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1.
  • Botvinik-Nezer, Rotem, et al. (författare)
  • Variability in the analysis of a single neuroimaging dataset by many teams
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Nature. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 582, s. 84-88
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Data analysis workflows in many scientific domains have become increasingly complex and flexible. Here we assess the effect of this flexibility on the results of functional magnetic resonance imaging by asking 70 independent teams to analyse the same dataset, testing the same 9 ex-ante hypotheses(1). The flexibility of analytical approaches is exemplified by the fact that no two teams chose identical workflows to analyse the data. This flexibility resulted in sizeable variation in the results of hypothesis tests, even for teams whose statistical maps were highly correlated at intermediate stages of the analysis pipeline. Variation in reported results was related to several aspects of analysis methodology. Notably, a meta-analytical approach that aggregated information across teams yielded a significant consensus in activated regions. Furthermore, prediction markets of researchers in the field revealed an overestimation of the likelihood of significant findings, even by researchers with direct knowledge of the dataset(2-5). Our findings show that analytical flexibility can have substantial effects on scientific conclusions, and identify factors that may be related to variability in the analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging. The results emphasize the importance of validating and sharing complex analysis workflows, and demonstrate the need for performing and reporting multiple analyses of the same data. Potential approaches that could be used to mitigate issues related to analytical variability are discussed. The results obtained by seventy different teams analysing the same functional magnetic resonance imaging dataset show substantial variation, highlighting the influence of analytical choices and the importance of sharing workflows publicly and performing multiple analyses.
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2.
  • Kattge, Jens, et al. (författare)
  • TRY plant trait database - enhanced coverage and open access
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Global Change Biology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1354-1013 .- 1365-2486. ; 26:1, s. 119-188
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Plant traits-the morphological, anatomical, physiological, biochemical and phenological characteristics of plants-determine how plants respond to environmental factors, affect other trophic levels, and influence ecosystem properties and their benefits and detriments to people. Plant trait data thus represent the basis for a vast area of research spanning from evolutionary biology, community and functional ecology, to biodiversity conservation, ecosystem and landscape management, restoration, biogeography and earth system modelling. Since its foundation in 2007, the TRY database of plant traits has grown continuously. It now provides unprecedented data coverage under an open access data policy and is the main plant trait database used by the research community worldwide. Increasingly, the TRY database also supports new frontiers of trait-based plant research, including the identification of data gaps and the subsequent mobilization or measurement of new data. To support this development, in this article we evaluate the extent of the trait data compiled in TRY and analyse emerging patterns of data coverage and representativeness. Best species coverage is achieved for categorical traits-almost complete coverage for 'plant growth form'. However, most traits relevant for ecology and vegetation modelling are characterized by continuous intraspecific variation and trait-environmental relationships. These traits have to be measured on individual plants in their respective environment. Despite unprecedented data coverage, we observe a humbling lack of completeness and representativeness of these continuous traits in many aspects. We, therefore, conclude that reducing data gaps and biases in the TRY database remains a key challenge and requires a coordinated approach to data mobilization and trait measurements. This can only be achieved in collaboration with other initiatives.
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3.
  • Soranno, Patricia A., et al. (författare)
  • LAGOS-NE : A multi-scaled geospatial and temporal database of lake ecological context and water quality for thousands of U.S. lakes
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: GigaScience. - 2047-217X .- 2047-217X. ; 6:12, s. 1-22
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Understanding the factors that affect water quality and the ecological services provided by freshwater ecosystems is an urgent global environmental issue. Predicting how water quality will respond to global changes not only requires water quality data, but also information about the ecological context of individual water bodies across broad spatial extents. Because lake water quality is usually sampled in limited geographic regions, often for limited time periods, assessing the environmental controls of water quality requires compilation of many data sets across broad regions and across time into an integrated database. LAGOS-NE accomplishes this goal for lakes in the northeastern-most 17 US states. LAGOS-NE contains data for 51101 lakes and reservoirs larger than 4 ha in 17 lake-rich US states. The database includes 3 datamodules for: lake location and physical characteristics for all lakes; ecological context (i.e., the land use, geologic, climatic, and hydrologic setting of lakes) for all lakes; and in situmeasurements of lake water quality for a subset of the lakes fromthe past 3 decades for approximately 2600–12 000 lakes depending on the variable. The database contains approximately 150000 measures of total phosphorus, 200 000 measures of chlorophyll, and 900 000 measures of Secchi depth. The water quality data were compiled from87 lake water quality data sets fromfederal, state, tribal, and non-profit agencies, university researchers, and citizen scientists. This database is one of the largest andmost comprehensive databases of its type because it includes both in situmeasurements and ecological context data. Because ecological context can be used to study a variety of other questions about lakes, streams, and wetlands, this database can also be used as the foundation for other studies of freshwaters at broad spatial and ecological scales
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4.
