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1.
  • Joffrin, E., et al. (författare)
  • Overview of the JET preparation for deuterium-tritium operation with the ITER like-wall
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion. - : IOP PUBLISHING LTD. - 0029-5515 .- 1741-4326. ; 59:11
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • For the past several years, the JET scientific programme (Pamela et al 2007 Fusion Eng. Des. 82 590) has been engaged in a multi-campaign effort, including experiments in D, H and T, leading up to 2020 and the first experiments with 50%/50% D-T mixtures since 1997 and the first ever D-T plasmas with the ITER mix of plasma-facing component materials. For this purpose, a concerted physics and technology programme was launched with a view to prepare the D-T campaign (DTE2). This paper addresses the key elements developed by the JET programme directly contributing to the D-T preparation. This intense preparation includes the review of the physics basis for the D-T operational scenarios, including the fusion power predictions through first principle and integrated modelling, and the impact of isotopes in the operation and physics of D-T plasmas (thermal and particle transport, high confinement mode (H-mode) access, Be and W erosion, fuel recovery, etc). This effort also requires improving several aspects of plasma operation for DTE2, such as real time control schemes, heat load control, disruption avoidance and a mitigation system (including the installation of a new shattered pellet injector), novel ion cyclotron resonance heating schemes (such as the three-ions scheme), new diagnostics (neutron camera and spectrometer, active Alfven eigenmode antennas, neutral gauges, radiation hard imaging systems...) and the calibration of the JET neutron diagnostics at 14 MeV for accurate fusion power measurement. The active preparation of JET for the 2020 D-T campaign provides an incomparable source of information and a basis for the future D-T operation of ITER, and it is also foreseen that a large number of key physics issues will be addressed in support of burning plasmas.
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2.
  • Ström, Petter, et al. (författare)
  • Characterisation of surface layers formed on plasma-facing components in controlled fusion devices : Role of heavy ion elastic recoil detection
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Vacuum. - 0042-207X .- 1879-2715. ; 122, s. 260-267
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Wall components retrieved from the TEXTOR tokamak after tracer experiments with nitrogen-15 and molybdenum hexafluoride (MoF6) injection were studied to determine deposition patterns and, by this, to conclude on material migration. Toroidal limiter tiles made of carbon fibre composites and fine grain graphite were examined using time-of-flight heavy ion elastic recoil detection analysis. Molybdenum deposition patterns indicated migration based on erosion and prompt re-deposition. Nitrogen-15 was trapped together with the deposited molybdenum. Some information on the depth distribution of species in the top 400 nm layer of the limiters was obtained; however surface roughness of the samples strongly limited resolution. In the case of molybdenum, the largest concentration was found in the 100 nm outermost layer, whereas fluorine and nitrogen-15 displayed more irregular profiles. Other species, besides deuterium fuel and carbon-12, were also identified: boron-10 and boron-11 originating from boronisations, carbon-13 from earlier tracer experiments, nitrogen-14 from plasma edge cooling and metals eroded from the Inconel wall.
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3.
  • Aho-Mantila, L., et al. (författare)
  • Assessment of SOLPS5.0 divertor solutions with drifts and currents against L-mode experiments in ASDEX Upgrade and JET
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion. - : IOP PUBLISHING LTD. - 0741-3335 .- 1361-6587. ; 59:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The divertor solutions obtained with the plasma edge modelling tool SOLPS5.0 are discussed. The code results are benchmarked against carefully analysed L-mode discharges at various density levels with and without impurity seeding in the full-metal tokamaks ASDEX Upgrade and JET. The role of the cross-field drifts and currents in the solutions is analysed in detail, and the improvements achieved by fully activating the drift and current terms in view of matching the experimental signals are addressed. The persisting discrepancies are also discussed.
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4.
  • Angioni, C., et al. (författare)
  • Dependence of the turbulent particle flux on hydrogen isotopes induced by collisionality
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Physics of Plasmas. - : American Institute of Physics (AIP). - 1070-664X .- 1089-7674. ; 25:8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The impact of the change of the mass of hydrogen isotopes on the turbulent particle flux is studied. The trapped electron component of the turbulent particle convection induced by collisionality, which is outward in ion temperature gradient turbulence, increases with decreasing thermal velocity of the isotope. Thereby, the lighter is the isotope, the stronger is the turbulent pinch, and the larger is the predicted density gradient at the null of the particle flux. The passing particle component of the flux increases with decreasing mass of the isotope and can also affect the predicted density gradient. This effect is however subdominant for usual core plasma parameters. The analytical results are confirmed by means of both quasi-linear and nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations, and an estimate of the difference in local density gradient produced by this effect as a function of collisionality has been obtained for typical plasma parameters at mid-radius. Analysis of currently available experimental data from the JET and the ASDEX Upgrade tokamaks does not show any clear and general evidence of inconsistency with this theoretically predicted effect outside the errorbars and also allows the identification of cases providing weak evidence of qualitative consistency.
