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Sökning: WFRF:(Wagenmakers M.)

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  • Valassi, E., et al. (författare)
  • High mortality within 90 days of diagnosis in patients with Cushing's syndrome: results from the ERCUSYN registry
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Endocrinology. - 0804-4643. ; 181:5, s. 461-472
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Patients with Cushing's syndrome (CS) have increased mortality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the causes and time of death in a large cohort of patients with CS and to establish factors associated with increased mortality. Methods: In this cohort study, we analyzed 1564 patients included in the European Registry on CS (ERCUSYN); 1045 (67%) had pituitary-dependent CS, 385 (25%) adrenal-dependent CS, 89 (5%) had an ectopic source and 45 (3%) other causes. The median (IQR) overall follow-up time in ERCUSYN was 2.7 (1.2-5.5) years. Results: Forty-nine patients had died at the time of the analysis; 23 (47%) with pituitary-dependent CS, 6 (12%) with adrenal-dependent CS, 18 (37%) with ectopic CS and two (4%) with CS due to other causes. Of 42 patients whose cause of death was known, 15 (36%) died due to progression of the underlying disease, 13 (31%) due to infections, 7 (17%) due to cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease and 2 due to pulmonary embolism. The commonest cause of death in patients with pituitary-dependent CS and adrenal-dependent CS were infectious diseases (n = 8) and progression of the underlying tumor (n = 10) in patients with ectopic CS. Patients who had died were older and more often males, and had more frequently muscle weakness, diabetes mellitus and ectopic CS, compared to survivors. Of 49 deceased patients, 22 (45%) died within 90 days from start of treatment and 5 (10%) before any treatment was given. The commonest cause of deaths in these 27 patients were infections (n = 10; 37%). In a regression analysis, age, ectopic CS and active disease were independently associated with overall death before and within 90 days from the start of treatment. Conclusion: Mortality rate was highest in patients with ectopic CS. Infectious diseases the commonest cause of death soon after diagnosis, emphasizing the need for careful vigilance at that time, especially in patients presenting with concomitant diabetes mellitus.
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  • Whytock, K. L., et al. (författare)
  • A 7-day high-fat, high-calorie diet induces fibre-specific increases in intramuscular triglyceride and perilipin protein expression in human skeletal muscle
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Physiology-London. - 0022-3751. ; 598:6, s. 1151-1167
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Key points We have recently shown that a high-fat, high-calorie (HFHC) diet decreases whole body glucose clearance without impairing skeletal muscle insulin signalling, in healthy lean individuals. These diets are also known to increase skeletal muscle IMTG stores, but the effect on lipid metabolites leading to skeletal muscle insulin resistance has not been investigated. This study measured the effect of 7 days' HFHC diet on (1) skeletal muscle concentration of lipid metabolites, and (2) potential changes in the perilipin (PLIN) content of the lipid droplets storing intramuscular triglyceride (IMTG). The HFHC diet increased PLIN3 protein expression and redistributed PLIN2 to lipid droplet stores in type I fibres. The HFHC diet increased IMTG content in type I fibres, while lipid metabolite concentrations remained the same. The data suggest that the increases in IMTG stores assists in reducing the accumulation of lipid metabolites known to contribute to skeletal muscle insulin resistance. A high-fat, high-calorie (HFHC) diet reduces whole body glucose clearance without impairing skeletal muscle insulin signalling in healthy lean individuals. HFHC diets also increase skeletal muscle lipid stores. However, unlike certain lipid metabolites, intramuscular triglyceride (IMTG) stored within lipid droplets (LDs) does not directly contribute to skeletal muscle insulin resistance. Increased expression of perilipin (PLIN) proteins and colocalisation to LDs has been shown to assist in IMTG storage. We aimed to test the hypothesis that 7 days on a HFHC diet increases IMTG content while minimising accumulation of lipid metabolites known to disrupt skeletal muscle insulin signalling in sedentary and obese individuals. We also aimed to identify changes in expression and subcellular distribution of proteins involved in IMTG storage. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the m. vastus lateralis of 13 (11 males, 2 females) healthy lean individuals (age: 23 +/- 2.5 years; body mass index: 24.5 +/- 2.4 kg m(-2)), following an overnight fast, before and after consuming a high-fat (64% energy), high-calorie (+47% kcal) diet for 7 days. After the HFHC diet, IMTG content increased in type I fibres only (+101%; P < 0.001), whereas there was no change in the concentration of either total diacylglycerol (P = 0.123) or total ceramides (P = 0.150). Of the PLINs investigated, only PLIN3 content increased (+50%; P 0.01) solely in type I fibres. LDs labelled with PLIN2 increased (+80%; P < 0.01), also in type I fibres only. We propose that these adaptations of LDs support IMTG storage and minimise accumulation of lipid metabolites to protect skeletal muscle insulin signalling following 7 days' HFHC diet.