  • Aebersold, Ruedi, et al. (författare)
  • How many human proteoforms are there?
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Nature Chemical Biology. - : NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 1552-4450 .- 1552-4469. ; 14:3, s. 206-214
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Despite decades of accumulated knowledge about proteins and their post-translational modifications (PTMs), numerous questions remain regarding their molecular composition and biological function. One of the most fundamental queries is the extent to which the combinations of DNA-, RNA-and PTM-level variations explode the complexity of the human proteome. Here, we outline what we know from current databases and measurement strategies including mass spectrometry-based proteomics. In doing so, we examine prevailing notions about the number of modifications displayed on human proteins and how they combine to generate the protein diversity underlying health and disease. We frame central issues regarding determination of protein-level variation and PTMs, including some paradoxes present in the field today. We use this framework to assess existing data and to ask the question, "How many distinct primary structures of proteins (proteoforms) are created from the 20,300 human genes?" We also explore prospects for improving measurements to better regularize protein-level biology and efficiently associate PTMs to function and phenotype.
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5.
  • Al-Zalabani, Abdulmohsen H., et al. (författare)
  • Tea consumption and risk of bladder cancer in the Bladder Cancer Epidemiology and Nutritional Determinants (BLEND) Study : Pooled analysis of 12 international cohort studies
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Clinical Nutrition. - : Elsevier. - 0261-5614. ; 41:5, s. 1122-1130
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background & aims: Tea has been shown to be associated with reduced risk of several diseases including cardiovascular diseases, stroke, metabolic syndrome, and obesity. However, the results on the relationship between tea consumption and bladder cancer are conflicting. This research aimed to assess the association between tea consumption and risk of bladder cancer using a pooled analysis of prospective cohort data. Methods: Individual data from 532,949 participants in 12 cohort studies, were pooled for analyses. Cox regression models stratified by study centre was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and corresponding 95% CIs. Fractional polynomial regression models were used to examine the dose–response relationship. Results: A higher level of tea consumption was associated with lower risk of bladder cancer incidence (compared with no tea consumption: HR = 0.87, 95% C.I. = 0.77–0.98 for low consumption; HR = 0.86, 95% C.I. = 0.77–0.96 for moderate consumption; HR = 0.84, 95% C.I. = 0.75–0.95 for high consumption). When stratified by sex and smoking status, this reduced risk was statistically significant among men and current and former smokers. In addition, dose–response analyses showed a lower bladder cancer risk with increment of 100 ml of tea consumption per day (HR-increment = 0.97; 95% CI = 0.96–0.98). A similar inverse association was found among males, current and former smokers while never smokers and females showed non-significant results, suggesting potential sex-dependent effect. Conclusions: Higher consumption of tea is associated with reduced risk of bladder cancer with potential interaction with sex and smoking status. Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms for a protective effect of tea (e.g. inhibition of the survival and proliferation of cancer cells and anti-inflammatory mechanisms) and its interaction with smoking and sex.
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6.