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5.
  • Angioni, C., et al. (författare)
  • Gyrokinetic study of turbulent convection of heavy impurities in tokamak plasmas at comparable ion and electron heat fluxes
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion. - : IOP PUBLISHING LTD. - 0029-5515 .- 1741-4326. ; 57:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In tokamaks, the role of turbulent transport of heavy impurities, relative to that of neoclassical transport, increases with increasing size of the plasma, as clarified by means of general scalings, which use the ITER standard scenario parameters as reference, and by actual results from a selection of discharges from ASDEX Upgrade and JET. This motivates the theoretical investigation of the properties of the turbulent convection of heavy impurities by nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations in the experimentally relevant conditions of comparable ion and electron heat fluxes. These conditions also correspond to an intermediate regime between dominant ion temperature gradient turbulence and trapped electron mode turbulence. At moderate plasma toroidal rotation, the turbulent convection of heavy impurities, computed with nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations, is found to be directed outward, in contrast to that obtained by quasi-linear calculations based on the most unstable linear mode, which is directed inward. In this mixed turbulence regime, with comparable electron and ion heat fluxes, the nonlinear results of the impurity transport can be explained by the coexistence of both ion temperature gradient and trapped electron modes in the turbulent state, both contributing to the turbulent convection and diffusion of the impurity. The impact of toroidal rotation on the turbulent convection is also clarified.
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6.
  • Angioni, C., et al. (författare)
  • The impact of poloidal asymmetries on tungsten transport in the core of JET H-mode plasmas
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Physics of Plasmas. - : AMER INST PHYSICS. - 1070-664X .- 1089-7674. ; 22:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Recent progress in the understanding and prediction of the tungsten behaviour in the core of JET H-mode plasmas with ITER-like wall is presented. Particular emphasis is given to the impact of poloidal asymmetries of the impurity density. In particular, it is shown that the predicted reduction of temperature screening induced by the presence of low field side localization of the tungsten density produced by the centrifugal force is consistent with the observed tungsten behaviour in a JET discharge in H-mode baseline scenario. This provides first evidence of the role of poloidal asymmetries in reducing the strength of temperature screening. The main differences between plasma parameters in JET baseline and hybrid scenario discharges which affect the impact of poloidally asymmetric density on the tungsten radial transport are identified. This allows the conditions by which tungsten accumulation can be avoided to be more precisely defined.
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7.
  • Appel, L. C., et al. (författare)
  • Equilibrium reconstruction in an iron core tokamak using a deterministic magnetisation model
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Computer Physics Communications. - : ELSEVIER. - 0010-4655 .- 1879-2944. ; 223, s. 1-17
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In many tokamaks ferromagnetic material, usually referred to as an iron-core, is present in order to improve the magnetic coupling between the solenoid and the plasma. The presence of the iron core in proximity to the plasma changes the magnetic topology with consequent effects on the magnetic field structure and the plasma boundary. This paper considers the problem of obtaining the free-boundary plasma equilibrium solution in the presence of ferromagnetic material based on measured constraints. The current approach employs, a model described by O'Brien et al. (1992) in which the magnetisation currents at the iron-air boundary are represented by a set of free parameters and appropriate boundary conditions are enforced via a set of quasi-measurements on the material boundary. This can lead to the possibility of overfitting the data and hiding underlying issues with the measured signals. Although the model typically achieves good fits to measured magnetic signals there are significant discrepancies in the inferred magnetic topology compared with other plasma diagnostic measurements that are independent of the magnetic field. An alternative approach for equilibrium reconstruction in iron-core tokamaks, termed the deterministic magnetisation model is developed and implemented in EFIT++. The iron is represented by a boundary current with the gradients in the magnetisation dipole state generating macroscopic internal magnetisation currents. A model for the boundary magnetisation currents at the iron-air interface is developed using B-Splines enabling continuity to arbitrary order; internal magnetisation currents are allocated to triangulated regions within the iron, and a method to enable adaptive refinement is implemented. The deterministic model has been validated by comparing it with a synthetic 2-D electromagnetic model of JET. It is established that the maximum field discrepancy is less than 1.5 mT throughout the vacuum region enclosing the plasma. The discrepancies of simulated magnetic probe signals are accurate to within 1% for signals with absolute magnitude greater than 100 mT; in all other cases agreement is to within 1 mT. The effect of neglecting the internal magnetisation currents increases the maximum discrepancy in the vacuum region to >20 mT, resulting in errors of 5%-10% in the simulated probe signals. The fact that the previous model neglects the internal magnetisation currents (and also has additional free parameters when fitting the measured data) makes it unsuitable for analysing data in the absence of plasma current. The discrepancy of the poloidal magnetic flux within the vacuum vessel is to within 0.1 Wb. Finally the deterministic model is applied to an equilibrium force-balance solution of a JET discharge using experimental data. It is shown that the discrepancies of the outboard separatrix position, and the outer strike-point position inferred from Thomson Scattering and Infrared camera data are much improved beyond the routine equilibrium reconstruction, whereas the discrepancy of the inner strike-point position is similar.
