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  • Coustenis, A., et al. (författare)
  • TandEM : Titan and Enceladus mission
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Experimental astronomy (Print). - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 0922-6435 .- 1572-9508. ; 23:3, s. 893-946
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • TandEM was proposed as an L-class (large) mission in response to ESA's Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 Call, and accepted for further studies, with the goal of exploring Titan and Enceladus. The mission concept is to perform in situ investigations of two worlds tied together by location and properties, whose remarkable natures have been partly revealed by the ongoing Cassini-Huygens mission. These bodies still hold mysteries requiring a complete exploration using a variety of vehicles and instruments. TandEM is an ambitious mission because its targets are two of the most exciting and challenging bodies in the Solar System. It is designed to build on but exceed the scientific and technological accomplishments of the Cassini-Huygens mission, exploring Titan and Enceladus in ways that are not currently possible (full close-up and in situ coverage over long periods of time). In the current mission architecture, TandEM proposes to deliver two medium-sized spacecraft to the Saturnian system. One spacecraft would be an orbiter with a large host of instruments which would perform several Enceladus flybys and deliver penetrators to its surface before going into a dedicated orbit around Titan alone, while the other spacecraft would carry the Titan in situ investigation components, i.e. a hot-air balloon (MontgolfiSre) and possibly several landing probes to be delivered through the atmosphere.
  • Macfarlane, M. D., et al. (författare)
  • Shape abnormalities of the caudate nucleus correlate with poorer gait and balance: Results from a subset of the ladis study
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: The American journal of geriatric psychiatry. - : Elsevier BV. - 1064-7481. ; 23:1, s. 59-U90
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective Functional deficits seen in several neurodegenerative disorders have been linked with dysfunction in frontostriatal circuits and with associated shape alterations in striatal structures. The severity of visible white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) on magnetic resonance imaging has been found to correlate with poorer performance on measures of gait and balance. This study aimed to determine whether striatal volume and shape changes were correlated with gait dysfunction. Methods Magnetic resonance imaging scans and clinical gait/balance data (scores from the Short Physical Performance Battery [SPPB]) were sourced from 66 subjects in the previously published LADIS trial, performed in nondisabled individuals older than age 65 years with WMHs at study entry. Data were obtained at study entry and at 3-year follow-up. Caudate nuclei and putamina were manually traced using a previously published method and volumes calculated. The relationships between volume and physical performance on the SPPB were investigated with shape analysis using the spherical harmonic shape description toolkit. Results There was no correlation between the severity of WMHs and striatal volumes. Caudate nuclei volume correlated with performance on the SPPB at baseline but not at follow-up, with subsequent shape analysis showing left caudate changes occurred in areas corresponding to inputs of the dorsolateral prefrontal, premotor, and motor cortex. There was no correlation between putamen volumes and performance on the SPPB. Conclusion Disruption in frontostriatal circuits may play a role in mediating poorer physical performance in individuals with WMHs. Striatal volume and shape changes may be suitable biomarkers for functional changes in this population. © 2015 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry.
  • Johansson, Annica, 1969, et al. (författare)
  • Increased frequency of a new polymorphism in the cell division cycle 2 (cdc2) gene in patients with Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal dementia.
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Neuroscience letters. - : Elsevier BV. - 0304-3940. ; 340:1, s. 69-73
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Recent studies show linkage between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and two loci on chromosome 10. The cell division cycle 2 (cdc2) gene is located close to one of the chromosome 10 markers, and is a candidate gene for AD since it is involved in the pathogenesis of AD. We sequenced coding exons and flanking intronic sequences and the promoter region on the cdc2 gene and found three new single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We analyzed 272 Caucasian AD cases, 160 controls and 70 cases with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) for these SNPs. Homozygosity for one of the SNPs (Ex6+7I/D) was more frequent in both AD and FTD cases than in controls. In the combined tauopathy (AD and FTD) group the odds ratio (OR) was 1.77 (95% CI 1.19-2.63) for the Ex6+7II genotype. Our findings suggest that the Ex6+7I allele is associated with tauopathies, both AD and FTD.
  • Norberg, Joakim, et al. (författare)
  • Regional Differences in Effects of APOE epsilon 4 on Cognitive Impairment in Non-Demented Subjects
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders. - : S. Karger AG. - 1420-8008 .- 1421-9824. ; 32:2, s. 135-142
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The APOE epsilon 4 allele is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). APOE epsilon 4 is common in non-demented subjects with cognitive impairment. In both healthy people and people with AD, its prevalence has a north-south gradient across Europe. In the present study, we investigated whether the relation between the APOE epsilon 4 allele and cognitive impairment varied across Northern, Middle and Southern Europe. We also investigated whether a north-south gradient existed in subjects with subjective cognitive impairment (SCI), amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and non-amnestic MCI. Methods: Data from 16 centers across Europe were analyzed. Results: A north-south gradient in APOE epsilon 4 prevalence existed in the total sample (62.7% for APOE epsilon 4 carriers in the northern region, 42.1% in the middle region, and 31.5% in the southern region) and in subjects with SCI and amnestic MCI separately. Only in Middle Europe was the APOE epsilon 4 allele significantly associated with poor performance on tests of delayed recall and learning, as well as with the amnestic subtype of MCI. Conclusion: The APOE epsilon 4 allele frequencies in subjects with SCI and amnestic MCI have a north-south gradient. The relation between the APOE epsilon 4 allele and cognition is region dependent.
