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1.
  • Hallberg, Pär, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic variants associated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor-induced cough : a genome-wide association study in a Swedish population
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Pharmacogenomics (London). - : FUTURE MEDICINE LTD. - 1462-2416 .- 1744-8042. ; 18:3, s. 201-213
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim: We conducted a genome-wide association study on angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor-induced cough and used our dataset to replicate candidate genes iden-tified in previous studies. Patients & methods: A total of 124 patients and 1345 treated controls were genotyped using Illumina arrays. The genome-wide significance level was set to p < 5 x 10(-8). Results: We identified nearly genome-wide significant associations in CLASP1, PDE11A, KCNMB2, TGFA, SLC38A6 and MMP16. The strongest association was with rs62151109 in CLASP1 (odds ratio: 3.97; p = 9.44 x 10(-8)). All top hits except two were located in intronic or noncoding DNA regions. None of the candidate genes were significantly associated in our study. Conclusion: Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor-induced cough is potentially associated with genes that are independent of bradykinin pathways.
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2.
  • Hallberg, Pär, 1974-, et al. (författare)
  • Pandemrix-induced narcolepsy is associated with genes related to immunity and neuronal survival
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: EBioMedicine. - 2352-3964. ; 40, s. 595-604
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The incidence of narcolepsy rose sharply after the swine influenza A (H1N1) vaccination campaign with Pandemrix. Narcolepsy is an immune-related disorder with excessive daytime sleepiness. The most frequent form is strongly associated with HLA-DQB1*06:02, but only a minority of carriers develop narcolepsy. We aimed to identify genetic markers that predispose to Pandemrix-induced narcolepsy.METHODS: We tested for genome-wide and candidate gene associations in 42 narcolepsy cases and 4981 controls. Genotyping was performed on Illumina arrays, HLA alleles were imputed using SNP2HLA, and single nucleotide polymorphisms were imputed using the haplotype reference consortium panel. The genome-wide significance threshold was p < 5 × 10-8, and the nominal threshold was p < 0.05. Results were replicated in 32 cases and 7125 controls. Chromatin data was used for functional annotation.FINDINGS: Carrying HLA-DQB1*06:02 was significantly associated with narcolepsy, odds ratio (OR) 39.4 [95% confidence interval (CI) 11.3, 137], p = 7.9 × 10-9. After adjustment for HLA, GDNF-AS1 (rs62360233) was significantly associated, OR = 8.7 [95% CI 4.2, 17.5], p = 2.6 × 10-9, and this was replicated, OR = 3.4 [95% CI 1.2-9.6], p = 0.022. Functional analysis revealed variants in high LD with rs62360233 that might explain the detected association. The candidate immune-gene locus TRAJ (rs1154155) was nominally associated in both the discovery and replication cohorts, meta-analysis OR = 2.0 [95% CI 1.4, 2.8], p = 0.0002.INTERPRETATION: We found a novel association between Pandemrix-induced narcolepsy and the non-coding RNA gene GDNF-AS1, which has been shown to regulate expression of the essential neurotrophic factor GDNF. Changes in regulation of GDNF have been associated with neurodegenerative diseases. This finding may increase the understanding of disease mechanisms underlying narcolepsy. Associations between Pandemrix-induced narcolepsy and immune-related genes were replicated.
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3.
  • Rasmussen, Eva Rye, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association study of angioedema induced by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and angiotensin receptor blocker treatment.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: The Pharmacogenomics Journal. - 1470-269X .- 1473-1150. ; 20:6, s. 770-783
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Angioedema in the mouth or upper airways is a feared adverse reaction to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEi) and angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) treatment, which is used for hypertension, heart failure and diabetes complications. This candidate gene and genome-wide association study aimed to identify genetic variants predisposing to angioedema induced by these drugs. The discovery cohort consisted of 173 cases and 4890 controls recruited in Sweden. In the candidate gene analysis, ETV6, BDKRB2, MME, and PRKCQ were nominally associated with angioedema (p < 0.05), but did not pass Bonferroni correction for multiple testing (p < 2.89 × 10-5). In the genome-wide analysis, intronic variants in the calcium-activated potassium channel subunit alpha-1 (KCNMA1) gene on chromosome 10 were significantly associated with angioedema (p < 5 × 10-8). Whilst the top KCNMA1 hit was not significant in the replication cohort (413 cases and 599 ACEi-exposed controls from the US and Northern Europe), a meta-analysis of the replication and discovery cohorts (in total 586 cases and 1944 ACEi-exposed controls) revealed that each variant allele increased the odds of experiencing angioedema 1.62 times (95% confidence interval 1.05-2.50, p = 0.030). Associated KCNMA1 variants are not known to be functional, but are in linkage disequilibrium with variants in transcription factor binding sites active in relevant tissues. In summary, our data suggest that common variation in KCNMA1 is associated with risk of angioedema induced by ACEi or ARB treatment. Future whole exome or genome sequencing studies will show whether rare variants in KCNMA1 or other genes contribute to the risk of ACEi- and ARB-induced angioedema.
