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  • Liberg, Benny, et al. (författare)
  • Motor imagery in bipolar depression with slowed movement.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: The Journal of nervous and mental disease. - 1539-736X. ; 201:10, s. 885-93
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We hypothesized that motor retardation in bipolar depression is mediated by disruption of the pre-executive stages of motor production. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate neural activity during motor imagery and motor execution to elucidate whether brain regions that mediate planning, preparation, and control of movement are activated differently in subjects with bipolar depression (n = 9) compared with healthy controls (n = 12). We found significant between-group differences. During motor imagery, the patients activated the posterior medial parietal cortex, the posterior cingulate cortex, the premotor cortex, the prefrontal cortex, and the frontal poles more than the controls did. Activation in the brain areas involved in motor selection, planning, and preparation was altered. In addition, limbic and prefrontal regions associated with self-reference and the default mode network were altered during motor imagery in bipolar depression with motor retardation.
  • Liberg, B., et al. (författare)
  • The neural correlates of self-paced finger tapping in bipolar depression with motor retardation
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Acta Neuropsychiatrica. - 0924-2708. ; 25:1, s. 43-51
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Motor retardation is a characteristic feature of bipolar depression, and is also a core feature of Parkinson's disease. Within the framework of the functional deafferentiation theory in Parkinson's disease, we hypothesised that motor retardation in bipolar depression is mediated by disrupted subcortical activation, leading to decreased activation of cortical motor areas during finger tapping. Methods: We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate neural activity during self-paced finger tapping to elucidate whether brain regions that mediate preparation, control and execution of movement are activated differently in subjects with bipolar depression (n = 9) compared to healthy controls (n = 12). Results: An uncorrected whole-brain analysis revealed significant group differences in dorsolateral and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Corrected analyses showed non-significant differences in patients compared to controls: decreased and less widespread activation of the left putamen and left pallidum; increased activity in the left thalamus and supplementary motor area; decreased activation in the left lateral pre- and primary motor cortices; absence of activation in the pre-supplementary motor area; activation of the bilateral rostral cingulate motor area. Conclusion: Both movement preparation and execution may be affected in motor retardation, and the activity in the whole left-side motor circuit is altered during self-initiated motor performance in bipolar depression.
  • Wahlund, L. O., et al. (författare)
  • Imaging biomarkers of dementia: recommended visual rating scales with teaching cases
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Insights into Imaging. - : Springer Berlin/Heidelberg. - 1869-4101. ; 8:1, s. 79-90
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The diagnostic work up of dementia may benefit from structured reporting of CT and/or MRI and the use of standardised visual rating scales. We advocate a more widespread use of standardised scales as part of the workflow in clinical and research evaluation of dementia. We propose routine clinical use of rating scales for medial temporal atrophy (MTA), global cortical atrophy (GCA) and white matter hyperintensities (WMH). These scales can be used for evaluation of both CT and MRI and are efficient in routine imaging assessment in dementia, and may improve the accuracy of diagnosis. Our review provides detailed imaging examples of rating increments in each of these scales and a separate teaching file. The radiologist should relate visual ratings to the clinical assessment and other biomarkers to assist the clinician in the diagnostic decision.
  • Aguilar, C., et al. (författare)
  • Automated CT-based segmentation and quantification of total intracranial volume
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: European Radiology. - 0938-7994 .- 1432-1084. ; 25:11, s. 3151-3160
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives To develop an algorithm to segment and obtain an estimate of total intracranial volume (tICV) from computed tomography (CT) images. Materials and methods Thirty-six CT examinations from 18 patients were included. Ten patients were examined twice the same day and eight patients twice six months apart (these patients also underwent MRI). The algorithm combines morphological operations, intensity thresholding and mixture modelling. The method was validated against manual delineation and its robustness assessed from repeated imaging examinations. Using automated MRI software, the comparability with MRI was investigated. Volumes were compared based on average relative volume differences and their magnitudes; agreement was shown by a Bland-Altman analysis graph. Results We observed good agreement between our algorithm and manual delineation of a trained radiologist: the Pearson's correlation coefficient was r = 0.94, tICVml[manual] = 1.05 x tICVml[automated] - 33.78 (R-2 = 0.88). Bland-Altman analysis showed a bias of 31 mL and a standard deviation of 30 mL over a range of 1265 to 1526 mL. Conclusions tICV measurements derived from CT using our proposed algorithm have shown to be reliable and consistent compared to manual delineation. However, it appears difficult to directly compare tICV measures between CT and MRI.
