2.55); there was no association for those with 9+ years of diabetes (OR = 1.02, 95 % CI: 0.68, 1.52). Conclusions: These findings provide support for a relationship between diabetes and pancreatic cancer risk. The absence of association in those with the longest duration of diabetes may reflect hypoinsulinemia and warrants further investigation.
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2.
  • Sampson, Joshua N., et al. (författare)
  • Analysis of Heritability and Shared Heritability Based on Genome-Wide Association Studies for 13 Cancer Types
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. - 0027-8874 .- 1460-2105. ; 107:12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Studies of related individuals have consistently demonstrated notable familial aggregation of cancer. We aim to estimate the heritability and genetic correlation attributable to the additive effects of common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for cancer at 13 anatomical sites. Methods: Between 2007 and 2014, the US National Cancer Institute has generated data from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for 49 492 cancer case patients and 34 131 control patients. We apply novel mixed model methodology (GCTA) to this GWAS data to estimate the heritability of individual cancers, as well as the proportion of heritability attributable to cigarette smoking in smoking-related cancers, and the genetic correlation between pairs of cancers. Results: GWAS heritability was statistically significant at nearly all sites, with the estimates of array-based heritability, h(l)(2), on the liability threshold (LT) scale ranging from 0.05 to 0.38. Estimating the combined heritability of multiple smoking characteristics, we calculate that at least 24% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 14% to 37%) and 7% (95% CI = 4% to 11%) of the heritability for lung and bladder cancer, respectively, can be attributed to genetic determinants of smoking. Most pairs of cancers studied did not show evidence of strong genetic correlation. We found only four pairs of cancers with marginally statistically significant correlations, specifically kidney and testes (rho = 0.73, SE = 0.28), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and pediatric osteosarcoma (rho = 0.53, SE = 0.21), DLBCL and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) (rho = 0.51, SE = 0.18), and bladder and lung (rho = 0.35, SE = 0.14). Correlation analysis also indicates that the genetic architecture of lung cancer differs between a smoking population of European ancestry and a nonsmoking Asian population, allowing for the possibility that the genetic etiology for the same disease can vary by population and environmental exposures. Conclusion: Our results provide important insights into the genetic architecture of cancers and suggest new avenues for investigation.
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3.
  • Genkinger, J. M., et al. (författare)
  • Central adiposity, obesity during early adulthood, and pancreatic cancer mortality in a pooled analysis of cohort studies
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Annals of Oncology. - : OXFORD UNIV PRESS. - 0923-7534 .- 1569-8041. ; 26:11, s. 2257-2266
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • positively associated with pancreatic cancer. However, little evidence exists regarding the influence of central adiposity, a high BMI during early adulthood, and weight gain after early adulthood on pancreatic cancer risk. Design: We conducted a pooled analysis of individual-level data from 20 prospective cohort studies in the National Cancer Institute BMI and Mortality Cohort Consortium to examine the association of pancreatic cancer mortality with measures of central adiposity ( e. g. waist circumference; n = 647 478; 1947 pancreatic cancer deaths), BMI during early adulthood ( ages 18- 21 years) and BMI change between early adulthood and cohort enrollment, mostly in middle age or later ( n = 1 096 492; 3223 pancreatic cancer deaths). Multivariable hazard ratios ( HRs) and 95% confidence intervals ( CIs) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression models. Results: Higher waist-to-hip ratio ( HR = 1.09, 95% CI 1.02- 1.17 per 0.1 increment) and waist circumference ( HR = 1.07, 95% CI 1.00- 1.14 per 10 cm) were associated with increased risk of pancreatic cancer mortality, even when adjusted for BMI at baseline. BMI during early adulthood was associated with increased pancreatic cancer mortality ( HR = 1.18, 95% CI 1.11- 1.25 per 5 kg/ m2), with increased risk observed in both overweight and obese individuals ( compared with BMI of 21.0 to < 23 kg/ m(2), HR = 1.36, 95% CI 1.20- 1.55 for BMI 25.0 < 27.5 kg/ m2, HR = 1.48, 95% CI 1.20- 1.84 for BMI 27.5 to < 30 kg/ m2, HR = 1.43, 95% CI 1.11- 1.85 for BMI = 30 kg/ m2). BMI gain after early adulthood, adjusted for early adult BMI, was less strongly associated with pancreatic cancer mortality ( HR = 1.05, 95% CI 1.01- 1.10 per 5 kg/ m2). Conclusions: Our results support an association between pancreatic cancer mortality and central obesity, independent of BMI, and also suggest that being overweight or obese during early adulthood may be important in influencing pancreatic cancer mortality risk later in life.
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4.
