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1.
  • Blennow, Kaj, 1958, et al. (författare)
  • No association between the alpha2-macroglobulin (A2M) deletion and Alzheimer's disease, and no change in A2M mRNA, protein, or protein expression.
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Journal of neural transmission (Vienna, Austria : 1996). - : Springer. - 0300-9564 .- 1435-1463. ; 107:8-9, s. 1065-79
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A polymorphism consisting of a deletion near the 5' splice site of exon 18 on the alpha2-macroglobulin (A2M) gene (A2M-2) has been suggested to be associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) in family-based studies. We studied the A2M-2 allele together with the ApoE alleles in a large series on patients with AD (n = 449) and age-matched controls (n = 349). Neuropathologically confirmed diagnoses were available in 199 cases (94 AD and 107 control cases). We found no increase in A2M-2 genotype or allele frequencies in AD (27.5% and 14.6%) versus controls (26.4% and 14.9%). In contrast, a marked increase (p < 0.0001) in ApoE epsilon4 genotype or allele frequencies was found in AD (66.6% and 41.2%) as compared with controls (29.8% and 16.5%), suggesting sufficient statistical power in our sample. No relation was found between the A2M-2 and the ApoE epsilon4 allele. No change in A2M exon 17-18 mRNA size or sequence or A2M protein size was found in cases carrying the A2M-2 deletion, suggesting that there is no biological consequences of the A2M intronic deletion. No change in A2M protein level in cerebrospinal fluid was found in AD, suggesting that the A2M-2 allele does not effect the A2M protein expression in the brain. The lack of an association between the A2M-2 allele and AD in the present study, and the lack of abnormalities in the A2M mRNA or protein suggest that the A2M-2 allele is not associated with AD.
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2.
  • Bridel, Claire, et al. (författare)
  • Diagnostic Value of Cerebrospinal Fluid Neurofilament Light Protein in Neurology: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: JAMA neurology. - : American Medical Association. - 2168-6157 .- 2168-6149. ; 76:9, s. 1035-1048
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Neurofilament light protein (NfL) is elevated in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of a number of neurological conditions compared with healthy controls (HC) and is a candidate biomarker for neuroaxonal damage. The influence of age and sex is largely unknown, and levels across neurological disorders have not been compared systematically to date.To assess the associations of age, sex, and diagnosis with NfL in CSF (cNfL) and to evaluate its potential in discriminating clinically similar conditions.PubMed was searched for studies published between January 1, 2006, and January 1, 2016, reporting cNfL levels (using the search terms neurofilament light and cerebrospinal fluid) in neurological or psychiatric conditions and/or in HC.Studies reporting NfL levels measured in lumbar CSF using a commercially available immunoassay, as well as age and sex.Individual-level data were requested from study authors. Generalized linear mixed-effects models were used to estimate the fixed effects of age, sex, and diagnosis on log-transformed NfL levels, with cohort of origin modeled as a random intercept.The cNfL levels adjusted for age and sex across diagnoses.Data were collected for 10 059 individuals (mean [SD] age, 59.7 [18.8] years; 54.1% female). Thirty-five diagnoses were identified, including inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system (n = 2795), dementias and predementia stages (n = 4284), parkinsonian disorders (n = 984), and HC (n = 1332). The cNfL was elevated compared with HC in a majority of neurological conditions studied. Highest levels were observed in cognitively impaired HIV-positive individuals (iHIV), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, frontotemporal dementia (FTD), and Huntington disease. In 33.3% of diagnoses, including HC, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer disease (AD), and Parkinson disease (PD), cNfL was higher in men than women. The cNfL increased with age in HC and a majority of neurological conditions, although the association was strongest in HC. The cNfL overlapped in most clinically similar diagnoses except for FTD and iHIV, which segregated from other dementias, and PD, which segregated from atypical parkinsonian syndromes.These data support the use of cNfL as a biomarker of neuroaxonal damage and indicate that age-specific and sex-specific (and in some cases disease-specific) reference values may be needed. The cNfL has potential to assist the differentiation of FTD from AD and PD from atypical parkinsonian syndromes.
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3.
