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Sökning: WFRF:(Wenger Elisabeth)

  • Resultat 1-10 av 13
  • [1]2Nästa
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1.
  • Bellander, Martin, et al. (författare)
  • Behavioral correlates of changes in hippocampal gray matter structure during acquisition of foreign vocabulary
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: NeuroImage. - : Elsevier. - 1053-8119 .- 1095-9572. ; 131, s. 205-213
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Experience can affect human gray matter volume. The behavioral correlates of individual differences in such brain changes are not well understood. In a group of Swedish individuals studying Italian as a foreign language, we investigated associations among time spent studying, acquired vocabulary, baseline performance on memory tasks, and gray matter changes. As a way of studying episodic memory training, the language learning focused on acquiring foreign vocabulary and lasted for 10 weeks. T-1-weighted structural magnetic resonance imaging and cognitive testing were performed before and after the studies. Learning behavior was monitored via participants' use of a smartphone application dedicated to the study of vocabulary. A whole-brain analysis showed larger changes in gray matter structure of the right hippocampus in the experimental group (N = 33) compared to an active control group (N = 23). A first path analyses revealed that time spent studying rather than acquired knowledge significantly predicted change in gray matter structure. However, this association was not significant when adding performance on baseline memory measures into the model, instead only the participants' performance on a short-term memory task with highly similar distractors predicted the change. This measure may tap similar individual difference factors as those involved in gray matter plasticity of the hippocampus.
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2.
  • Brehmer, Yvonne, et al. (författare)
  • Plasticity of brain and cognition in older adults
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Psychological Research. - 0340-0727 .- 1430-2772. ; 78:6, s. 790-802
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aging is typically related to changes in brain and cognition, but the aging process is heterogeneous and differs between individuals. Recent research has started investigating the influence of cognitive and physical training on cognitive performance, functional brain activity, and brain structure in old age. The functional relevance of neural changes and the interactions among these changes following interventions is still a matter of debate. Here we selectively review research on structural and functional brain correlates of training-induced performance changes in healthy older adults and present exemplary longitudinal intervention studies sorted by the type of training applied (i.e., strategy-based training, process-specific training, and physical exercise). Although many training studies have been conducted recently, within each task domain, the number of studies that used comparable methods and techniques to assess behavioral and neural changes is limited. We suggest that future studies should include a multimodal approach to enhance the understanding of the relation between different levels of brain changes in aging and those changes that result from training. Investigating inter-individual differences in intervention-induced behavioral and neuronal changes would provide more information about who would benefit from a specific intervention and why. In addition, a more systematic examination of the time course of training-related structural and functional changes would improve the current level of knowledge about how learning is implemented in the brain and facilitate our understanding of contradictory results.
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3.
  • Filevich, Elisa, et al. (författare)
  • Day2day : Investigating daily variability of magnetic resonance imaging measures over half a year
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: BMC Neuroscience. - : BioMed Central (BMC). - 1471-2202. ; 18:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Most studies of brain structure and function, and their relationships to cognitive ability, have relied on inter-individual variability in magnetic resonance (MR) images. Intra-individual variability is often ignored or implicitly assumed to be equivalent to the former. Testing this assumption empirically by collecting enough data on single individuals is cumbersome and costly. We collected a dataset of multiple MR sequences and behavioural covariates to quantify and characterize intra-individual variability in MR images for multiple individuals. Methods and design: Eight participants volunteered to undergo brain scanning 40-50 times over the course of 6 months. Six participants completed the full set of sessions. T1-weighted, T2*-weighted during rest, T2-weighted high-resolution hippocampus, diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI), and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy sequences were collected, along with a rich set of stable and time-varying physical, behavioural and physiological variables. Participants did not change their lifestyle or participated in any training programs during the period of data collection. Conclusion: This imaging dataset provides a large number of MRI scans in different modalities for six participants. It enables the analysis of the time course and correlates of intra-individual variability in structural, chemical, and functional aspects of the human brain.
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4.