  • Allwell-Brown, Gbemisola (författare)
  • Antibiotic use among children in low- and middle-income countries : Studies on global trends, and contextual determinants of antibiotic prescribing in Eastern Uganda
  • 2022
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis aimed to systematically map trends in reported antibiotic use (RAU) among sick under-five children across low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) in 2005-2017, and, to understand the contextual determinants of antibiotic prescribing in Eastern Uganda. Based on 132 national surveys from 73 LMICs, and using Bayesian linear regression models, trends in RAU among sick under-five children (with symptoms of fever, diarrhoea or cough with fast/difficult breathing) across LMICs in 2005-2017 were mapped by WHO region, World Bank country income group, symptom complaint (Study-I), and by the following user characteristics: rural/urban residence, maternal education, household wealth and source of care (Study-II). To provide context, Study-III investigated patterns and contextual determinants of antibiotic prescribing for febrile under-five outpatients (FUO) attending 37 primary and secondary healthcare facilities across Bugisu, a sub-region in Eastern Uganda, based on a healthcare facility survey, and a two-year retrospective review of outpatient registers from January 2019-December 2020. To further strengthen the understanding of contextual determinants of antibiotic prescribing, in Study-IV, 10 focus group discussions and 10 in-depth interviews were conducted with 85 healthcare providers across primary and secondary healthcare facilities in Bugisu, and analysed using thematic analysis.A modest (17%) relative increase in RAU for sick under-five children across LMICs in 2005-2017 was found, with about 43% of the children reportedly receiving antibiotics for their illness in 2017. Low-income, African, and South-East Asian countries consistently recorded the lowest RAU for sick under-five children. Within LMICs, RAU for sick under-five children increased across all user groups in 2005-2017 but remained lowest among the poorest children, those living in rural areas, and having mothers with the lowest education levels. In Bugisu, 62.2% of FUO in surveyed healthcare facilities received antibiotic prescriptions. Amoxicillin and co-trimoxazole accounted for two-thirds of all antibiotic prescriptions. Cotrimoxazole and ampicillin/cloxacillin were prescribed, despite not being indicated in any of the reported conditions in Study-III. Among other interrelated factors across multiple levels of the health system, availability of antibiotics and diagnostics within healthcare facilities, caregiver demands, and governance at national and sub-national levels were important health worker considerations in antibiotic prescribing for febrile under-five patients.These studies suggest that inequitable access to antibiotics remains a challenge between and within LMICs. Yet, misuse and wastage of antibiotics persists in the same populations with the greatest lack of access to antibiotics and formal healthcare services. A health systems strengthening approach is required to improve antibiotic stewardship and overall quality of care in LMICs.
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7.
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8.
  • Allwell-Brown, Gbemisola, et al. (författare)
  • Trends in reported antibiotic use among children under 5 years of age with fever, diarrhoea, or cough with fast or difficult breathing across low-income and middle-income countries in 2005-17: a systematic analysis of 132 national surveys from 73 countries.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: The Lancet. Global health. - : ELSEVIER SCI LTD. - 2214-109X. ; 8:6, s. e799-e807
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Global assessments of antibiotic consumption have relied on pharmaceutical sales data that do not measure individual-level use, and are often unreliable or unavailable for low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). To help fill this evidence gap, we compiled data from national surveys in LMICs in 2005-17 reporting antibiotic use for sick children under the age of 5 years.Based on 132 Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys from 73 LMICs, we analysed trends in reported antibiotic use among children under 5 years of age with fever, diarrhoea, or cough with fast or difficult breathing by WHO region, World Bank income classification, and symptom complaint. A logit transformation was used to estimate the outcome using a linear Bayesian regression model. The model included country-level socioeconomic, disease incidence, and health system covariates to generate estimates for country-years with missing values.Across LMICs, reported antibiotic use among sick children under 5 years of age increased from 36·8% (uncertainty interval [UI] 28·8-44·7) in 2005 to 43·1% (33·2-50·5) in 2017. Low-income countries had the greatest relative increase; in these countries, reported antibiotic use for sick children under 5 years of age rose 34% during the study period, from 29·6% (21·2-41·1) in 2005 to 39·5% (32·9-47·6) in 2017, although it remained the lowest of any income group throughout the study period.We found a limited but steady increase in reported antibiotic use for sick children under 5 years of age across LMICs in 2005-17, although overlapping UIs complicate interpretation. The increase was largely driven by gains in low-income countries. Our study expands the evidence base from LMICs, where strengthening antibiotic consumption and resistance surveillance is a global health priority.Uppsala Antibiotic Centre, Uppsala University, Uppsala University Hospital, Makerere University, Gothenburg University.