  • Jansen, Willemijn J, et al. (författare)
  • Association of Cerebral Amyloid-β Aggregation With Cognitive Functioning in Persons Without Dementia.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: JAMA psychiatry. - : American Medical Association. - 2168-6238 .- 2168-622X. ; 75:1, s. 84-95
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cerebral amyloid-β aggregation is an early event in Alzheimer disease (AD). Understanding the association between amyloid aggregation and cognitive manifestation in persons without dementia is important for a better understanding of the course of AD and for the design of prevention trials.To investigate whether amyloid-β aggregation is associated with cognitive functioning in persons without dementia.This cross-sectional study included 2908 participants with normal cognition and 4133 with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from 53 studies in the multicenter Amyloid Biomarker Study. Normal cognition was defined as having no cognitive concerns for which medical help was sought and scores within the normal range on cognitive tests. Mild cognitive impairment was diagnosed according to published criteria. Study inclusion began in 2013 and is ongoing. Data analysis was performed in January 2017.Global cognitive performance as assessed by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and episodic memory performance as assessed by a verbal word learning test. Amyloid aggregation was measured with positron emission tomography or cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers and dichotomized as negative (normal) or positive (abnormal) according to study-specific cutoffs. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine the association between amyloid aggregation and low cognitive scores (MMSE score ≤27 or memory z score≤-1.28) and to assess whether this association was moderated by age, sex, educational level, or apolipoprotein E genotype.Among 2908 persons with normal cognition (mean [SD] age, 67.4 [12.8] years), amyloid positivity was associated with low memory scores after age 70 years (mean difference in amyloid positive vs negative, 4% [95% CI, 0%-7%] at 72 years and 21% [95% CI, 10%-33%] at 90 years) but was not associated with low MMSE scores (mean difference, 3% [95% CI, -1% to 6%], P = .16). Among 4133 patients with MCI (mean [SD] age, 70.2 [8.5] years), amyloid positivity was associated with low memory (mean difference, 16% [95% CI, 12%-20%], P < .001) and low MMSE (mean difference, 14% [95% CI, 12%-17%], P < .001) scores, and this association decreased with age. Low cognitive scores had limited utility for screening of amyloid positivity in persons with normal cognition and those with MCI. In persons with normal cognition, the age-related increase in low memory score paralleled the age-related increase in amyloid positivity with an intervening period of 10 to 15 years.Although low memory scores are an early marker of amyloid positivity, their value as a screening measure for early AD among persons without dementia is limited.
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4.
  • Jansen, Willemijn J, et al. (författare)
  • Prevalence of cerebral amyloid pathology in persons without dementia: a meta-analysis.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: JAMA. - : American Medical Association. - 1538-3598 .- 0098-7484. ; 313:19, s. 1924-38
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cerebral amyloid-β aggregation is an early pathological event in Alzheimer disease (AD), starting decades before dementia onset. Estimates of the prevalence of amyloid pathology in persons without dementia are needed to understand the development of AD and to design prevention studies.
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5.
  • Janssen, O., et al. (författare)
  • Characteristics of subjective cognitive decline associated with amyloid positivity
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Alzheimers & Dementia. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 1552-5260 .- 1552-5279.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction The evidence for characteristics of persons with subjective cognitive decline (SCD) associated with amyloid positivity is limited. Methods In 1640 persons with SCD from 20 Amyloid Biomarker Study cohort, we investigated the associations of SCD-specific characteristics (informant confirmation, domain-specific complaints, concerns, feelings of worse performance) demographics, setting, apolipoprotein E gene (APOE) epsilon 4 carriership, and neuropsychiatric symptoms with amyloid positivity. Results Between cohorts, amyloid positivity in 70-year-olds varied from 10% to 76%. Only older age, clinical setting, and APOE epsilon 4 carriership showed univariate associations with increased amyloid positivity. After adjusting for these, lower education was also associated with increased amyloid positivity. Only within a research setting, informant-confirmed complaints, memory complaints, attention/concentration complaints, and no depressive symptoms were associated with increased amyloid positivity. Feelings of worse performance were associated with less amyloid positivity at younger ages and more at older ages. Discussion Next to age, setting, and APOE epsilon 4 carriership, SCD-specific characteristics may facilitate the identification of amyloid-positive individuals.
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6.
  • Malinowsky, Camilla, et al. (författare)
  • Differences in the use of everyday technology among persons with MCI, SCI and older adults without known cognitive impairment.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: International psychogeriatrics. - 1741-203X. ; 29:7, s. 1193-1200
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To use valid subjective reports sensible to cognitive decline is vital to identify very early signs of dementia development. Use of everyday technology (ET) has been shown to be sensitive to differentiate adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from controls, but the group with subjective cognitive impairment (SCI) has not yet been examined. This study aims to investigate and compare self-perceived ability in ET use and number of ETs reported as actually used in a sample of older adults with SCI, MCI, and older adults with no known cognitive impairment, i.e.Older adults with MCI (n = 29), SCI ( n = 26), and controls (n = 30) were interviewed with the short version of the Everyday Technology Use Questionnaire (S-ETUQ) to capture self-perceived ability in ET use and number of ETs used. To generate individual measures of ability to use ET, Rasch analysis was used. The measures were then compared group-wise using ANCOVA. The numbers of ETs used were compared group-wise with ANOVA.Controls versus SCI and MCI differed significantly regarding ETs reported as used, but not SCI versus MCI. Similarly, in ability to use ET, controls versus SCI and MCI differed significantly but not SCI versus MCI.The significantly lower numbers of ETs reported as actually used and the lower ability in SCI and MCI groups compared to controls suggest that ET use is affected already in very minor cognitive decline. This indicates that self-reported ET use based on the S-ETUQ is sensitive to detect changes already in SCI.
