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  • Aho-Mantila, L., et al. (författare)
  • Assessment of SOLPS5.0 divertor solutions with drifts and currents against L-mode experiments in ASDEX Upgrade and JET
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion. - : IOP PUBLISHING LTD. - 0741-3335 .- 1361-6587. ; 59:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The divertor solutions obtained with the plasma edge modelling tool SOLPS5.0 are discussed. The code results are benchmarked against carefully analysed L-mode discharges at various density levels with and without impurity seeding in the full-metal tokamaks ASDEX Upgrade and JET. The role of the cross-field drifts and currents in the solutions is analysed in detail, and the improvements achieved by fully activating the drift and current terms in view of matching the experimental signals are addressed. The persisting discrepancies are also discussed.
  • Aiba, N., et al. (författare)
  • Analysis of ELM stability with extended MHD models in JET, JT-60U and future JT-60SA tokamak plasmas
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion. - : Institute of Physics (IOP). - 0741-3335 .- 1361-6587. ; 60:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The stability with respect to a peeling-ballooning mode (PBM) was investigated numerically with extended MHD simulation codes in JET, JT-60U and future JT-60SA plasmas. The MINERVA-DI code was used to analyze the linear stability, including the effects of rotation and ion diamagnetic drift (omega(*i)), in JET-ILW and JT-60SA plasmas, and the JOREK code was used to simulate nonlinear dynamics with rotation, viscosity and resistivity in JT-60U plasmas. It was validated quantitatively that the ELM trigger condition in JET-ILW plasmas can be reasonably explained by taking into account both the rotation and omega(*i) effects in the numerical analysis. When deuterium poloidal rotation is evaluated based on neoclassical theory, an increase in the effective charge of plasma destabilizes the PBM because of an acceleration of rotation and a decrease in omega(*i). The difference in the amount of ELM energy loss in JT-60U plasmas rotating in opposite directions was reproduced qualitatively with JOREK. By comparing the ELM affected areas with linear eigenfunctions, it was confirmed that the difference in the linear stability property, due not to the rotation direction but to the plasma density profile, is thought to be responsible for changing the ELM energy loss just after the ELM crash. A predictive study to determine the pedestal profiles in JT-60SA was performed by updating the EPED1 model to include the rotation and w*i effects in the PBM stability analysis. It was shown that the plasma rotation predicted with the neoclassical toroidal viscosity degrades the pedestal performance by about 10% by destabilizing the PBM, but the pressure pedestal height will be high enough to achieve the target parameters required for the ITER-like shape inductive scenario in JT-60SA.
  • Aiba, N., et al. (författare)
  • Numerical analysis of ELM stability with rotation and ion diamagnetic drift effects in JET
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion. - EUROfus Consortium, JET, Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England. [Aiba, N.] Natl Inst Quantum & Radiol Sci & Technol, Rokkasho, Aomori 0393212, Japan. [Giroud, C.; Saarelma, S.; Lupelli, I.; Casson, F. J.; Pamela, S.; Maggi, C. F.] Culham Ctr Fus Energy, Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England. [Honda, M.; Urano, H.] Natl Inst Quantum & Radiol Sci & Technol, Naka, Ibaraki 3110193, Japan. [Delabie, E.] Oak Ridge Natl Lab, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 USA. [Frassinetti, L.] KTH, Div Fus Plasma Phys, SE-10041 Stockholm, Sweden. : IOP PUBLISHING LTD. - 0029-5515 .- 1741-4326. ; 57:12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Stability to the type-I edge localized mode (ELM) in JET plasmas was investigated numerically by analyzing the stability to a peeling-ballooning mode with the effects of plasma rotation and ion diamagnetic drift. The numerical analysis was performed by solving the extended Frieman-Rotenberg equation with the MINERVA-DI code. To take into account these effects in the stability analysis self-consistently, the procedure of JET equilibrium reconstruction was updated to include the profiles of ion temperature and toroidal rotation, which are determined based on the measurement data in experiments. With the new procedure and MINERVA-DI, it was identified that the stability analysis including the rotation effect can explain the ELM trigger condition in JET with ITER like wall (JET-ILW), though the stability in JET with carbon wall (JET-C) is hardly affected by rotation. The key difference is that the rotation shear in JET-ILW plasmas analyzed in this study is larger than that in JET-C ones, the shear which enhances the dynamic pressure destabilizing a peeling-ballooning mode. In addition, the increase of the toroidal mode number of the unstable MHD mode determining the ELM trigger condition is also important when the plasma density is high in JET-ILW. Though such modes with high toroidal mode number are strongly stabilized by the ion diamagnetic drift effect, it was found that plasma rotation can sometimes overcome this stabilizing effect and destabilizes the peeling-ballooning modes in JET-ILW.