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9.
  • Alwers, Elizabeth, et al. (författare)
  • Smoking Behavior and Prognosis after Colorectal Cancer Diagnosis : A Pooled Analysis of 11 Studies
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: JNCI Cancer Spectrum. - : Oxford University Press. - 2515-5091. ; 5:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Smoking has been associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality in previous studies, but current evidence on smoking in association with survival after CRC diagnosis is limited.Methods: We pooled data from 12 345 patients with stage I-IV CRC from 11 epidemiologic studies in the International Survival Analysis in Colorectal Cancer Consortium. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to evaluate the associations of prediagnostic smoking behavior with overall, CRC-specific, and non-CRC-specific survival.Results: Among 12 345 patients with CRC, 4379 (35.5%) died (2515 from CRC) over a median follow-up time of 7.5years. Smoking was strongly associated with worse survival in stage I-III patients, whereas no associa-tion was observed among stage IV patients. Among stage I-III patients, clear dose-response relationships with all survival outcomes were seen for current smokers. For example, current smokers with 40 or more pack-years had statistically significantly worse over-all, CRC-specific, and non-CRC-specific survival compared with never smokers (hazard ratio [HR] 1/41.94, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1/41.68 to 2.25; HR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.12 to 1.78; and HR = 2.67, 95% CI = 2.19 to 3.26, respectively). Similar associations with all sur-vival outcomes were observed for former smokers who had quit for less than 10years, but only a weak association with non-CRC-specific survival was seen among former smokers who had quit for more than 10years.Conclusions: This large consortium of CRC patient studies provides compelling evidence that smoking is strongly associated with worse survival of stage I-III CRC patients in a clear dose-response manner. The detrimental effect of smoking was primarily related to noncolorectal cancer events, but current heavy smoking also showed an association with CRC-specific survival.
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10.
  • Archambault, Alexi N., et al. (författare)
  • Cumulative Burden of Colorectal Cancer Associated Genetic Variants Is More Strongly Associated With Early-Onset vs Late-Onset Cancer
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Gastroenterology. - : W B SAUNDERS CO-ELSEVIER INC. - 0016-5085 .- 1528-0012. ; 158:5, s. 1274-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND & AIMS: Early-onset colorectal cancer (CRC, in persons younger than 50 years old) is increasing in incidence; yet, in the absence of a family history of CRC, this population lacks harmonized recommendations for prevention. We aimed to determine whether a polygenic risk score (PRS) developed from 95 CRC-associated common genetic risk variants was associated with risk for early-onset CRC. METHODS: We studied risk for CRC associated with a weighted PRS in 12,197 participants younger than 50 years old vs 95,865 participants 50 years or older. PRS was calculated based on single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with CRC in a large-scale genome-wide association study as of January 2019. Participants were pooled from 3 large consortia that provided clinical and genotyping data: the Colon Cancer Family Registry, the Colorectal Transdisciplinary Study, and the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium and were all of genetically defined European descent. Findings were replicated in an independent cohort of 72,573 participants. RESULTS: Overall associations with CRC per standard deviation of PRS were significant for early-onset cancer, and were stronger compared with late-onset cancer (P for interaction = .01); when we compared the highest PRS quartile with the lowest, risk increased 3.7-fold for early-onset CRC (95% CI 3.28-4.24) vs 2.9-fold for late-onset CRC (95% CI 2.80-3.04). This association was strongest for participants without a first-degree family history of CRC (P for interaction = 5.61 x 10(-5)). When we compared the highest with the lowest quartiles in this group, risk increased 4.3-fold for early-onset CRC (95% CI 3.61-5.01) vs 2.9-fold for late-onset CRC (95% CI 2.70-3.00). Sensitivity analyses were consistent with these findings. CONCLUSIONS: In an analysis of associations with CRC per standard deviation of PRS, we found the cumulative burden of CRC-associated common genetic variants to associate with early-onset cancer, and to be more strongly associated with early-onset than late-onset cancer, particularly in the absence of CRC family history. Analyses of PRS, along with environmental and lifestyle risk factors, might identify younger individuals who would benefit from preventive measures.
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