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7.
  • Sjölander, Annica, 1969, et al. (författare)
  • The PPAR-alpha gene in Alzheimer's disease: lack of replication of earlier association.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Neurobiology of aging. - : Elsevier. - 1558-1497. ; 30:4, s. 666-8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Recently, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, rs1800206) in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR-alpha) gene has been proposed to be associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). To verify this finding, we analyzed the PPAR-alpha SNP in 461 patients with AD and 1395 controls. In subgroups, PPAR-alpha gene data could be investigated in relation to biochemical and neuropathological markers for AD. We found no significant differences in genotype or allele distributions between AD patients and controls. None of the PPAR-alpha gene variants influenced markers for AD.
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8.
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9.
  • Wallin, Anders, 1950, et al. (författare)
  • CSF biomarkers for Alzheimer's Disease: levels of beta-amyloid, tau, phosphorylated tau relate to clinical symptoms and survival
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. - : Karger. ; 21:3, s. 131-138
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from 21 patients with a clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) participating in a 5-year treatment study with the choline esterase inhibitor tacrin were retrospectively analyzed for the contents of beta-amyloid (Abeta42), total tau (T-tau) and phosphorylated tau (P-tau). A significant positive correlation between the level of P-tau and the number of symptoms according to the DSM-IV criteria (p = 0.041) and the NINCDS-ADRDA (p = 0.029) was observed (i.e. higher levels were found in cases with more symptoms). A significant positive correlation between T-tau, P-tau and ADAS-cog score was identified (i.e. higher levels were found with more severe cognitive dysfunction). Patients who died during the 5-year follow-up had significantly lower levels of Abeta42 (p = 0.011) than those who were still alive. Patients who had died in a 6-year follow-up had significantly lower levels of Abeta42 (p = 0.034) and higher levels of T-tau (p = 0.041) than patients still alive. CONCLUSION: CSF biomarkers do aid the clinical diagnosis of AD. Increased levels of P-tau and T-tau are possible markers for severity and abundance of symptoms in AD. Low levels of Abeta42 may indicate a higher risk of early death in AD.
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10.
  • Abdullah, Laila, et al. (författare)
  • The Influence of Baseline Alzheimer's Disease Severity on Cognitive Decline and CSF Biomarkers in the NILVAD Trial.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in neurology. - 1664-2295. ; 11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We examined the effects of a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker nilvadipine with anti-inflammatory properties on cognition and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers by baseline Alzheimer's disease (AD) severity. Exploratory analyses were performed on the dataset (n = 497) of a phase III randomized placebo-controlled trial to examine the response to nilvadipine in AD subjects stratified by baseline AD severity into very mild (MMSE ≥ 25), mild (MMSE 20-24) and moderate AD (MMSE < 20). The outcome measures included total and subscale scores of the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale Cognitive 12 (ADAS-Cog 12), the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale sum of boxes (CDR-sb) and the AD composite score (ADCOMS). Cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers Aβ38, Aβ40, Aβ42, neurofilament light chain (NFL), neurogranin, YKL-40, total tau and P181 tau (ptau) were measured in a subset of samples (n = 55). Regression analyses were adjusted for confounders to specifically examine the influence of nilvadipine and baseline AD severity on cognitive outcomes over 78-weeks. Compared to their respective placebo-controls, nilvadipine-treated, very mild AD subjects showed less decline, whereas moderate AD subjects showed a greater cognitive decline on the ADAS-Cog 12 test and the ADCOMS. A lower decline was observed after nilvadipine treatment for a composite memory trait in very mild AD subjects and a composite language trait in mild AD subjects. Cerebrospinal fluid Aβ42/Aβ40 ratios were increased in mild AD and decreased in moderate AD patients treated with nilvadipine, compared to their respective controls. Among moderate AD subjects, levels of ptau, total tau, neurogranin and YKL-40 increased in subjects treated with nilvadipine compared to placebo. These studies suggest that baseline AD severity influenced the treatment outcome in the NILVAD trial and that future clinical trials of nilvadipine should be restricted to mild and very mild AD patients. Trial Registration: NCT02017340 Registered 20 December 2013, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02017340 EUDRACT Reference Number 2012-002764-27 Registered 04 February 2013, https://www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu/ctr-search/search?query=2012-002764-27.
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