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Sökning: WFRF:(Weis Joachim)

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  • Brenner, David, et al. (författare)
  • Hot-spot KIF5A mutations cause familial ALS
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Brain. - : Oxford University Press. - 0006-8950 .- 1460-2156. ; 141, s. 688-697
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Heterozygous missense mutations in the N-terminal motor or coiled-coil domains of the kinesin family member 5A (KIF5A) gene cause monogenic spastic paraplegia (HSP10) and Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2 (CMT2). Moreover, heterozygous de novo frame-shift mutations in the C-terminal domain of KIF5A are associated with neonatal intractable myoclonus, a neurodevelopmental syndrome. These findings, together with the observation that many of the disease genes associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis disrupt cytoskeletal function and intracellular transport, led us to hypothesize that mutations in KIF5A are also a cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Using whole exome sequencing followed by rare variant analysis of 426 patients with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and 6137 control subjects, we detected an enrichment of KIF5A splice-site mutations in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (2/426 compared to 0/6137 in controls; P = 4.2 x 10-3), both located in a hot-spot in the C-terminus of the protein and predicted to affect splicing exon 27. We additionally show co-segregation with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis of two canonical splice-site mutations in two families. Investigation of lymphoblast cell lines from patients with KIF5A splice-site mutations revealed the loss of mutant RNA expression and suggested haploinsufficiency as the most probable underlying molecular mechanism. Furthermore, mRNA sequencing of a rare non-synonymous missense mutation (predicting p. Arg1007Gly) located in the C-terminus of the protein shortly upstream of the splice donor of exon 27 revealed defective KIF5A pre-mRNA splicing in respective patient-derived cell lines owing to abrogation of the donor site. Finally, the non-synonymous single nucleotide variant rs113247976 (minor allele frequency = 1.00% in controls, n = 6137), also located in the C-terminal region [p.(Pro986Leu) in exon 26], was significantly enriched in familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients (minor allele frequency = 3.40%; P = 1.28 x 10-7). Our study demonstrates that mutations located specifically in a C-terminal hotspot of KIF5A can cause a classical amyotrophic lateral sclerosis phenotype, and underline the involvement of intracellular transport processes in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis pathogenesis.
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3.
  • Mueller, Kathrin, et al. (författare)
  • Comprehensive analysis of the mutation spectrum in 301 German ALS families
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry. - : BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. - 0022-3050 .- 1468-330X. ; 89:8, s. 817-827
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives Recent advances in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) genetics have revealed that mutations in any of more than 25 genes can cause ALS, mostly as an autosomal-dominant Mendelian trait. Detailed knowledge about the genetic architecture of ALS in a specific population will be important for genetic counselling but also for genotype-specific therapeutic interventions.Methods Here we combined fragment length analysis, repeat-primed PCR, Southern blotting, Sanger sequencing and whole exome sequencing to obtain a comprehensive profile of genetic variants in ALS disease genes in 301 German pedigrees with familial ALS. We report C9orf72 mutations as well as variants in consensus splice sites and non-synonymous variants in protein-coding regions of ALS genes. We furthermore estimate their pathogenicity by taking into account type and frequency of the respective variant as well as segregation within the families.Results 49% of our German ALS families carried a likely pathogenic variant in at least one of the earlier identified ALS genes. In 45% of the ALS families, likely pathogenic variants were detected in C9orf72, SOD1, FUS, TARDBP or TBK1, whereas the relative contribution of the other ALS genes in this familial ALS cohort was 4%. We identified several previously unreported rare variants and demonstrated the absence of likely pathogenic variants in some of the recently described ALS disease genes.Conclusions We here present a comprehensive genetic characterisation of German familial ALS. The present findings are of importance for genetic counselling in clinical practice, for molecular research and for the design of diagnostic gene panels or genotype-specific therapeutic interventions in Europe.
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  • Oldfors Hedberg, Carola, 1969, et al. (författare)
  • Loss of supervillin causes myopathy with myofibrillar disorganization and autophagic vacuoles
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Brain. - : Oxford University Press. - 0006-8950. ; 143:8, s. 2406-2420
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The muscle specific isoform of the supervillin protein (SV2), encoded by the SVIL gene, is a large sarcolemmal myosin II- and F-actin-binding protein. Supervillin (SV2) binds and co-localizes with costameric dystrophin and binds nebulin, potentially attaching the sarcolemma to myofibrillar Z-lines. Despite its important role in muscle cell physiology suggested by various in vitro studies, there are so far no reports of any human disease caused by SVIL mutations. We here report four patients from two unrelated, consanguineous families with a childhood/adolescence onset of a myopathy associated with homozygous loss-of-function mutations in SVIL. Wide neck, anteverted shoulders and prominent trapezius muscles together with variable contractures were characteristic features. All patients showed increased levels of serum creatine kinase but no or minor muscle weakness. Mild cardiac manifestations were observed. Muscle biopsies showed complete loss of large supervillin isoforms in muscle fibres by western blot and immunohistochemical analyses. Light and electron microscopic investigations revealed a structural myopathy with numerous lobulated muscle fibres and considerable myofibrillar alterations with a coarse and irregular intermyofibrillar network. Autophagic vacuoles, as well as frequent and extensive deposits of lipoproteins, including immature lipofuscin, were observed. Several sarcolemma-associated proteins, including dystrophin and sarcoglycans, were partially mis-localized. The results demonstrate the importance of the supervillin (SV2) protein for the structural integrity of muscle fibres in humans and show that recessive loss-of-function mutations in SVIL cause a distinctive and novel myopathy
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5.