  • Andersson Sundén, Erik, et al. (författare)
  • Evaluation of neutron spectrometer techniques for ITER using synthetic data
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A. - 0168-9002 .- 1872-9576. ; 701, s. 62-71
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A neutron spectrometer at ITER is expected to provide estimates of plasma parameters such as ion temperature, Ti, fuel ion ratio, nt/nd, and Qthermal/Qtot, with 10-20% precision at a time resolution, Δt, of at least 100 ms. The present paper describes a method for evaluating different neutron spectroscopy techniques based on their instrumental response functions and synthetic measurement data. We include five different neutron spectrometric techniques with realistic response functions, based on simulations and measurements where available. The techniques are magnetic proton recoil, thin-foil proton recoil, gamma discriminating organic scintillator, diamond and time-of-flight. The reference position and line of sight of a high resolution neutron spectrometer on ITER are used in the study. ITER plasma conditions are simulated for realistic operating scenarios. The ITER conditions evaluated are beam and radio frequency heated and thermal deuterium-tritium plasmas. Results are given for each technique in terms of the estimated time resolution at which the parameter determination can be made within the required precision (here 10% for Ti and the relative intensities of NB and RF emission components). It is shown that under the assumptions made, the thin-foil techniques out-perform the other spectroscopy techniques in practically all measurement situations. For thermal conditions, the range of achieved Δt in the determination of Ti varies in time scales from ms (for the magnetic and thin-foil proton recoil) to s (for gamma discriminating organic scintillator).
  • Andersson Sundén, Erik, et al. (författare)
  • Instrumentation for neutron emission spectrometry in use at JET
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A. - 0168-9002 .- 1872-9576. ; 623:2, s. 681-685
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The present contribution discusses two neutron spectrometers: the time-of-flight spectrometer (TOFOR) and the magnetic proton recoil spectrometer (MPRu). TOFOR uses fast plastic scintillators equipped with digital time-stamping electronics to register the time of each eligible scintillation event. The time trace for each detector is acquired practically dead-time free. The detectors of the MPRu are of phoswich type and each detector is connected to a digital transient recorder card that stores the full waveform for an event. By using phoswich detectors, pulse-shape discrimination techniques can be applied offline to distinguish signal events from background. A future upgrade of TOFOR could be digital “hybrid” cards, which store correlated time and waveform information. This information can be used to decrease the background level in the ttof spectrum, thereby increasing the operating range.
  • Andersson Sundén, Erik, et al. (författare)
  • The thin-foil magnetic proton recoil neutron spectrometer MPRu at JET
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A. - 0168-9002 .- 1872-9576. ; 610:3, s. 682-699
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Neutrons are produced in fusion energy experiments with both deuterium (D) and deuterium–tritium (DT) plasmas. Neutron spectroscopy is a valuable tool in the study of the underlying fuel ion populations. The magnetic proton recoil neutron spectrometer, originally installed at JET in 1996 for 14-MeV neutron measurements, has been upgraded, with the main aim of improving its signal-to-background ratio (S/B), making measurements of the 2.5-MeV neutron emission in D plasmas possible. The upgrade includes a new focal-plane detector, based on the phoswich technique and consequently less sensitive to background, and a new custom-designed digital data acquisition system based on transient recorder cards. Results from JET show that the upgraded MPRu can measure 2.5-MeV neutrons with S/B=5, an improvement by a factor of 50 compared with the original MPR. S/B of 2.8×104 in future DT experiments is estimated. The performance of the MPRu is exemplified with results from recent D plasma operations at JET, concerning both measurements with Ohmic, ion cyclotron resonance (ICRH) and neutral beam injection (NBI) plasma heating, as well as measurements of tritium burn-up neutrons. The upgraded instrument allows for 2.5-MeV neutron emission and deuterium ion temperature measurements in plasmas with low levels of tritium, a feature necessary for the ITER experiment.
