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  • Ferreira, Daniel, et al. (författare)
  • The interactive effect of demographic and clinical factors on hippocampal volume : A multicohort study on 1958 cognitively normal individuals
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Hippocampus. - : John Wiley & Sons Inc.. - 1050-9631 .- 1098-1063. ; 27:6, s. 653-667
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Alzheimer's disease is characterized by hippocampal atrophy. Other factors also influence the hippocampal volume, but their interactive effect has not been investigated before in cognitively healthy individuals. The aim of this study is to evaluate the interactive effect of key demographic and clinical factors on hippocampal volume, in contrast to previous studies frequently investigating these factors in a separate manner. Also, to investigate how comparable the control groups from ADNI, AIBL, and AddNeuroMed are with five population-based cohorts. In this study, 1958 participants were included (100 AddNeuroMed, 226 ADNI, 155 AIBL, 59 BRC, 295 GENIC, 279 BioFiNDER, 398 PIVUS, and 446 SNAC-K). ANOVA and random forest were used for testing between-cohort differences in demographic-clinical variables. Multiple regression was used to study the influence of demographic-clinical variables on hippocampal volume. ANCOVA was used to analyze whether between-cohort differences in demographic-clinical variables explained between-cohort differences in hippocampal volume. Age and global brain atrophy were the most important variables in explaining variability in hippocampal volume. These variables were not only important themselves but also in interaction with gender, education, MMSE, and total intracranial volume. AddNeuroMed, ADNI, and AIBL differed from the population-based cohorts in several demographic-clinical variables that had a significant effect on hippocampal volume. Variability in hippocampal volume in individuals with normal cognition is high. Differences that previously tended to be related to disease mechanisms could also be partly explained by demographic and clinical factors independent from the disease. Furthermore, cognitively normal individuals especially from ADNI and AIBL are not representative of the general population. These findings may have important implications for future research and clinical trials, translating imaging biomarkers to the general population, and validating current diagnostic criteria for Alzheimer's disease and predementia stages.
  • Harper, Luke, et al. (författare)
  • Prenatal Gyrification Pattern Affects Age at Onset in Frontotemporal Dementia
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Cerebral Cortex. - : Oxford University Press. - 1460-2199.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The paracingulate sulcus is a tertiary sulcus formed during the third trimester. In healthy individuals paracingulate sulcation is more prevalent in the left hemisphere. The anterior cingulate and paracingulate gyri are focal points of neurodegeneration in behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD). This study aims to determine the prevalence and impact of paracingulate sulcation in bvFTD. Structural magnetic resonance images of individuals with bvFTD (n = 105, mean age 66.9 years), Alzheimer's disease (n = 92, 73.3), and healthy controls (n = 110, 62.4) were evaluated using standard protocol for hemispheric paracingulate sulcal presence. No difference in left hemisphere paracingulate sulcal frequency was observed between groups; 0.72, 0.79, and 0.70, respectively, in the bvFTD, Alzheimer's disease, and healthy control groups, (P = 0.3). A significant impact of right (but not left) hemispheric paracingulate sulcation on age at disease onset was identified in bvFTD (mean 60.4 years where absent vs. 63.8 where present [P = 0.04, Cohen's d = 0.42]). This relationship was not observed in Alzheimer's disease. These findings demonstrate a relationship between prenatal neuronal development and the expression of a neurodegenerative disease providing a gross morphological example of brain reserve.