  • Forsberg, Karin, et al. (författare)
  • Endothelial damage, vascular bagging and remodeling of the microvascular bed in human microangiopathy with deep white matter lesions
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Acta neuropathologica communications. - : BioMed Central. - 2051-5960. ; 6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • White matter lesions (WMLs) are a common manifestation of small vessel disease (SVD) in the elderly population. They are associated with an enhanced risk of developing gait abnormalities, poor executive function, dementia, and stroke with high mortality. Hypoperfusion and the resulting endothelial damage are thought to contribute to the development of WMLs. The focus of the present study was the analysis of the microvascular bed in SVD patients with deep WMLs (DWMLs) by using double- and triple-label immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. Simultaneous visualization of collagen IV (COLL4)-positive membranes and the endothelial glycocalyx in thick sections allowed us to identify endothelial recession in different types of string vessels, and two new forms of small vessel/capillary pathology, which we called vascular bagging and ghost string vessels. Vascular bags were pouches and tubes that were attached to vessel walls and were formed by multiple layers of COLL4-positive membranes. Vascular bagging was most severe in the DWMLs of cases with pure SVD (no additional vascular brain injury, VBI). Quantification of vascular bagging, string vessels, and the density/size of CD68-positive cells further showed widespread pathological changes in the frontoparietal and/or temporal white matter in SVD, including pure SVD and SVD with VBI, as well as a significant effect of the covariate age. Plasma protein leakage into vascular bags and the white matter parenchyma pointed to endothelial damage and basement membrane permeability. Hypertrophic IBA1-positive microglial cells and CD68-positive macrophages were found in white matter areas covered with networks of ghost vessels in SVD, suggesting phagocytosis of remnants of string vessels. However, the overall vessel density was not altered in our SVD cohort, which might result from continuous replacement of vessels. Our findings support the view that SVD is a progressive and generalized disease process, in which endothelial damage and vascular bagging drive remodeling of the microvasculature.
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6.
  • Freischmidt, Axel, et al. (författare)
  • A serum microRNA sequence reveals fragile X protein pathology in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Brain. - : Oxford University Press. - 0006-8950 .- 1460-2156. ; 144:4, s. 1214-1229
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Knowledge about converging disease mechanisms in the heterogeneous syndrome amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is rare, but may lead to therapies effective in most ALS cases. Previously, we identified serum microRNAs downregulated in familial ALS, the majority of sporadic ALS patients, but also in presymptomatic mutation carriers. A 5-nucleotide sequence motif (GDCGG; D = G, A or U) was strongly enriched in these ALS-related microRNAs. We hypothesized that deregulation of protein(s) binding predominantly to this consensus motif was responsible for the ALS-linked microRNA fingerprint. Using microRNA pull-down assays combined with mass spectrometry followed by extensive biochemical validation, all members of the fragile X protein family, FMR1, FXR1 and FXR2, were identified to directly and predominantly interact with GDCGG microRNAs through their structurally disordered RGG/RG domains. Preferential association of this protein family with ALS-related microRNAs was confirmed by in vitro binding studies on a transcriptome-wide scale. Immunohistochemistry of lumbar spinal cord revealed aberrant expression level and aggregation of FXR1 and FXR2 in C9orf72- and FUS-linked familial ALS, but also patients with sporadic ALS. Further analysis of ALS autopsies and induced pluripotent stem cell-derived motor neurons with FUS mutations showed co-aggregation of FXR1 with FUS. Hence, our translational approach was able to take advantage of blood microRNAs to reveal CNS pathology, and suggests an involvement of the fragile X-related proteins in familial and sporadic ALS already at a presymptomatic stage. The findings may uncover disease mechanisms relevant to many patients with ALS. They furthermore underscore the systemic, extra-CNS aspect of ALS.
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  • Yilmazer-Hanke, Deniz, et al. (författare)
  • Histological correlates of postmortem ultra-high-resolution single-section MRI in cortical cerebral microinfarcts
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Acta neuropathologica communications. - : Springer Nature. - 2051-5960. ; 8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The identification of cerebral microinfarctions with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histological methods remains challenging in aging and dementia. Here, we matched pathological changes in the microvasculature of cortical cerebral microinfarcts to MRI signals using single 100 μm-thick histological sections scanned with ultra-high-resolution 11.7 T MRI. Histologically, microinfarcts were located in superficial or deep cortical layers or transcortically, compatible with the pattern of layer-specific arteriolar blood supply of the cerebral cortex. Contrary to acute microinfarcts, at chronic stages the core region of microinfarcts showed pallor with extracellular accumulation of lipofuscin and depletion of neurons, a dense meshwork of collagen 4-positive microvessels with numerous string vessels, CD68-positive macrophages and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive astrocytes. In MRI scans, cortical microinfarcts at chronic stages, called chronic cortical microinfarcts here, gave hypointense signals in T1-weighted and hyperintense signals in T2-weighted images when thinning of the tissue and cavitation and/or prominent iron accumulation were present. Iron accumulation in chronic microinfarcts, histologically verified with Prussian blue staining, also produced strong hypointense T2*-weighted signals. In summary, the microinfarct core was occupied by a dense microvascular meshwork with string vessels, which was invaded by macrophages and astroglia and contained various degrees of iron accumulation. While postmortem ultra-high-resolution single-section imaging improved MRI-histological matching and the structural characterization of chronic cortical cerebral microinfarcts, miniscule microinfarcts without thinning or iron accumulation could not be detected with certainty in the MRI scans. Moreover, string vessels at the infarct margin indicate disturbances in the microcirculation in and around microinfarcts, which might be exploitable in the diagnostics of cortical cerebral microinfarcts with MRI in vivo.
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  • Resultat 1-8 av 8

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