  • Key, T. J., et al. (författare)
  • Steroid hormone measurements from different types of assays in relation to body mass index and breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women: Reanalysis of eighteen prospective studies
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Steroids. - : Elsevier. - 0039-128X. ; 99, s. 49-55
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Epidemiological studies have examined breast cancer risk in relation to sex hormone concentrations measured by different methods: "extraction" immunoassays (with prior purification by organic solvent extraction, with or without column chromatography), "direct" immunoassays (no prior extraction or column chromatography), and more recently with mass spectrometry-based assays. We describe the associations of estradiol, estrone and testosterone with both body mass index and breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women according to assay method, using data from a collaborative pooled analysis of 18 prospective studies. In general, hormone concentrations were highest in studies that used direct assays and lowest in studies that used mass spectrometry-based assays. Estradiol and estrone were strongly positively associated with body mass index, regardless of the assay method; testosterone was positively associated with body mass index for direct assays, but less clearly for extraction assays, and there were few data for mass spectrometry assays. The correlations of estradiol with body mass index, estrone and testosterone were lower for direct assays than for extraction and mass spectrometry assays, suggesting that the estimates from the direct assays were less precise. For breast cancer risk, all three hormones were strongly positively associated with risk regardless of assay method (except for testosterone by mass spectrometry where there were few data), with no statistically significant differences in the trends, but differences may emerge as new data accumulate. Future epidemiological and clinical research studies should continue to use the most accurate assays that are feasible within the design characteristics of each study.
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5.
  • Genkinger, J M, et al. (författare)
  • Corrigendum to 'Measures of body fatness and height in early and mid-to-late adulthood and prostate cancer : risk and mortality in The Pooling Project of Prospective Studies of Diet and Cancer'
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Annals of Oncology. - : Elsevier BV. - 0923-7534 .- 1569-8041. ; 32:9, s. 1201-1201
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Advanced prostate cancer etiology is poorly understood. Few studies have examined associations ofanthropometric factors (e.g. early adulthood obesity) with advanced prostate cancer risk.Patients and methods: We carried out pooled analyses to examine associations between body fatness, height, andprostate cancer risk. Among 830 772 men, 51 734 incident prostate cancer cases were identified, including 4762advanced (T4/N1/M1 or prostate cancer deaths) cases, 2915 advanced restricted (same as advanced, but excludinglocalized cancers that resulted in death) cases, 9489 high-grade cases, and 3027 prostate cancer deaths. Coxproportional hazards models were used to calculate study-specific hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals(CI); results were pooled using random effects models.Results: No statistically significant associations were observed for body mass index (BMI) in early adulthood for advanced,advanced restricted, and high-grade prostate cancer, and prostate cancer mortality. Positive associations were shown forBMI at baseline with advanced prostate cancer (HR ¼ 1.30, 95% CI ¼ 0.95e1.78) and prostate cancer mortality (HR ¼1.52, 95% CI ¼ 1.12e2.07) comparing BMI 35.0 kg/m2 with 21e22.9 kg/m2. When considering early adulthood andbaseline BMI together, a 27% higher prostate cancer mortality risk (95% CI ¼ 9% to 49%) was observed for men withBMI <25.0 kg/m2 in early adulthood and BMI 30.0 kg/m2 at baseline compared with BMI <25.0 kg/m2 in earlyadulthood and BMI <30.0 kg/m2 at baseline. Baseline waist circumference, comparing 110 cm with <90 cm, andwaist-to-hip ratio, comparing 1.00 with <0.90, were associated with significant 14%e16% increases in high-gradeprostate cancer risk and suggestive or significant 20%e39% increases in prostate cancer mortality risk. Height wasassociated with suggestive or significant 33%e56% risks of advanced or advanced restricted prostate cancer andprostate cancer mortality, comparing 1.90 m with <1.65 m.Conclusion: Our findings suggest that height and total and central adiposity in mid-to-later adulthood, but not earlyadulthood adiposity, are associated with risk of advanced forms of prostate cancer. Thus, maintenance of healthyweight may help prevent advanced prostate cancer.
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6.