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8.
  • Arnichand, H., et al. (författare)
  • Discriminating the trapped electron modes contribution in density fluctuation spectra
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion. - : IOP PUBLISHING LTD. - 0029-5515 .- 1741-4326. ; 55:9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Quasi-coherent (QC) modes have been reported for more than 10 years in reflectometry fluctuations spectra in the core region of fusion plasmas. They have characteristics in-between coherent and broadband fluctuations as they oscillate at a marked frequency but have a wide spectrum. This work presents further evidences of the link recently established between QC modes and the trapped electron modes (TEM) instabilities (Arnichand et al 2014 Nucl. Fusion 54 123017). In electron cyclotron resonance heated discharges of Tore Supra, an enhancement of QC modes amplitude is observed in a region where TEM cause impurity transport and turbulence. In JET Ohmic plasmas, QC modes disappear during density ramp-up and current ramp-down. This is reminiscent of Tore Supra and TEXTOR observations during transitions from the linear Ohmic confinement (LOC) to the saturated Ohmic confinement (SOC) regimes. Evidencing TEM activity then becomes experimentally possible via analysis of fluctuation spectra.
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9.
  • Aslanyan, V, et al. (författare)
  • Gyrokinetic simulations of toroidal Alfven eigenmodes excited by energetic ions and external antennas on the Joint European Torus
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion. - : IOP PUBLISHING LTD. - 0029-5515 .- 1741-4326. ; 59:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The gyrokinetic toroidal code (GTC) has been used to study toroidal Alfven eigenmodes (TAEs) in high-performance plasmas. Experiments performed at the Joint European Torus (JET), where TAEs were driven by energetic particles arising from neutral beams, ion cyclotron resonant heating, and resonantly excited by dedicated external antennas, have been simulated. Modes driven by populations of energetic particles are observed, matching the TAE frequency seen with magnetic probes in JET experiments. A synthetic antenna, composed of one toroidal and two neighboring poloidal harmonics has been used to probe the modes' damping rates and quantify mechanisms for this damping in GTC simulations. This method was also applied to frequency and damping rate measurements of stable TAEs made by the Alfven eigenmode active diagnostic in these discharges.
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10.
  • Baiocchi, B., et al. (författare)
  • Transport analysis and modelling of the evolution of hollow density profiles plasmas in JET and implication for ITER
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion. - : IOP PUBLISHING LTD. - 0029-5515 .- 1741-4326. ; 55:12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The density evolution during the transient phase just after the L-H transition is investigated using theoretical transport models. Cases characterized by core densities which evolve in longer timescales than the edge densities, leading to hollow density profiles (R/L-n = -R del n/n < 0) are modelled. This density evolution is particularly interesting because it has been shown to be beneficial in the view of the access to burning plasma conditions in ITER (Loarte et al 2013 Nucl. Fusion 53 083031). Self-consistent simulations of the JET discharge 79676 of the density-only, and of the density and the temperatures are carried out using a quasilinear gyrokinetic code, QuaLiKiz (Bourdelle et al 2007 Phys. Plasmas 14 112501), coupled with a transport code CRONOS (Artaud et al 2010 Nucl. Fusion 50 043001). The slow evolution of the hollow density, associated with the self-consistently calculated hollow NBI particle deposition, is well reproduced in the plasma core. Indeed, QuaLiKiz is shown to reproduce nonlinear gyrokinetic heat and particle fluxes well for both positive and negative R/L-n. That gives a theoretical and general basis for the persistence of the hollowness, laying the groundwork for the extrapolation to ITER.
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