  • Karch, Julian D, et al. (författare)
  • Identifying predictors of within-person variance in MRI-based brain volume estimates
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: NeuroImage. - : Elsevier. - 1095-9572. ; 200, s. 575-589
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Adequate reliability of measurement is a precondition for investigating individual differences and age-related changes in brain structure. One approach to improve reliability is to identify and control for variables that are predictive of within-person variance. To this end, we applied both classical statistical methods and machine-learning-inspired approaches to structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) data of six participants aged 24-31 years gathered at 40-50 occasions distributed over 6-8 months from the Day2day study. We explored the within-person associations between 21 variables covering physiological, affective, social, and environmental factors and global measures of brain volume estimated by VBM8 and FreeSurfer. Time since the first scan was reliably associated with Freesurfer estimates of grey matter volume and total cortex volume, in line with a rate of annual brain volume shrinkage of about 1 percent. For the same two structural measures, time of day also emerged as a reliable predictor with an estimated diurnal volume decrease of, again, about 1 percent. Furthermore, we found weak predictive evidence for the number of steps taken on the previous day and testosterone levels. The results suggest a need to control for time-of-day effects in sMRI research. In particular, we recommend that researchers interested in assessing longitudinal change in the context of intervention studies or longitudinal panels make sure that, at each measurement occasion, (a) a given participant is measured at the same time of day; (b) participants overall are measured at about the same time of day. Furthermore, the potential effects of physical activity, including moderate amounts of aerobic exercise, and testosterone levels on MRI-based measures of brain structure deserve further investigation.
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5.
  • Kühn, Simone, et al. (författare)
  • Spend time outdoors for your brain–an in-depth longitudinal MRI study
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry. - : Taylor & Francis. - 1562-2975.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: The effects of nature on physical and mental health are an emerging topic in empirical research with increasing influence on practical health recommendations. Here we set out to investigate the association between spending time outdoors and brain structural plasticity in conjunctions with self-reported affect. Methods: We established the Day2day study, which includes an unprecedented in-depth assessment of variability of brain structure in a serial sequence of 40–50 structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) acquisitions of each of six young healthy participants for 6–8 months (n = 281 MRI scans in total). Results: A whole-brain analysis revealed that time spent outdoors was positively associated with grey matter volume in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and positive affect, also after controlling for physical activity, fluid intake, free time, and hours of sunshine. Conclusions: Results indicate remarkable and potentially behaviorally relevant plasticity of cerebral structure within a short time frame driven by the daily time spent outdoors. This is compatible with anecdotal evidence of the health and mood-promoting effects of going for a walk. The study may provide the first evidence for underlying cerebral mechanisms of so-called green prescriptions with possible consequences for future interventions in mental disorders.
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6.
  • Kühn, Simone, et al. (författare)
  • The dynamics of change in striatal activity following updating training
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Human Brain Mapping. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1065-9471 .- 1097-0193. ; 34:7, s. 1530-1541
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Increases in striatal activity have been suggested to mediate training-related improvements in working-memory ability. We investigated the temporal dynamics of changes in task-related brain activity following training of working memory. Participants in an experimental group and an active control group, trained on easier tasks of a constant difficulty in shorter sessions than the experimental group, were measured before, after about 1 week, and after more than 50 days of training. In the experimental group an initial increase of working-memory related activity in the functionally defined right striatum and anatomically defined right and left putamen was followed by decreases, resulting in an inverted u-shape function that relates activity to training over time. Activity increases in the striatum developed slower in the active control group, observed at the second posttest after more than 50 days of training. In the functionally defined left striatum, initial activity increases were maintained after more extensive training and the pattern was similar for the two groups. These results shed new light on the relation between activity in the striatum (especially the putamen) and the effects of working memory training, and illustrate the importance of multiple measurements for interpreting effects of training on regional brain activity.
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7.