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  • Boon, Hanneke, 1981-, et al. (författare)
  • Substrate Source Use in Older, Trained Males after Decades of Endurance Training
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. - Philadelphia, PA : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 0195-9131 .- 1530-0315. ; 39:12, s. 2160-2170
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare substrate source use in older, long-term exercising, endurance-trained males with sedentary controls. METHODS: [U-C]palmitate and [6,6-H2]glucose tracers were applied to assess plasma free fatty acid (FFA) and glucose oxidation rates, and to estimate muscle- and/or lipoprotein-derived triacylglycerol (TG) and muscle glycogen use. Subjects were 10 long-term exercising, endurance-trained males and 10 sedentary controls (age 57 +/- 1 and 60 +/- 2 yr, respectively). Muscle biopsy samples were collected before and after exercise to assess muscle fiber type-specific intramyocellular lipid and glycogen content. RESULTS: During exercise, plasma palmitate Ra, Rd, and Rox were significantly greater in the trained subjects compared with the controls (Ra: 0.36 +/- 0.02 and 0.25 +/- 0.02; Rd: 0.36 +/- 0.03 and 0.24 +/- 0.02; Rox: 0.31 +/- 0.02 and 0.20 +/- 0.02 mmol.min, respectively, P < 0.01). This resulted in greater plasma FFA and total fat oxidation rates in the trained versus sedentary subjects (P < 0.001). Muscle- and/or lipoprotein-derived TG use contributed 10 +/- 2 and 11 +/- 3% in the trained and control groups, respectively (NS). No significant net changes in muscle fiber lipid content were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Older, endurance-trained males oxidize more fat during moderate-intensity exercise than do sedentary controls. This greater total fat oxidation rate is attributed to a higher plasma FFA release, uptake, and oxidation rate. In contrast, intramyocellular triacylglycerol does not seem to represent a major substrate source during 1 h of moderate-intensity exercise in older trained or sedentary men. ©2007 The American College of Sports Medicine.
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  • Bickerton, A. S. T., et al. (författare)
  • Adipose tissue fatty acid metabolism in insulin-resistant men
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Diabetologia. - : Springer. - 1432-0428. ; 51:8, s. 1466-1474
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims/hypothesis Increased NEFA production and concentrations may underlie insulin resistance. We examined systemic and adipose tissue NEFA metabolism in insulin-resistant overweight men (BM1 25-35 kg/m(2)). Methods In a cohort study we examined NEFA concentrations in men in the upper quartile of fasting insulin (n = 124) and in men with fasting insulin below the median (n 159). In a metabolic study we examined NEFA metabolism in the fasting and postprandial states, in ten insulin-resistant men and ten controls. Results In the cohort study, fasting NEFA concentrations were not significantly different between the two groups (median values: insulin-resistant men, 410 mu mol/l; controls, 445 2 mu mol/l). However, triacylglycerol concentrations differed markedly (1.84 vs 1.18 mmol/l respectively, p<0.001). In the metabolic study, arterial NEFA concentrations again did not differ between groups, whereas triacylglycerol concentrations were significantly higher in insulin-resistant men. Systemic NEFA production and the release of NEFA from subcutaneous adipose tissue, expressed per unit of fat mass, were both reduced in insulin-resistant men compared with controls (fasting values by 32%, p=0.02, and 44%, p=0.04 respectively). 3-Hydroxybutyrate concentrations, an index of hepatic fat oxidation and ketogenesis, were lower (p=0.03). Conclusions/interpretation Adipose tissue NEFA output is not increased (per unit weight of tissue) in insulin resistance. On the contrary, it appears to be suppressed by high fasting insulin concentrations. Alterations in triacylglycerol metabolism are more marked than those in NEFA metabolism. and are indicative of altered metabolic partitioning of fatty acids (decreased oxidation, increased esterification) in the liver.