  • Qiu, C., et al. (författare)
  • Medial temporal lobe is vulnerable to vascular risk factors in men : a population based study
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Neurology. - : Wiley. - 1351-5101 .- 1468-1331. ; 19:6, s. 876-883
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background and purpose: Vascular risk factors (VRFs) are known to cause cerebral microvascular disease, but evidence supporting an effect of VRFs on regional brain atrophy is mixed. We investigate whether an aggregation of VRFs is associated with volume of hippocampus and entorhinal cortex in elderly people living in the community. Methods: This cross-sectional study consists of 523 participants (age =60 years, 59.3% women) of the SNAC-K Study in central Stockholm, Sweden, who were free of clinical stroke and cognitive impairment. We collected data on VRFs through interviews, clinical examination and inpatient register system. Hippocampal and entorhinal cortex volume was manually measured on magnetic resonance images. Data were analysed with general linear regression models controlling for demographics and total intracranial volume. Results: In men, high total cholesterol and diabetes were significantly or marginally associated with smaller hippocampus and entorhinal cortex; when current smoking, binge alcohol drinking, high cholesterol and diabetes were aggregated, an increasing number of VRFs were significantly associated with decreasing volume of hippocampus and entorhinal cortex (P for linear trend <0.01). In women, none of individual VRFs or their aggregation was significantly associated with the volume of these brain regions, except former smoking that was significantly associated with a larger volume of these regions. Conclusions: Aggregation of VRFs is associated with reduced hippocampal and entorhinal cortex volume in apparently healthy elderly men, but not in women. This implies that in men, the medial temporal lobe is vulnerable to cardiovascular risk factors.
  • Stephan, K., et al. (författare)
  • Regions of interest on Ganymede's and Callisto's surfaces as potential targets for ESA's JUICE mission
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Planetary and Space Science. - : Elsevier BV. - 0032-0633 .- 1873-5088. ; 208
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The JUpiter Icy moons Explorer (JUICE) will investigate Ganymede's and Callisto's surfaces and subsurfaces from orbit to explore the geologic processes that have shaped and altered their surfaces by impact, tectonics, possible cryovolcanism, space weathering due to micrometeorites, radiation and charged particles as well as explore the structure and properties of the icy crust and liquid shell (Grasset et al., 2013). The best possible synergy of the JUICE instruments is required to answer the major science objective of this mission and to fully exploit the po-tential of the JUICE mission. Therefore, the JUICE team is aiming to define high priority targets on both Gany-mede's and Callisto's surfaces to support the coordination of the planning activities by the individual instrument teams. Based on the science objectives of the JUICE mission and the most recent knowledge of Ganymede's and Callisto's geologic evolution we propose a collection of Regions of Interest (RoIs), which characterize surface features and terrain types representing important traces of geologic processes, from past and/or present cryovolcanic and tectonic activity to space weathering processes, which are crucial to understand the geologic evolution of Ganymede and Callisto. The proposed evaluation of RoIs is based on their scientific importance as well as on the opportunities and conditions to observe them during the currently discussed mission profile.
  • van de Pol, L. A., et al. (författare)
  • White matter hyperintensities and medial temporal lobe atrophy in clinical subtypes of mild cognitive impairment: the DESCRIPA study
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry. - : BMJ Publishing Group. - 1468-330X .- 0022-3050. ; 80:10, s. 1069-1074
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Clinical subtypes of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) may represent different underlying aetiologies. Methods: This European, multicentre, memory clinic based study (DESCRIPA) of non-demented subjects investigated whether MCI subtypes have different brain correlates on MRI and whether the relation between subtypes and brain pathology is modified by age. Using visual rating scales, medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) (0-4) and white matter hyperintensities (WMH) (0-30) were assessed. Results: Severity of MTA differed between MCI subtypes (p < 0.001), increasing from a mean of 0.8 (SD 0.7) in subjective complaints (n = 77) to 1.3 (0.8) in non-amnestic MCI (n = 93), and from 1.4 (0.9) in single domain amnestic MCI (n = 70) to 1.7 (0.9) in multiple domain amnestic MCI (n = 89). The association between MCI subtype and MTA was modified by age and mainly present in subjects >70 years of age. Severity of WMH did not differ between MCI subtypes (p = 0.21). However, the combination of MTA and WMH differed between MCI subtypes (p = 0.02) Conclusion: We conclude that MCI subtypes may have different brain substrates, especially in older subjects. Isolated MTA was mainly associated with amnestic MCI subtypes, suggesting AD as the underlying cause. In non-amnestic MCI, the relatively higher prevalence of MTA in combination with WMH may suggest a different pathophysiological origin.
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