  • Genkinger, J. M., et al. (författare)
  • Measures of body fatness and height in early and mid-to-late adulthood and prostate cancer : risk and mortality in The Pooling Project of Prospective Studies of Diet and Cancer
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Annals of Oncology. - : OXFORD UNIV PRESS. - 0923-7534 .- 1569-8041. ; 31:1, s. 103-114
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Advanced prostate cancer etiology is poorly understood. Few studies have examined associations of anthropometric factors (e.g. early adulthood obesity) with advanced prostate cancer risk.Patients and methods: We carried out pooled analyses to examine associations between body fatness, height, and prostate cancer risk. Among 830 772 men, 51 734 incident prostate cancer cases were identified, including 4762 advanced (T4/N1/M1 or prostate cancer deaths) cases, 2915 advanced restricted (same as advanced, but excluding localized cancers that resulted in death) cases, 9489 high-grade cases, and 3027 prostate cancer deaths. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate study-specific hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI); results were pooled using random effects models.Results: No statistically significant associations were observed for body mass index (BMI) in early adulthood for advanced, advanced restricted, and high-grade prostate cancer, and prostate cancer mortality. Positive associations were shown for BMI at baseline with advanced prostate cancer (HR = 1.30, 95% CI = 0.95-1.78) and prostate cancer mortality (HR = 1.52, 95% CI = 1.12-2.07) comparing BMI >= 35.0 kg/m(2) with 21-22.9 kg/m(2). When considering early adulthood and baseline BMI together, a 27% higher prostate cancer mortality risk (95% CI = 9% to 49%) was observed for men with BMI <25.0 kg/m(2) in early adulthood and BMI >= 30.0 kg/m(2) at baseline compared with BMI <25.0 kg/m(2) in early adulthood and BMI <30.0 kg/m(2) at baseline. Baseline waist circumference, comparing >= 110 cm with <90 cm, and waist-to-hip ratio, comparing >= 1.00 with <0.90, were associated with significant 14%-16% increases in high-grade prostate cancer risk and suggestive or significant 20%-39% increases in prostate cancer mortality risk. Height was associated with suggestive or significant 33%-56% risks of advanced or advanced restricted prostate cancer and prostate cancer mortality, comparing >= 1.90 m with <1.65 m.Conclusion: Our findings suggest that height and total and central adiposity in mid-to-later adulthood, but not early adulthood adiposity, are associated with risk of advanced forms of prostate cancer. Thus, maintenance of healthy weight may help prevent advanced prostate cancer.
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8.
  • Wang, Zhaoming, et al. (författare)
  • Imputation and subset-based association analysis across different cancer types identifies multiple independent risk loci in the TERT-CLPTM1L region on chromosome 5p15.33
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Human Molecular Genetics. - 0964-6906 .- 1460-2083. ; 23:24, s. 6616-6633
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have mapped risk alleles for at least 10 distinct cancers to a small region of 63 000 bp on chromosome 5p15.33. This region harbors the TERT and CLPTM1L genes; the former encodes the catalytic subunit of telomerase reverse transcriptase and the latter may play a role in apoptosis. To investigate further the genetic architecture of common susceptibility alleles in this region, we conducted an agnostic subset-based meta-analysis (association analysis based on subsets) across six distinct cancers in 34 248 cases and 45 036 controls. Based on sequential conditional analysis, we identified as many as six independent risk loci marked by common single-nucleotide polymorphisms: five in the TERT gene (Region 1: rs7726159, P = 2.10 × 10(-39); Region 3: rs2853677, P = 3.30 × 10(-36) and PConditional = 2.36 × 10(-8); Region 4: rs2736098, P = 3.87 × 10(-12) and PConditional = 5.19 × 10(-6), Region 5: rs13172201, P = 0.041 and PConditional = 2.04 × 10(-6); and Region 6: rs10069690, P = 7.49 × 10(-15) and PConditional = 5.35 × 10(-7)) and one in the neighboring CLPTM1L gene (Region 2: rs451360; P = 1.90 × 10(-18) and PConditional = 7.06 × 10(-16)). Between three and five cancers mapped to each independent locus with both risk-enhancing and protective effects. Allele-specific effects on DNA methylation were seen for a subset of risk loci, indicating that methylation and subsequent effects on gene expression may contribute to the biology of risk variants on 5p15.33. Our results provide strong support for extensive pleiotropy across this region of 5p15.33, to an extent not previously observed in other cancer susceptibility loci.
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9.
  • Zuo, H., et al. (författare)
  • Vitamin B6 catabolism and lung cancer risk : Results from the Lung Cancer Cohort Consortium (LC3)
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Annals of Oncology. - : Oxford University Press. - 0923-7534 .- 1569-8041. ; 30:3, s. 478-485
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Increased vitamin B6 catabolism related to inflammation, as measured by the PAr index (the ratio of 4-pyridoxic acid over the sum of pyridoxal and pyridoxal-5'-phosphate), has been positively associated with lung cancer risk in two prospective European studies. However, the extent to which this association translates to more diverse populations is not known. Materials and methods For this study, we included 5323 incident lung cancer cases and 5323 controls individually matched by age, sex, and smoking status within each of 20 prospective cohorts from the Lung Cancer Cohort Consortium. Cohort-specific odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between PAr and lung cancer risk were calculated using conditional logistic regression and pooled using random-effects models. Results PAr was positively associated with lung cancer risk in a dose-response fashion. Comparing the fourth versus first quartiles of PAr resulted in an OR of 1.38 (95% CI: 1.19-1.59) for overall lung cancer risk. The association between PAr and lung cancer risk was most prominent in former smokers (OR: 1.69, 95% CI: 1.36-2.10), men (OR: 1.60, 95% CI: 1.28-2.00), and for cancers diagnosed within 3 years of blood draw (OR: 1.73, 95% CI: 1.34-2.23). Conclusion Based on pre-diagnostic data from 20 cohorts across 4 continents, this study confirms that increased vitamin B6 catabolism related to inflammation and immune activation is associated with a higher risk of developing lung cancer. Moreover, PAr may be a pre-diagnostic marker of lung cancer rather than a causal factor.
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10.
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