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Sökning: WFRF:(Wang Chun hui)

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  • Klionsky, Daniel J., et al. (författare)
  • Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Autophagy. - : Landes Bioscience. - 1554-8635 .- 1554-8627. ; 8:4, s. 445-544
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process vs. those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process); thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from stimuli that result in increased autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.
  • Jin, Ying-Hui, et al. (författare)
  • Chemoprophylaxis, diagnosis, treatments, and discharge management of COVID-19 : An evidence-based clinical practice guideline (updated version)
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Military Medical Research. - : BioMed Central (BMC). - 2054-9369. ; 7:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of a rapidly spreading illness, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), affecting more than seventeen million people around the world. Diagnosis and treatment guidelines for clinicians caring for patients are needed. In the early stage, we have issued "A rapid advice guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infected pneumonia (standard version)"; now there are many direct evidences emerged and may change some of previous recommendations and it is ripe for develop an evidence-based guideline. We formed a working group of clinical experts and methodologists. The steering group members proposed 29 questions that are relevant to the management of COVID-19 covering the following areas: chemoprophylaxis, diagnosis, treatments, and discharge management. We searched the literature for direct evidence on the management of COVID-19, and assessed its certainty generated recommendations using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. Recommendations were either strong or weak, or in the form of ungraded consensus-based statement. Finally, we issued 34 statements. Among them, 6 were strong recommendations for, 14 were weak recommendations for, 3 were weak recommendations against and 11 were ungraded consensus-based statement. They covered topics of chemoprophylaxis (including agents and Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) agents), diagnosis (including clinical manifestations, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), respiratory tract specimens, IgM and IgG antibody tests, chest computed tomography, chest x-ray, and CT features of asymptomatic infections), treatments (including lopinavir-ritonavir, umifenovir, favipiravir, interferon, remdesivir, combination of antiviral drugs, hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine, interleukin-6 inhibitors, interleukin-1 inhibitors, glucocorticoid, qingfei paidu decoction, lianhua qingwen granules/capsules, convalescent plasma, lung transplantation, invasive or noninvasive ventilation, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)), and discharge management (including discharge criteria and management plan in patients whose RT-PCR retesting shows SARS-CoV-2 positive after discharge). We also created two figures of these recommendations for the implementation purpose. We hope these recommendations can help support healthcare workers caring for COVID-19 patients.
  • Qian, Yan, et al. (författare)
  • Quantification for total demethylation potential of environmental samples utilizing the EGFP reporter gene
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Hazardous Materials. - : Elsevier. - 0304-3894 .- 1873-3336. ; 306, s. 278-285
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Abstract The demethylation potential of pollutants is arguably an innate component of their toxicity in environmental samples. A method was developed for determining the total demethylation potential of food samples (TDQ). The demethylation epigenetic toxicity was determined using the Hep G2 cell line transfected with pEGFP-C3 plasmids containing a methylated promoter of the EGFP reporter gene. The total demethylation potential of the sample extracts (the 5-AZA-CdR demethylation toxic equivalency) can be quantified within one week by using a standard curve of the 5-AZA-CdR demethylation agent. To explore the applicability of TDQ for environmental samples, 17 groundwater samples were collected from heavy polluted Kuihe river and the total demethylation potentials of the sample extracts were measured successfully. Meaningful demethylation toxic equivalencies ranging from 0.00050 to 0.01747 μM were found in all groundwater sample extracts. Among 19 kinds of inorganic substance, As and Cd played important roles for individual contribution to the total demethylation epigenetic toxicity. The TDQ assay is reliable and fast for quantifying the DNA demethylation potential of environmental sample extracts, which may improve epigenetic toxicity evaluations for human risk assessment, and the consistent consuming of groundwater alongside the Kuihe river pose unexpected epigenetic health risk to the local residents.
  • Weinstein, John N., et al. (författare)
  • The cancer genome atlas pan-cancer analysis project
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 45:10, s. 1113-1120
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network has profiled and analyzed large numbers of human tumors to discover molecular aberrations at the DNA, RNA, protein and epigenetic levels. The resulting rich data provide a major opportunity to develop an integrated picture of commonalities, differences and emergent themes across tumor lineages. The Pan-Cancer initiative compares the first 12 tumor types profiled by TCGA. Analysis of the molecular aberrations and their functional roles across tumor types will teach us how to extend therapies effective in one cancer type to others with a similar genomic profile. © 2013 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Hsiung, Shih-Yi, et al. (författare)
  • Structures of the xyloglucans in the monocotyledon family Araceae (aroids)
  • 2023
  • Ingår i: Planta. - : Springer Nature. - 0032-0935 .- 1432-2048. ; 257:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aquatic Araceae species Lemna minor was earlier shown to have xyloglucans with a different structure from the fucogalactoxyloglucans of other non-commelinid monocotyledons. We investigated 26 Araceae species (including L. minor), from five of the seven subfamilies. All seven aquatic species examined had xyloglucans that were unusual in having one or two of three features: < 77% XXXG core motif [L. minor (Lemnoideae) and Orontium aquaticum (Orontioideae)]; no fucosylation [L. minor (Lemnoideae), Cryptocoryne aponogetonifolia, and Lagenandra ovata (Aroideae, Rheophytes clade)]; and > 14% oligosaccharide units with S or D side chains [Spirodela polyrhiza and Landoltia punctata (Lemnoideae) and Pistia stratiotes (Aroideae, Dracunculus clade)]. Orontioideae and Lemnoideae are the two most basal subfamilies, with all species being aquatic, and Aroideae is the most derived. Two terrestrial species [Dieffenbachia seguine and Spathicarpa hastifolia (Aroideae, Zantedeschia clade)] also had xyloglucans without fucose indicating this feature was not unique to aquatic species.