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5.
  • Wadelius, Mia, et al. (författare)
  • Polymorphisms in NAT2, CYP2D6, CYP2C19 and GSTP1 and their association with prostate cancer
  • 1999
  • Ingår i: Pharmacogenetics. - 0960-314X .- 1473-561X. ; 9:3, s. 333-40
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The development of prostate cancer is dependent on heredity, androgenic influences, and exposure to environmental agents. A high intake of dietary fat is associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer, either through influence on steroid hormone profiles or through production of carcinogenic compounds that require biotransformation by enzymes. The polymorphic glutathione S-transferase (GST), N-acetyltransferase (NAT), and cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes are of particular interest in prostate cancer susceptibility because of their ability to metabolize both endogenous and exogenous compounds, including dietary constituents. Association between different NAT2, CYP2D6, CYP2C19 and GSTP1 genotypes and prostate cancer was studied in a Swedish and Danish case-control study comprising 850 individuals. The combined Swedish and Danish study population was analysed by polymerase chain reaction for the NAT2 alleles *4, *5A, *5B, *5C, *6 and *7, and for the CYP2D6 alleles *l, *3 and *4. The Swedish subjects were also analysed for the CYP2C19 alleles *1 and *2, and the GSTP1 alleles *A, *B and *C. No association was found between prostate cancer and polymorphisms in NAT2, CYP2D6, CYP2C19 or GSTP1. An association between CYP2D6 poor metabolism and prostate cancer was seen among smoking Danes; odds ratio 3.10 (95% confidence interval 1.07; 8.93), P = 0.03, but not among smoking Swedes; odds ratio 1.19 (95% confidence interval 0.41; 3.42), P = 0.75. Smoking is not a known risk factor for prostate cancer, and the association between CYP2D6 poor metabolism and prostate cancer in Danish smokers may have arisen by chance.
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6.
  • Wadelius, Mia, et al. (författare)
  • Prostate cancer associated with CYP17 genotype
  • 1999
  • Ingår i: Pharmacogenetics. - 0960-314X .- 1473-561X. ; 9:5, s. 635-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Androgens play an important role in the development of prostate cancer. Androgen regulating genes that show allelic variation may be susceptibility factors for the disease. One of these genes, CYP17, encodes the cytochrome P450c17alpha enzyme. It catalyses steroid 17alpha-hydroxylase/17,20 lyase activities at key points in testosterone biosynthesis. We investigated the association between a polymorphism in the CYP17 gene and prostate cancer in a population-based case-control study. All individuals studied were Caucasians born in Sweden, 178 were consecutive clinical prostate cancer patients, and 160 were age-matched control individuals randomly selected from the same catchment area. DNA was extracted from blood samples. A CYP17 gene fragment was amplified by polymerase chain reaction. The MspA1I restriction enzyme, which recognizes the base pair substitution, was used to identify the allelic variants CYP17A1 and CYP17A2. Significantly more men homozygous for the CYP17A1 allele were found among prostate cancer patients compared with control individuals; odds ratio 1.61 (95% confidence interval 1.02; 2.53), P = 0.04. According to a preliminary report, the CYP17A1/A1 genotype leads to higher circulating androgen levels, possibly by encoding for a more active androgen synthesizing CYP17 enzyme. Consequently, the CYP17A1/A1 genotype, which was found in a higher frequency among prostate cancer patients, may prove to be one of the important susceptibility factors for prostate cancer. If verified, this genotype is likely to convey a larger risk on a population basis, than the rare hereditary prostate cancer genes do.
