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1.
  • Axelsson-Linkowski, Weronika, et al. (författare)
  • Shifting Strategies between Generations in Sami Reindeer Husbandry : the Challenges of Maintaining Traditions while Adapting to a Changing Context
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Human Ecology. - : Springer Verlag (Germany). - 0300-7839 .- 1572-9915. ; 48, s. 481-490
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Many traditional pastoralist systems are greatly impacted by cumulative encroachments of other land users and by climate change. Understanding land degradation and the adaptive capacity of people who are dependent on the rangelands is an urgent priority for many areas in the world. In this research we explore how changing environmental conditions affect herding strategies on winter pastures and the role of indigenous and local traditional knowledge (ILK) in Sami reindeer husbandry. Our results indicate that traditional Sami reindeer herding strategies are still practiced, but that rapidly changing environmental circumstances are forcing herders into uncharted territories where these traditional strategies and the transmission of knowledge between generations may be of limited use. For example, rotational grazing is no longer possible as all pastures are being used, and changes in climate result in unpredictable weather patterns unknown to earlier generations.
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2.
  • Dahlström, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Remnant habitats for grassland species in an abandoned Swedish agricultural landscape
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Applied Vegetation Science. - : Wiley: 12 months. - 1402-2001 .- 1654-109X. ; 13:3, s. 305-314
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Questions: Which factors influence the persistence of vascular grassland plants in long-abandoned (at least 50 yr) arable fields and meadows? What might be the implications of current levels of species richness on abandoned arable fields and meadows for future restoration? Location: Forested highlands of Kilsbergen, south central Sweden. Methods: The abundance of all vascular plant species was investigated in three habitat types: former arable fields, hay meadows and outlands (pastures) at 27 farms, abandoned for either approximately 50 yr or 90 yr. Time since abandonment, tree cover, soil depth, degree of soil podsol development, size of the infield area and two measures of connectivity were used as predictors for species richness and species composition. Results: Former outland had denser tree cover, fewer species and fewer grassland species than former arable fields and hay meadows, irrespective of time since abandonment. Former hay meadows and arable fields with a longer time since abandonment were less rich in species, more wooded and had greater podsolization than meadows and fields abandoned at a later stage. Species richness was higher in hay meadows and arable fields at farms with larger infield area and deeper soils compared with farms with smaller infield area and shallower soils. The greatest richness of species and most open habitat were former arable fields at larger farms abandoned 50 yr before the study. Former arable fields had the highest number of grassland species. Conclusion: After 50 yr of abandonment, former arable fields were the most important remnant habitats for grassland species and may be a more promising target for restoration than formerly managed grasslands.
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3.
  • Jerkeman, A., et al. (författare)
  • Chronic hepatitis C in Swedish subjects receiving opiate substitution therapy-Factors associated with advanced fibrosis
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases. - : Informa Healthcare. - 0036-5548. ; 46:5, s. 340-347
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Opiate substitution therapy (OST) reduces the risk of death from directly drug-related causes in heroin users, allowing other chronic health problems to emerge. People who inject drugs (PWID) are exposed to hepatitis C virus (HCV), with an associated risk of chronic liver disease. We investigated HCV prevalence and liver-related morbidity in a cohort of OST recipients, and analyzed factors associated with significant hepatic fibrosis. Methods: All patients registered on 1 April 2008 in 4 clinics providing OST in the 3 largest cities in Sweden were eligible for inclusion. HCV viremic subjects were evaluated for fibrosis stage by liver biopsy, transient elastometry (TE), and/or a biochemical fibrosis index (Göteborg University Cirrhosis Index; GUCI). Factors associated with severity of fibrosis were determined by logistic regression analysis. Results: Out of 524 eligible patients, 277 consented to enrolment. Two hundred and thirty-six subjects (88%) were anti-HCV-positive, and 162 of these were viremic (69%). Significant liver fibrosis (defined as Ishak stages F3-F6, TE value ≥ 8.85 kPa, or GUCI > 0.33) was found in 69 out of 103 (67%) tested viremic patients, and was associated with alcohol intake (p = 0.03), higher body mass index (BMI; p = 0.04), and the presence of anti-HBc antibodies (indicating exposure to hepatitis B virus (HBV); p = 0.02). Conclusions: Significant liver fibrosis was detected in two-thirds of HCV viremic OST recipients in this cohort, and was associated with alcohol use, high BMI, and exposure to HBV. These findings indicate that the management of HCV and associated risk factors should be emphasized in Swedish OST programs. © 2014 Informa Healthcare.
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4.