  • Dadaev, Tokhir, et al. (författare)
  • Fine-mapping of prostate cancer susceptibility loci in a large meta-analysis identifies candidate causal variants.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 2041-1723 .- 2041-1723. ; 9:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Prostate cancer is a polygenic disease with a large heritable component. A number of common, low-penetrance prostate cancer risk loci have been identified through GWAS. Here we apply the Bayesian multivariate variable selection algorithm JAM to fine-map 84 prostate cancer susceptibility loci, using summary data from a large European ancestry meta-analysis. We observe evidence for multiple independent signals at 12 regions and 99 risk signals overall. Only 15 original GWAS tag SNPs remain among the catalogue of candidate variants identified; the remainder are replaced by more likely candidates. Biological annotation of our credible set of variants indicates significant enrichment within promoter and enhancer elements, and transcription factor-binding sites, including AR, ERG and FOXA1. In 40 regions at least one variant is colocalised with an eQTL in prostate cancer tissue. The refined set of candidate variants substantially increase the proportion of familial relative risk explained by these known susceptibility regions, which highlights the importance of fine-mapping studies and has implications for clinical risk profiling.
  • Földváry Ličina, Veronika, et al. (författare)
  • Development of the ASHRAE Global Thermal Comfort Database II
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Building and Environment. - : Elsevier BV. - 0360-1323. ; 142, s. 502-512
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Recognizing the value of open-source research databases in advancing the art and science of HVAC, in 2014 the ASHRAE Global Thermal Comfort Database II project was launched under the leadership of University of California at Berkeley's Center for the Built Environment and The University of Sydney's Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) Laboratory. The exercise began with a systematic collection and harmonization of raw data from the last two decades of thermal comfort field studies around the world. The ASHRAE Global Thermal Comfort Database II (Comfort Database), now an online, open-source database, includes approximately 81,846 complete sets of objective indoor climatic observations with accompanying “right-here-right-now” subjective evaluations by the building occupants who were exposed to them. The database is intended to support diverse inquiries about thermal comfort in field settings. A simple web-based interface to the database enables filtering on multiple criteria, including building typology, occupancy type, subjects' demographic variables, subjective thermal comfort states, indoor thermal environmental criteria, calculated comfort indices, environmental control criteria and outdoor meteorological information. Furthermore, a web-based interactive thermal comfort visualization tool has been developed that allows end-users to quickly and interactively explore the data.
  • Wang, Kai, et al. (författare)
  • Large-scale Multiconfiguration Dirac-Hartree-Fock and Relativistic Configuration Interaction Calculations of Transition Data for B-like S XII
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - : American Astronomical Society. - 0004-637X .- 1538-4357. ; 864:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Excitation energies and lifetimes for the 213 lowest states of the n <= 5 configurations in B-like S XII are calculated using highly correlated wave functions, optimized with the fully relativistic multiconfiguration Dirac-Hartree-Fock method. Multipole transition rates and associated radiative data (line strengths and oscillator strengths) for transitions connecting these levels are also reported. The theoretical excitation energies are systematically compared with the NIST Atomic Spectra Database in which misidentifications are pointed out. After eliminating the latter, a mean energy difference with the standard deviation between computed and observed energies of 12 +/- 341 cm(-1) is obtained for the n >= 3 high-lying states. This level of accuracy confirms that elaborate ab initio calculations can assist in the identification of new emission lines in the solar and other astrophysical spectra. The present work provides atomic data of high accuracy for an ion of astrophysical interest, B-like S XII, for which experimental data are scarce.
  • Zhang, Chen Hui, et al. (författare)
  • EHL properties of polyalkylene glycols and their aqueous solutions
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Tribology letters. - : Springer. - 1023-8883 .- 1573-2711. ; 45:3, s. 379-385
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Polyalkylene glycols (PAGs) are a type of synthetic lubricants widely used as compressor lubricants, gear oils, hydraulic fluids, and metal working fluids. The PAGs with typical molecular structure can dissolve in water, which makes it a candidate for the base stock of water-based lubricants. Till now, most of the investigations on the water-based lubrication have focussed on the additives. In this work, the potential of PAGs aqueous solutions to replace water as base stocks has been investigated. Four types of PAGs with different molecular weight and their aqueous solutions with different concentrations were studied to reveal their elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) behavior. It has been found that the PAGs solutions can form EHL film like traditional oils. The film-forming capability depends on the viscosity, the pressure-viscosity coefficient, and the molecular weight of PAGs. The results indicate that the PAGs aqueous solution can be employed as base stocks of water-based lubricant
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