  • Besga, A., et al. (författare)
  • Differences in brain cholesterol metabolism and insulin in two subgroups of patients with different CSF biomarkers but similar white matter lesions suggest different pathogenic mechanisms
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Neuroscience Letters. - 0304-3940 .- 1872-7972. ; 510:2, s. 121-126
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Investigate possible associations of white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) with the metabolism of cholesterol and insulin in two subgroups of patients with memory complaints and different CSF A beta 42 and CSF tau levels. 59 patients from the memory clinic at Karolinska Hospital were included. Degree of WMHs was rated using the ARWMC scale and the following biomarkers were measured in CSF and plasma: insulin, cholesterol, lanosterol, lathosterol, and oxidized cholesterol metabolites. The WMHs in CSF control-like group correlated with increased brain cholesterol synthesis and reduced efflux of oxysterols and insulin in CSF. In the CSF AD-like group, the WMHs correlated with increased peripheral cholesterol metabolism. Despite having similar appearance on FLAIR images, the pathogenic mechanisms of WMHS are likely to be different in the two groups investigated.
  • Eyjolfsdottir, H., et al. (författare)
  • Targeted delivery of nerve growth factor to the cholinergic basal forebrain of Alzheimer's disease patients: application of a second-generation encapsulated cell biodelivery device
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Alzheimers Research & Therapy. - 1758-9193. ; 8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Targeted delivery of nerve growth factor (NGF) has emerged as a potential therapy for Alzheimer's disease (AD) due to its regenerative effects on basal forebrain cholinergic neurons. This hypothesis has been tested in patients with AD using encapsulated cell biodelivery of NGF (NGF-ECB) in a first-in-human study. We report our results from a third-dose cohort of patients receiving second-generation NGF-ECB implants with improved NGF secretion. Methods: Four patients with mild to moderate AD were recruited to participate in an open-label, phase Ib dose escalation study with a 6-month duration. Each patient underwent stereotactic implant surgery with four NGF-ECB implants targeted at the cholinergic basal forebrain. The NGF secretion of the second-generation implants was improved by using the Sleeping Beauty transposon gene expression technology and an improved three-dimensional internal scaffolding, resulting in production of about 10 ng NGF/device/day. Results: All patients underwent successful implant procedures without complications, and all patients completed the study, including implant removal after 6 months. Upon removal, 13 of 16 implants released NGF, 8 implants released NGF at the same rate or higher than before the implant procedure, and 3 implants failed to release detectable amounts of NGF. Of 16 adverse events, none was NGF-, or implant-related. Changes from baseline values of cholinergic markers in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) correlated with cortical nicotinic receptor expression and Mini Mental State Examination score. Levels of neurofilament light chain (NFL) protein increased in CSF after NGF-ECB implant, while glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) remained stable. Conclusions: The data derived from this patient cohort demonstrate the safety and tolerability of sustained NGF release by a second-generation NGF-ECB implant to the basal forebrain, with uneventful surgical implant and removal of NGF-ECB implants in a new dosing cohort of four patients with AD.
  • Ferreira, Daniel, et al. (författare)
  • The interactive effect of demographic and clinical factors on hippocampal volume : A multicohort study on 1958 cognitively normal individuals
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Hippocampus. - : John Wiley & Sons Inc.. - 1050-9631 .- 1098-1063. ; 27:6, s. 653-667
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Alzheimer's disease is characterized by hippocampal atrophy. Other factors also influence the hippocampal volume, but their interactive effect has not been investigated before in cognitively healthy individuals. The aim of this study is to evaluate the interactive effect of key demographic and clinical factors on hippocampal volume, in contrast to previous studies frequently investigating these factors in a separate manner. Also, to investigate how comparable the control groups from ADNI, AIBL, and AddNeuroMed are with five population-based cohorts. In this study, 1958 participants were included (100 AddNeuroMed, 226 ADNI, 155 AIBL, 59 BRC, 295 GENIC, 279 BioFiNDER, 398 PIVUS, and 446 SNAC-K). ANOVA and random forest were used for testing between-cohort differences in demographic-clinical variables. Multiple regression was used to study the influence of demographic-clinical variables on hippocampal volume. ANCOVA was used to analyze whether between-cohort differences in demographic-clinical variables explained between-cohort differences in hippocampal volume. Age and global brain atrophy were the most important variables in explaining variability in hippocampal volume. These variables were not only important themselves but also in interaction with gender, education, MMSE, and total intracranial volume. AddNeuroMed, ADNI, and AIBL differed from the population-based cohorts in several demographic-clinical variables that had a significant effect on hippocampal volume. Variability in hippocampal volume in individuals with normal cognition is high. Differences that previously tended to be related to disease mechanisms could also be partly explained by demographic and clinical factors independent from the disease. Furthermore, cognitively normal individuals especially from ADNI and AIBL are not representative of the general population. These findings may have important implications for future research and clinical trials, translating imaging biomarkers to the general population, and validating current diagnostic criteria for Alzheimer's disease and predementia stages.