  • Zhang, Yi, et al. (författare)
  • Acceleration of hippocampal atrophy in a non-demented elderly population : the SNAC-K study
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: International psychogeriatrics. - 1041-6102 .- 1741-203X. ; 22:1, s. 14-25
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Brain atrophy in Alzheimer's disease (AD) includes not only AD-specific brain atrophy but also the atrophy induced by normal aging. Atrophy of the hippocampus has been one diagnostic marker of AD, but it was also found to emerge in healthy adults, along with increasing age. It was reported that the important age when age-related shrinkage of the hippocampus starts was around the mid-40s. The aim is to study the aging atrophy speed and acceleration of brain atrophy in a cross-sectional database, to identify the age at which acceleration of hippocampal atrophy starts in non-demented elderly persons.METHODS: 544 subjects (aged 60-97 years; 318 female and 226 male) were recruited into the MRI study by using a subsample of an epidemiological sample of 3363 healthy non-demented elderly people (over 60 years of age). Hippocampus and ventricle sizes were measured.RESULTS: The normalized volumes (by intracranial volume, ICV) of the hippocampus in males were smaller than those in females. The right hippocampus was larger than the left. The expansion of the lateral ventricles (2.80% per year in males, 2.95% in females) and third ventricle (1.58% and 2.28%, respectively) was more marked than the hippocampal shrinkage (0.68% and 0.79%, respectively). The suggested age at which acceleration of hippocampal atrophy starts is 72 years.CONCLUSIONS: Males present smaller hippocampus volumes (normalized by ICV) than females; however, females are more vulnerable to hippocampal atrophy in a non-demented elderly population. An acceleration of hippocampal atrophy may emerge and start around 72 years of age in a non-demented elderly population.
  • Almkvist, Ove, et al. (författare)
  • Predicting Cognitive Decline across Four Decades in Mutation Carriers and Non-carriers in Autosomal-Dominant Alzheimer's Disease
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society. - : CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS. - 1355-6177 .- 1469-7661. ; 23:3, s. 195-203
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate cognitive performance including preclinical and clinical disease course in carriers and non-carriers of autosomal-dominant Alzheimer's disease (adAD) in relation to multiple predictors, that is, linear and non-linear estimates of years to expected clinical onset of disease, years of education and age. Methods: Participants from five families with early-onset autosomal-dominant mutations (Swedish and Arctic APP, PSEN1 M146V, H163Y, and I143T) included 35 carriers (28 without dementia and 7 with) and 44 non-carriers. All participants underwent a comprehensive clinical evaluation, including neuropsychological assessment at the Memory Clinic, Karolinska University Hospital at Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden. The time span of disease course covered four decades of the preclinical and clinical stages of dementia. Neuropsychological tests were used to assess premorbid and current global cognition, verbal and visuospatial functions, short-term and episodic memory, attention, and executive function. Results: In carriers, the time-related curvilinear trajectory of cognitive function across disease stages was best fitted to a formulae with three predictors: years to expected clinical onset (linear and curvilinear components), and years of education. In non-carriers, the change was minimal and best predicted by two predictors: education and age. The trajectories for carriers and non-carriers began to diverge approximately 10 years before the expected clinical onset in episodic memory, executive function, and visuospatial function. Conclusions: The curvilinear trajectory of cognitive functions across disease stages was mimicked by three predictors in carriers. In episodic memory, executive and visuospatial functions, the point of diverging trajectories occurred approximately 10 years ahead of the clinical onset compared to non-carriers.
  • Blom, Elin S, et al. (författare)
  • Rapid progression from mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer's disease in subjects with elevated levels of tau in cerebrospinal fluid and the APOE epsilon4/epsilon4 genotype.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Dementia and geriatric cognitive disorders. - : Karger. - 1421-9824 .- 1420-8008. ; 27:5, s. 458-64
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND/AIMS: Increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tau, decreased CSF amyloid-beta42 (Abeta42) and the apolipoprotein E gene (APOE) epsilon4 allele predict progression from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we investigated these markers to assess their predictive value and influence on the rate of disease progression. METHODS: Using ELISA, we measured the CSF biomarkers in 47 AD patients, 58 patients with MCI and 35 healthy control subjects. Twenty-eight MCI patients revisited the clinic and half of them progressed to AD during a period of 3-12 years. RESULTS: The expected changes in CSF total (T)-tau, phosphorylated (P)-tau and Abeta42 levels were found in AD, confirming the diagnostic value of these biomarkers. We were also able to corroborate an increased risk for progression from MCI to AD with elevated CSF T-tau and P-tau and with the presence of the APOE epsilon4/epsilon4 genotype, but not with decreased Abeta42. Finally, for the first time we demonstrated that MCI subjects with high CSF T-tau or P-tau and APOE epsilon4 homozygosity progressed faster from MCI to AD. CONCLUSIONS: CSF T-tau and P-tau as well as the APOE epsilon4/epsilon4 genotype are robust predictors of AD and are also associated with a more rapid progression from MCI to AD.