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  • Boon, Hanneke, 1981-, et al. (författare)
  • Intravenous AICAR administration reduces hepatic glucose output and inhibits whole body lipolysis in type 2 diabetic patients
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Diabetologia. - Heidelberg : Springer Berlin/Heidelberg. - 0012-186X .- 1432-0428. ; 51:10, s. 1893-1900
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway is intact in type 2 diabetic patients and is seen as a target for diabetes treatment. In this study, we aimed to assess the impact of the AMPK activator 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside (AICAR) on both glucose and fatty acid metabolism in vivo in type 2 diabetic patients. METHODS: Stable isotope methodology and blood and muscle biopsy sampling were applied to assess blood glucose and fatty acid kinetics following continuous i.v. infusion of AICAR (0.75 mg kg(-1) min(-1)) and/or NaCl (0.9%) in ten male type 2 diabetic patients (age 64 +/- 2 years; BMI 28 +/- 1 kg/m(2)). RESULTS: Plasma glucose rate of appearance (R (a)) was reduced following AICAR administration, while plasma glucose rate of disappearance (R (d)) was similar in the AICAR and control test. Consequently, blood glucose disposal (R (d) expressed as a percentage of R (a)) was increased following AICAR infusion (p < 0.001). Accordingly, a greater decline in plasma glucose concentration was observed following AICAR infusion (p < 0.001). Plasma NEFA R (a) and R (d) were both significantly reduced in response to AICAR infusion, and were accompanied by a significant decline in plasma NEFA concentration. Although AMPK phosphorylation in skeletal muscle was not increased, we observed a significant increase in acetyl-CoA carboxylase phosphorylation (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: The i.v. administration of AICAR reduces hepatic glucose output, thereby lowering blood glucose concentrations in vivo in type 2 diabetic patients. Furthermore, AICAR administration stimulates hepatic fatty acid oxidation and/or inhibits whole body lipolysis, thereby reducing plasma NEFA concentration. © 2008 The Author(s).
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8.
  • Camerer, C. F., et al. (författare)
  • Evaluating the replicability of social science experiments in Nature and Science between 2010 and 2015
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Nature Human Behaviour. - 2397-3374. ; 2:9, s. 637-644
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Being able to replicate scientific findings is crucial for scientific progress1-15. We replicate 21 systematically selected experimental studies in the social sciences published in Nature and Science between 2010 and 201516-36. The replications follow analysis plans reviewed by the original authors and pre-registered prior to the replications. The replications are high powered, with sample sizes on average about five times higher than in the original studies. We find a significant effect in the same direction as the original study for 13 (62%) studies, and the effect size of the replications is on average about 50% of the original effect size. Replicability varies between 12 (57%) and 14 (67%) studies for complementary replicability indicators. Consistent with these results, the estimated truepositive rate is 67% in a Bayesian analysis. The relative effect size of true positives is estimated to be 71%, suggesting that both false positives and inflated effect sizes of true positives contribute to imperfect reproducibility. Furthermore, we find that peer beliefs of replicability are strongly related to replicability, suggesting that the research community could predict which results would replicate and that failures to replicate were not the result of chance alone.
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