  • Lövdén, Martin, et al. (författare)
  • Structural brain plasticity in adult learning and development
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews. - : Elsevier. - 0149-7634 .- 1873-7528. ; 37:9, s. 2296-2310
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Recent research using magnetic resonance imaging has documented changes in the adult human brain's grey matter structure induced by alterations in experiential demands. We review this research and relate it to models of brain plasticity from related strands of research, such as work on animal models. This allows us to generate recommendations and predictions for future research that may advance the understanding of the function, sequential progression, and microstructural nature of experience-dependent changes in regional brain volumes. Informed by recent evidence on adult age differences in structural brain plasticity, we show how understanding learning-related changes in human brain structure can expand our knowledge about adult development and aging. We hope that this review will promote research on the mechanisms regulating experience-dependent structural plasticity of the adult human brain.
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8.
  • Pannunzi, Mario, et al. (författare)
  • Resting-state fMRI correlations : From link-wise unreliability to whole brain stability
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: NeuroImage. - : Elsevier. - 1053-8119. ; 157, s. 250-262
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The functional architecture of spontaneous BOLD fluctuations has been characterized in detail by numerous studies, demonstrating its potential relevance as a biomarker. However, the systematic investigation of its consistency is still in its infancy. Here, we analyze within- and between-subject variability and test-retest reliability of resting-state functional connectivity (FC) in a unique data set comprising multiple fMRI scans (42) from 5 subjects, and 50 single scans from 50 subjects. We adopt a statistical framework that enables us to identify different sources of variability in FC. We show that the low reliability of single links can be significantly improved by using multiple scans per subject. Moreover, in contrast to earlier studies, we show that spatial heterogeneity in FC reliability is not significant. Finally, we demonstrate that despite the low reliability of individual links, the information carried by the whole-brain FC matrix is robust and can be used as a functional fingerprint to identify individual subjects from the population.
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9.
  • Wenger, Elisabeth, et al. (författare)
  • Comparing Manual and Automatic Segmentation of Hippocampal Volumes : Reliability and Validity Issues in Younger and Older Brains
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Human Brain Mapping. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1065-9471 .- 1097-0193. ; 35:8, s. 4236-4248
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We compared hippocampal volume measures obtained by manual tracing to automatic segmentation with FreeSurfer in 44 younger (20-30 years) and 47 older (60-70 years) adults, each measured with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) over three successive time points, separated by four months. Retest correlations over time were very high for both manual and FreeSurfer segmentations. With FreeSurfer, correlations over time were significantly lower in the older than in the younger age group, which was not the case with manual segmentation. Pearson correlations between manual and FreeSurfer estimates were sufficiently high, numerically even higher in the younger group, whereas intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) estimates were lower in the younger than in the older group. FreeSurfer yielded higher volume estimates than manual segmentation, particularly in the younger age group. Importantly, FreeSurfer consistently overestimated hippocampal volumes independently of manually assessed volume in the younger age group, but overestimated larger volumes in the older age group to a less extent, introducing a systematic age bias in the data. Age differences in hippocampal volumes were significant with FreeSurfer, but not with manual tracing. Manual tracing resulted in a significant difference between left and right hippocampus (right > left), whereas this asymmetry effect was considerably smaller with FreeSurfer estimates. We conclude that FreeSurfer constitutes a feasible method to assess differences in hippocampal volume in young adults. FreeSurfer estimates in older age groups should, however, be interpreted with care until the automatic segmentation pipeline has been further optimized to increase validity and reliability in this age group.
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10.
  • Wenger, Elisabeth, et al. (författare)
  • Cortical thickness changes following spatial navigation training in adulthood and aging
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: NeuroImage. - : Elsevier. - 1053-8119 .- 1095-9572. ; 59:4, s. 3389-3397
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A widespread network involving cortical and subcortical brain structures forms the neural substrate of human spatial navigation. Most studies investigating plasticity of this network have focused on the hippocampus. Here, we investigate age differences in cortical thickness changes evoked by four months of spatial navigation training in 91 men aged 20-30 or 60-70 years. Cortical thickness was automatically measured before, immediately after, and four months after termination of training. Younger as well as older navigators evidenced large improvements in navigation performance that were partly maintained after termination of training. Importantly, training-related cortical thickening in left precuneus and paracentral lobule were observed in young navigators only. Thus, spatial navigation training appears to affect cortical brain structure of young adults, but there is reduced potential for experience-dependent cortical alterations in old age.
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  • Resultat 1-10 av 13
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