  • Angioni, C., et al. (författare)
  • Dependence of the turbulent particle flux on hydrogen isotopes induced by collisionality
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Physics of Plasmas. - : American Institute of Physics (AIP). - 1070-664X .- 1089-7674. ; 25:8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The impact of the change of the mass of hydrogen isotopes on the turbulent particle flux is studied. The trapped electron component of the turbulent particle convection induced by collisionality, which is outward in ion temperature gradient turbulence, increases with decreasing thermal velocity of the isotope. Thereby, the lighter is the isotope, the stronger is the turbulent pinch, and the larger is the predicted density gradient at the null of the particle flux. The passing particle component of the flux increases with decreasing mass of the isotope and can also affect the predicted density gradient. This effect is however subdominant for usual core plasma parameters. The analytical results are confirmed by means of both quasi-linear and nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations, and an estimate of the difference in local density gradient produced by this effect as a function of collisionality has been obtained for typical plasma parameters at mid-radius. Analysis of currently available experimental data from the JET and the ASDEX Upgrade tokamaks does not show any clear and general evidence of inconsistency with this theoretically predicted effect outside the errorbars and also allows the identification of cases providing weak evidence of qualitative consistency.
  • Angioni, C., et al. (författare)
  • Gyrokinetic study of turbulent convection of heavy impurities in tokamak plasmas at comparable ion and electron heat fluxes
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion. - : IOP PUBLISHING LTD. - 0029-5515 .- 1741-4326. ; 57:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In tokamaks, the role of turbulent transport of heavy impurities, relative to that of neoclassical transport, increases with increasing size of the plasma, as clarified by means of general scalings, which use the ITER standard scenario parameters as reference, and by actual results from a selection of discharges from ASDEX Upgrade and JET. This motivates the theoretical investigation of the properties of the turbulent convection of heavy impurities by nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations in the experimentally relevant conditions of comparable ion and electron heat fluxes. These conditions also correspond to an intermediate regime between dominant ion temperature gradient turbulence and trapped electron mode turbulence. At moderate plasma toroidal rotation, the turbulent convection of heavy impurities, computed with nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations, is found to be directed outward, in contrast to that obtained by quasi-linear calculations based on the most unstable linear mode, which is directed inward. In this mixed turbulence regime, with comparable electron and ion heat fluxes, the nonlinear results of the impurity transport can be explained by the coexistence of both ion temperature gradient and trapped electron modes in the turbulent state, both contributing to the turbulent convection and diffusion of the impurity. The impact of toroidal rotation on the turbulent convection is also clarified.
  • Angioni, C., et al. (författare)
  • The impact of poloidal asymmetries on tungsten transport in the core of JET H-mode plasmas
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Physics of Plasmas. - : AMER INST PHYSICS. - 1070-664X .- 1089-7674. ; 22:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Recent progress in the understanding and prediction of the tungsten behaviour in the core of JET H-mode plasmas with ITER-like wall is presented. Particular emphasis is given to the impact of poloidal asymmetries of the impurity density. In particular, it is shown that the predicted reduction of temperature screening induced by the presence of low field side localization of the tungsten density produced by the centrifugal force is consistent with the observed tungsten behaviour in a JET discharge in H-mode baseline scenario. This provides first evidence of the role of poloidal asymmetries in reducing the strength of temperature screening. The main differences between plasma parameters in JET baseline and hybrid scenario discharges which affect the impact of poloidally asymmetric density on the tungsten radial transport are identified. This allows the conditions by which tungsten accumulation can be avoided to be more precisely defined.
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