  • Jerkeman, A., et al. (författare)
  • Treatment for chronic hepatitis C in a cohort of opiate substitution therapy recipients in three Swedish cities - completion rates and efficacy
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology. - : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 0954-691X .- 1473-5687. ; 26:5, s. 523-531
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives Opiate substitution treatment (OST) programs could provide opportunities for management of comorbidities, such as hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, in people who inject drugs. We aimed to prospectively evaluate the real-life feasibility of interferon/ribavirin-based HCV treatment in OST recipients, with a special focus on psychiatric status and health-related quality of life. Patients from a cohort of OST recipients from three cities in Sweden were selected for HCV treatment on the basis of structured investigation for HCV-related liver disease. Therapy was delivered in collaboration between infectious disease and OST clinics, with monitoring for completion and adherence, treatment response, adverse events, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) (SF-36) and signs of depression (MADRS-S), or relapse into drug abuse. The primary endpoint was completion of prescribed treatment; the secondary endpoints were sustained virological response (SVR), adherence, and incidence of depression. Among 69 patients with an indication for antiviral therapy, 41 initiated treatment; 34/41 (83%) completed treatment and 19/41 (46%) achieved SVR. Adequate adherence was observed in 29/41 patients (71%). Two serious adverse events occurred, including one death because of liver failure. Baseline scores for self-assessed health were low, with a significant reduction during treatment. Seventy-one percent of patients (29/41) fulfilled the criteria for clinically significant depression at some time point during treatment. Baseline scores for HRQoL/MADRS-S were associated with treatment completion, SVR, and depression during treatment. Despite the low HRQoL and the high occurrence of depression, HCV treatment was feasible and showed satisfactory rates of completion in this cohort of unselected OST recipients.
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5.
  • Kardell, Örjan, 1963-, et al. (författare)
  • Wolves in the early nineteenth-century county of Jönköping, Sweden
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Environment and History. - Isle of Harris : White Horse Press. - 0967-3407 .- 1752-7023. ; 19:3, s. 339-370
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In Sweden there has been a vigorous debate concerning management of the wolf (Canis lupus) ever since 1983, when the species was naturally re-established in the country by long-distance dispersal. The contradictory interests are due to a commitment by Naturvårdsverket, the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, to protect the wolf, while at the same time wolves arouse fear and hatred among many members of the public because they attack hunting dogs and kill game and livestock. The wolf is expected to increase in numbers and spread over most of Sweden. We argue that modern wolf management would benefit from a historical perspective and our study draws on data from a time when wolves, livestock and people depending on their herds were far more numerous than today. We also discuss aspects of available wolf food supply and territorial size in the early nineteenth century county of Jönköping, Sweden. This is possible by combining hitherto undetected source material on wolves, with a high geographical resolution, with the insights of modern wildlife research. Our main conclusions are that historic wolf territories were in all probability larger than current territories. This was due to a scarcity of large prey, especially during the winter months when livestock were stabled. Past herding practices seem, to a very large extent, to have kept predation on livestock at nearly negligible levels compared to total livestock numbers. This is a significant finding that should be of interest to those concerned with present day wolf management. We also discuss the potential for the future re-establishment of wolves in the studied area.
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6.
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7.
  • Klevebro, Susanna, et al. (författare)
  • Early energy and protein intakes and associations with growth, BPD and ROP in extremely preterm infants
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Clinical Nutrition. - : Elsevier. - 0261-5614 .- 1532-1983. ; 38:3, s. 1289-1295
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background & aim: Extremely preterm infants face substantial neonatal morbidity. Nutrition is important to promote optimal growth and organ development in order to reduce late neonatal complications. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of early nutritional intakes on growth and risks of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in a high-risk population.Methods: This population-based cohort study includes infants born before 27 0/7 weeks of gestational age without severe malformations and surviving ≥10 days. Intake of energy and protein on postnatal days 4–6 and association with weight standard deviation score (WSDS) from birth to day 7, as well as intakes of energy and protein on postnatal days 4–6 and 7 to 27, respectively, and association with composite outcome of death and BPD and separate outcomes of BPD and ROP were examined, and adjusted for potential confounders.Results: The cohort comprised 296 infants with a median gestational age of 25 3/7 weeks. Expressed as daily intakes, every additional 10 kcal/kg/d of energy during days 4–6 was associated with 0.08 higher WSDS on day 7 (95% CI 0.06–0.11; p < 0.001). Between days 7 and 27, every 10 kcal/kg/d increase in energy intake was associated with a reduced risk of BPD of 9% (95% CI 1–16; p = 0.029) and any grade of ROP with a reduced risk of 6% (95% CI 2–9; p = 0.005) in multivariable models. This association was statistically significant in infants with ≤10 days of mechanical ventilation. In infants with >10 days of mechanical ventilation, a combined higher intake of energy and protein was associated with a reduced risk of BPD.Conclusion: Early provision of energy and protein may reduce postnatal weight loss and risk of morbidity in extremely preterm infants.
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8.