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7.
  • Aomori, Tohru, et al. (författare)
  • Rapid Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism Detection of Cytochrome P450 (CYP2C9) and Vitamin K Epoxide Reductase (VKORC1) Genes for the Warfarin Dose Adjustment by the SMart-Amplification Process Version 2
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Clinical Chemistry. - 0009-9147 .- 1530-8561. ; 55:4, s. 804-812
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Polymorphisms of the CYP2C9 (cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily C, polypeptide 9) gene (CYP2C9*2, CYP2C9*3) and the VKORC1 (vitamin K epoxide reductase complex, subunit 1) gene (-1639G>A) greatly impact the maintenance dose for the drug warfarin. Prescreening patients for their genotypes before prescribing the drug facilitates a faster individualized determination of the proper maintenance dose, minimizing the risk for adverse reaction and reoccurrence of thromboembolic episodes. With current methodologies, therapy can be delayed by several hours to 1 day if genotyping is to determine the loading dose. A simpler and more rapid genotyping method is required. METHODS: We developed a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-detection assay based on the SMart Amplification Process version 2 (SMAP 2) to analyze CYP2C9*2, CYP2C9*3, and VKORC1 -1639G>A polymorphisms. Blood from consenting participants was used directly in a closed-tube real-time assay without DNA purification to obtain results within 1 h of blood collection. RESULTS: We analyzed 125 blood samples by both SMAP 2 and PCR-RFLP methods. The results showed perfect concordance. CONCLUSIONS: The results validate the accuracy of the SMAP 2 for determination of SNPs critical to personalized warfarin therapy. SMAP 2 offers speed, simplicity of sample preparation, the convenience of isothermal amplification, and assay-design flexibility, which are significant advantages over conventional genotyping technologies. In this example and other clinical scenarios in which genetic testing is required for immediate and better-informed therapeutic decisions, SMAP 2-based diagnostics have key advantages.
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8.
  • Cavalli, Marco, et al. (författare)
  • Novel regulatory variant detected on the VKORC1 haplotype that is associated with warfarin dose
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Pharmacogenomics (London). - 1462-2416 .- 1744-8042. ; 17:12, s. 1305-1314
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim: Warfarin dose requirement is associated with VKORC1 rs9923231, and we studied whether it is a functional variant.Materials & methods: We selected variants in linkage disequilibrium with rs9923231 that bind transcription factors in an allele-specific way. Representative haplotypes were cloned or constructed, nuclear protein binding and transcriptional activity were evaluated.Results: rs56314408C>T and rs2032915C>T were detected in a liver enhancer in linkage disequilibrium with rs9923231. The rs56314408-rs2032915 C-C haplotype preferentially bound nuclear proteins and had higher transcriptional activity than T-T and the African-specific T-C. A motif for TFAP2A/C was disrupted by rs56314408T. No difference in transcriptional activity was detected for rs9923231G>A.Conclusion: Our results supported an activating role for rs56314408C, while rs9923231G>A had no evidence of being functional.
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9.
  • Eriksson, Niclas, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic determinants of warfarin maintenance dose and time in therapeutic treatment range : a RE-LY genomics substudy
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Pharmacogenomics (London). - 1462-2416 .- 1744-8042. ; 17:13, s. 1425-1439
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims: We investigated associations between genetic variation in candidate genes and on a genome-wide scale with warfarin maintenance dose, time in therapeutic range (TTR), and risk of major bleeding. Materials & methods: In total, 982 warfarin-treated patients from the RE-LY trial were studied. Results: After adjusting for SNPs in VKORC1 and CYP2C9, SNPs in DDHD1 (rs17126068) and NEDD4 (rs2288344) were associated with dose. Adding these SNPs and CYP4F2 (rs2108622) to a base model increased R-2 by 2.9%. An SNP in ASPH (rs4379440) was associated with TTR (-6.8% per minor allele). VKORC1 was associated with time less than INR 2.0. VKORC1 and CYP2C9 were associated with time more than INR 3.0, but not with major bleeding. Conclusions: We identified two novel genes associated with warfarin maintenance dose and one gene associated with TTR. These genes need to be replicated in an independent cohort.
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