  • Oksengard, A. R., et al. (författare)
  • Lack of Accuracy for the Proposed 'Dubois Criteria' in Alzheimer's Disease: A Validation Study from the Swedish Brain Power Initiative
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders. - : Karger. - 1420-8008 .- 1421-9824. ; 30:4, s. 374-380
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background/Aims: Our purpose was to investigate whether the new research criteria for Alzheimer's disease proposed in 2007 by Dubois et al. are valid in a naturalistic memory clinic sample. Method: Retrospective diagnostic analyses were carried out to compare the traditional diagnostic criteria for dementia with the new criteria suggested by Dubois et al. No patient had gone through all procedures postulated as additional features in the proposed new Dubois criteria. Material: Two independent experienced geriatricians re-examined 150 complete patients' records. The study physicians were blinded to any of the results of the core and additional features suggested by Dubois et al. to avoid circular diagnostic bias. Results: Among our 96 patients with a clinical diagnosis of subjective cognitive impairment and/or mild cognitive impairment, 2 of the patients with subjective cognitive impairment and 5 patients with mild cognitive impairment would classify as pre-dementia Alzheimer's disease according to the Dubois criteria. In our 23 Alzheimer patients diagnosed clinically, only 12 of the cases fulfilled the criteria for Alzheimer's disease suggested by Dubois et al. Interpretation: The proposed new criteria for Alzheimer's disease are valid in 55% of our patients clinically diagnosed as having full-blown Alzheimer dementia. Additionally, 7.3% 'true' Alzheimer cases will be identified in a group of 96 clinically non-demented patients. Our results show that there is a large heterogeneity in a clinical naturalistic sample of patients with an Alzheimer phenotype. Conclusion: There is a need to further validate the currently existing biomarkers in large unselected samples and avoid the pitfall of workup bias and circular diagnostic processes. Additionally, valid age-specific cut-off values for the diagnostic markers in question have to be defined. Copyright (C) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • Robinson, D., et al. (författare)
  • Androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer and risk of dementia
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Bju International. - 1464-4096 .- 1464-410X. ; 124:1, s. 87-92
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives To study whether androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), the mainstay treatment for advanced and disseminated prostate cancer, is associated with risk of dementia. Methods Risk of dementia in men with prostate cancer primarily managed with ADT or watchful waiting (WW) in the Prostate Cancer Database Sweden, PCBaSe, was compared with that in prostate cancer-free men, matched on birth year and county of residency. We used Cox regression to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs) for Alzheimer's and non-Alzheimer's dementia (vascular dementia, dementia secondary to other diseases or unspecified dementias) for different types and duration of ADT and oral antiandrogens (AAs) as well as for men managed with WW. Results A total of 25 967 men with prostate cancer and 121 018 prostate cancer-free men were followed for a median of 4 years. In both groups 6% of the men were diagnosed with dementia. In men with prostate cancer, gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist treatment ( HR 1.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.07-1.23) and orchiectomy (HR 1.60, 95% CI 1.32-1.93) were associated with an increased risk of dementia, as compared to no treatment in prostate cancer-free men; however, this increase in risk was only observed for non-Alzheimer's dementia and occurred from year 1-4 after start of ADT. No increase in risk for any type of dementia was observed for men treated with AAs or for men on WW. Conclusion This population-based cohort study does not support previous observations of an increased risk of Alzheimer's dementia for men on ADT; however, there was a small increase in risk of non-Alzheimer's dementia.
  • Shams, Sara, et al. (författare)
  • MRI of the swallow tail sign : A useful marker in the diagnosis of lewy body dementia?
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Neuroradiology. - : American Society of Neuroradiology. - 0195-6108 .- 1936-959X. ; 38:9, s. 1737-1741
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: There are, to date, no MR imaging diagnostic markers for Lewy body dementia. Nigrosome 1, containing dopaminergic cells, in the substantia nigra pars compacta is hyperintense on SWI and has been called the swallow tail sign, disappearing with Parkinson disease. We aimed to study the swallow tail sign and its clinical applicability in Lewy body dementia and hypothesized that the sign would be likewise applicable in Lewy body dementia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective cross-sectional multicenter study including 97 patients (mean age, 65 ± 10 years; 46% women), consisting of the following: controls (n = 21) and those with Lewy body dementia (n = 19), Alzheimer disease (n = 20), frontotemporal lobe dementia (n = 20), and mild cognitive impairment (n = 17). All patients underwent brain MR imaging, with susceptibility- weighted imaging at 1.5T (n = 46) and 3T (n = 51). The swallow tail sign was assessed independently by 2 neuroradiologists. RESULTS: Interrater agreement was moderate (- = 0.4) between raters. An abnormal swallow tail sign was most common in Lewy body dementia (63%; 95% CI, 41%-85%; P = .001) and had a predictive value only in Lewy body dementia with an odds ratio of 9 (95% CI, 3-28; P < .001). The consensus rating for Lewy body dementia showed a sensitivity of 63%, a specificity of 79%, a negative predictive value of 89%, and an accuracy of 76%; values were higher on 3T compared with 1.5T. The usefulness of the swallow tail sign was rater-dependent with the highest sensitivity equaling 100%. CONCLUSIONS: The swallow tail sign has diagnostic potential in Lewy body dementia and may be a complement in the diagnostic work-up of this condition.
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