  • Nilsson, Anna C., et al. (författare)
  • Frequent detection of respiratory agents by multiplex PCR on oropharyngeal samples in Swedish school-attending adolescents
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases. - : Informa Healthcare. - 0036-5548 .- 1651-1980. ; 44, s. 393-397
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Respiratory agents may be detected in the oropharynx of healthy individuals. The extent of this condition and the reasons behind it are largely unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the factors associated with the presence of respiratory agents in the oropharynx of adolescents healthy enough to attend school activities. Methods: On a single day in December, samples from the posterior wall of the oropharynx of adolescents aged 1015 y were obtained using cotton-tipped swabs. The samples were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the presence of 13 respiratory viruses and 2 bacteria (Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydophila pneumoniae). Results: Out of the 232 adolescents sampled, 67 (29%) had any respiratory symptom. A positive PCR result was found in 50 individuals (22%). Human rhinovirus was the most commonly found agent. Respiratory agents were significantly more frequent in the younger age group (1013 y) than in the older age group (1415 y): 26% (38/148) vs 14% (12/84), respectively; p = 0.04. Cough was the only symptom that was more common among individuals with a positive PCR test than among those with a negative PCR test: 8/50 (16%) vs 11/182 (6%); p = 0.02. Family size and class size were not associated with the likelihood of a positive PCR test. Conclusions: The presence of respiratory agents in the oropharynx is a frequent finding among adolescents healthy enough to attend school activities. The high prevalence was found to be associated with young age, but not with the size of the family or class. © 2012 Informa Healthcare.
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9.
  • Strömberg, Anna-Karin, et al. (författare)
  • Changes in cochlear function related to acoustic stimulation of cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential stimulation
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Hearing Research. - : Elsevier. - 0378-5955 .- 1878-5891. ; 340, s. 43-49
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Evaluation of cervical evoked myogenic potentials (c-VEMP) is commonly applied in clinical investigations of patients with suspected neurotological symptoms. Short intense acoustic stimulation of peak levels close to 130 dB SPL is required to elicit the responses. A recent publication on bilateral significant sensorineural hearing loss related to extensive VEMP stimulation motivates evaluations of immediate effects on hearing acuity related to the intense acoustic stimulation required to elicit c-VEMP responses. The aim of the current study was to investigate changes in DPOAE-levels and hearing thresholds in relation to c-VEMP testing in humans. More specifically, the current focus is on immediate changes in hearing thresholds and changes in DPOAE-levels at frequencies 0.5 octaves above the acoustic stimulation when applying shorter tone bursts than previously used. Hearing acuity before and immediately after exposure to c-VEMP stimulation was examined in 24 patients with normal hearing referred for neurotologic testing. The stimulation consisted of 192 tonebursts of 6 ms and was presented at 500 Hz and 130 dB peSPL. Bekesy thresholds at 0.125-8 kHz and DPOAE I/O growth functions with stimulation at 0.75 and 3 kHz were used to assess c-VEMP related changes in hearing status. No significant deterioration in Bekesy thresholds was detected. Significant reduction in DPOAE levels at 0.75 (0.5-1.35 dB) and 3 kHz (1.6-2.1 dB) was observed after c-VEMP stimulation without concomitant changes in cochlear compression. The results indicated that there was no immediate audiometric loss related to c-VEMP stimulation in the current group of patients. The significant reduction of DPOAE levels at a wider frequency range than previously described after the c-VEMP test could be related to the stimulation with shorter tone bursts. The results show that c-VEMP stimulation causes reduction in DPOAE-levels at several frequencies that corresponds to half the reductions in DPOAE levels reported after exposure to the maximally allowed occupational noise for an 8 h working day. Consequently, extended stimuli intensity or stimulation repetition with c-VEMP testing should be avoided to reduce the risk for noise-induced cochlear injury.
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10.
  • Thalén, Niklas, 1985-, et al. (författare)
  • Systems biology greatly improve activity of secreted therapeutic sulfatase in CHO bioprocess
  • Annan publikation (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Rare diseases are, despite their name, collectively common and millions of people are affected daily of conditions where treatment often is unavailable. Sulfatases are a large family of activating enzymes related to several of these diseases. Heritable genetic variations in sulfatases may lead to impaired activity and a reduced macromolecular breakdown within the lysosome, with several severe and lethal conditions as a consequence. While therapeutic options are scarce, treatment for some sulfatase deficiencies by recombinant enzyme replacement are available. However, such recombinant production of sulfatases suffers greatly from low product activity and yield, further limiting accessibility for patient groups. Here, we have addressed this problem by defining key-proteins necessary for active sulfatase secretion by comparison of CHO clones with different levels of production of active sulfatase. Quantitative transcriptomic analysis highlighted 14 key genes associated with sulfatase production, and experimental validation by co-expression improved the sulfatase enzyme activity by up to 150-fold. Furthermore, a correlation between product mRNA levels and sulfatase activity were observed and expression with lower activity promoters showed an increased in sulfatase activity. The workflow devised is general and we propose it to be useful for resolving bottlenecks in cellular machineries for improvement of cell factories for other biologics as well.
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