  • Dyrby, Tim B, et al. (författare)
  • Segmentation of age-related white matter changes in a clinical multi-center study.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: NeuroImage. - 1053-8119. ; 41:2, s. 335-45
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Age-related white matter changes (WMC) are thought to be a marker of vascular pathology, and have been associated with motor and cognitive deficits. In the present study, an optimized artificial neural network was used as an automatic segmentation method to produce probabilistic maps of WMC in a clinical multi-center study. The neural network uses information from T1- and T2-weighted and fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR) magnetic resonance (MR) scans, neighboring voxels and spatial location. Generalizability of the neural network was optimized by including the Optimal Brain Damage (OBD) pruning method in the training stage. Six optimized neural networks were produced to investigate the impact of different input information on WMC segmentation. The automatic segmentation method was applied to MR scans of 362 non-demented elderly subjects from 11 centers in the European multi-center study Leukoaraiosis And Disability (LADIS). Semi-manually delineated WMC were used for validating the segmentation produced by the neural networks. The neural network segmentation demonstrated high consistency between subjects and centers, making it a promising technique for large studies. For WMC volumes less than 10 ml, an increasing discrepancy between semi-manual and neural network segmentation was observed using the similarity index (SI) measure. The use of all three image modalities significantly improved cross-center generalizability compared to neural networks using the FLAIR image only. Expert knowledge not available to the neural networks was a minor source of discrepancy, while variation in MR scan quality constituted the largest source of error.
  • Ekman, Sirkka-Liisa, et al. (författare)
  • Alzheimer
  • 2011
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • Eriksdotter-Jönhagen, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • Encapsulated cell biodelivery of nerve growth factor to the Basal forebrain in patients with Alzheimer's disease.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Dementia and geriatric cognitive disorders. - 1421-9824 .- 1420-8008. ; 33:1, s. 18-28
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Degeneration of cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain correlates with cognitive decline in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Targeted delivery of exogenous nerve growth factor (NGF) has emerged as a potential AD therapy due to its regenerative effects on the basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in AD animal models. Here we report the results of a first-in-man study of encapsulated cell (EC) biodelivery of NGF to the basal forebrain of AD patients with the primary objective to explore safety and tolerability.
  • Ferencz, Beata, et al. (författare)
  • The influence of APOE and TOMM40 polymorphisms on hippocampal volume and episodic memory in old age
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. - : Frontiers Media S. A.. - 1662-5161 .- 1662-5161. ; 7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Mitochondrial dysfunction is implicated in neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane 40 (TOMM40) may be influential in this regard by influencing mitochondrial neurotoxicity. Little is known about the influence of the TOMM40 gene on hippocampal (HC) volume and episodic memory (EM), particularly in healthy older adults. Thus, we sought to discern the influence of TOMM40 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), which have previously been associated with medial temporal lobe integrity (rs11556505 and rs2075650), on HC volume and EM. The study sample consisted of individuals from the Swedish National Study on Aging and Care in Kungsholmen (SNAC-K) who were free of dementia and known neurological disorders, and 6087 years of age (n = 424). EM was measured by using a 16-item word list with a 2-min free recall period and delineation of the HC was performed manually. The influence of Apolipoprotein E (APOE) and TOMM40 was assessed by 2 x 2 ANOVAs and partial correlations. There was no effect of APOE and TOMM40 on EM performance and HC volume. However, partial correlations revealed that HC volume was positively associated with free recall performance (r = 0.21, p < 0.01, r(2) = 0.04). When further stratified for TOMM40, the observed association between HC volume and free recall in APOE epsilon 4 carriers was present in combination with TOMM40 rs11556505 any T (r = 0.28, p < 0.01, R-2 = 0.08) and rs2075650 any G (r = 0.28, p < 0.01, R-2 = 0.08) risk alleles. This pattern might reflect higher reliance on HC volume for adequate EM performance among APOE epsilon 4 carriers with additional TOMM40 risk alleles suggesting that the TOMM40 gene cannot merely be considered a marker of APOE genotype. Nevertheless, neither APOE nor TOMM40 influenced HC volume or EM in this population-based sample of cognitively intact individuals over the age of 60.
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