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2.
  • Speliotes, Elizabeth K., et al. (författare)
  • Association analyses of 249,796 individuals reveal 18 new loci associated with body mass index
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718 .- 1061-4036. ; 42:11, s. 53-937
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Obesity is globally prevalent and highly heritable, but its underlying genetic factors remain largely elusive. To identify genetic loci for obesity susceptibility, we examined associations between body mass index and similar to 2.8 million SNPs in up to 123,865 individuals with targeted follow up of 42 SNPs in up to 125,931 additional individuals. We confirmed 14 known obesity susceptibility loci and identified 18 new loci associated with body mass index (P < 5 x 10(-8)), one of which includes a copy number variant near GPRC5B. Some loci (at MC4R, POMC, SH2B1 and BDNF) map near key hypothalamic regulators of energy balance, and one of these loci is near GIPR, an incretin receptor. Furthermore, genes in other newly associated loci may provide new insights into human body weight regulation.
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3.
  • Jiang, X., et al. (författare)
  • Shared heritability and functional enrichment across six solid cancers
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 2041-1723. ; 10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Quantifying the genetic correlation between cancers can provide important insights into the mechanisms driving cancer etiology. Using genome-wide association study summary statistics across six cancer types based on a total of 296,215 cases and 301,319 controls of European ancestry, here we estimate the pair-wise genetic correlations between breast, colorectal, head/neck, lung, ovary and prostate cancer, and between cancers and 38 other diseases. We observed statistically significant genetic correlations between lung and head/neck cancer (r(g) = 0.57, p = 4.6 x 10(-8)), breast and ovarian cancer (r(g) = 0.24, p = 7 x 10(-5)), breast and lung cancer (r(g) = 0.18, p = 1.5 x 10(-6)) and breast and colorectal cancer (r(g) = 0.15, p = 1.1 x 10(-4)). We also found that multiple cancers are genetically correlated with non-cancer traits including smoking, psychiatric diseases and metabolic characteristics. Functional enrichment analysis revealed a significant excess contribution of conserved and regulatory regions to cancer heritability. Our comprehensive analysis of cross-cancer heritability suggests that solid tumors arising across tissues share in part a common germline genetic basis.
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5.
  • Lango Allen, Hana, et al. (författare)
  • Hundreds of variants clustered in genomic loci and biological pathways affect human height.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Nature. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1476-4687 .- 0028-0836. ; 467:7317, s. 832-8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Most common human traits and diseases have a polygenic pattern of inheritance: DNA sequence variants at many genetic loci influence the phenotype. Genome-wide association (GWA) studies have identified more than 600 variants associated with human traits, but these typically explain small fractions of phenotypic variation, raising questions about the use of further studies. Here, using 183,727 individuals, we show that hundreds of genetic variants, in at least 180 loci, influence adult height, a highly heritable and classic polygenic trait. The large number of loci reveals patterns with important implications for genetic studies of common human diseases and traits. First, the 180 loci are not random, but instead are enriched for genes that are connected in biological pathways (P = 0.016) and that underlie skeletal growth defects (P < 0.001). Second, the likely causal gene is often located near the most strongly associated variant: in 13 of 21 loci containing a known skeletal growth gene, that gene was closest to the associated variant. Third, at least 19 loci have multiple independently associated variants, suggesting that allelic heterogeneity is a frequent feature of polygenic traits, that comprehensive explorations of already-discovered loci should discover additional variants and that an appreciable fraction of associated loci may have been identified. Fourth, associated variants are enriched for likely functional effects on genes, being over-represented among variants that alter amino-acid structure of proteins and expression levels of nearby genes. Our data explain approximately 10% of the phenotypic variation in height, and we estimate that unidentified common variants of similar effect sizes would increase this figure to approximately 16% of phenotypic variation (approximately 20% of heritable variation). Although additional approaches are needed to dissect the genetic architecture of polygenic human traits fully, our findings indicate that GWA studies can identify large numbers of loci that implicate biologically relevant genes and pathways.
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6.
  • Wilking, N., et al. (författare)
  • Long-term follow-up of the SBG 9401 study comparing tailored FEC-based therapy versus marrow-supported high-dose therapy
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Annals of Oncology. - : Oxford University Press. - 0923-7534 .- 1569-8041. ; 18:4, s. 694-700
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The purpose was to investigate adjuvant marrow-supportive high-dose chemotherapy compared with an equitoxicity-tailored comparator arm. Patients and methods: Five hundred and twenty-five women below theage of 60 years with operated high-risk primary breast cancer were randomised to nine cycles of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor supported and individually tailored FEC (5-fluorouracil, epirubicin, cyclophosphamide), (n = 251) or standard FEC followed by marrow-supported high-dose therapy with CTCb (cyclophosphamide, thiotepa, carboplatin) therapy (n = 274), followed by locoregional radiotherapy and tamoxifen for 5 years. Results: There were 104 breast cancer relapses in the tailored FEC group versus 139 in the CTCb group (double triangular method by Whitehead, P = 0.046), with a median follow-up of all included patients of 60.8 months. The event-free survival demonstrated 121 and 150 events in the tailored FEC- and CTCb group, respectively [P = 0.074, hazard ratio (HR) 0.804, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.633-1.022]. Ten patients in the tailored FEC regimen developed acute myeloid leukaemia (AML)/myelodysplasia (MDS). One hundred deaths occurred in the tailored FEC group and 121 in the CTCb group (P = 0.287, HR 0.866, 95% CI 0.665-1.129). Conclusion: The update of this study shows an improved outcome linked to the tailored FEC treatment in relation to breast cancer relapse, but also an increased incidence of AML/MDS. © 2007 Oxford University Press.
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7.
  • Fountoulakis, K.N., et al. (författare)
  • Modeling psychological function in patients with schizophrenia with the PANSS : An international multi-center study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: CNS Spectrums. - : Cambridge University Press. - 1092-8529 .- 2165-6509.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background.The aim of the current study was to explore the changing interrelationships among clinical variables through the stages of schizophrenia in order to assemble a comprehensive and meaningful disease model.Methods.Twenty-nine centers from 25 countries participated and included 2358 patients aged 37.21 ± 11.87 years with schizophrenia. Multiple linear regression analysis and visual inspection of plots were performed.Results.The results suggest that with progression stages, there are changing correlations among Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale factors at each stage and each factor correlates with all the others in that particular stage, in which this factor is dominant. This internal structure further supports the validity of an already proposed four stages model, with positive symptoms dominating the first stage, excitement/hostility the second, depression the third, and neurocognitive decline the last stage.Conclusions.The current study investigated the mental organization and functioning in patients with schizophrenia in relation to different stages of illness progression. It revealed two distinct “cores” of schizophrenia, the “Positive” and the “Negative,” while neurocognitive decline escalates during the later stages. Future research should focus on the therapeutic implications of such a model. Stopping the progress of the illness could demand to stop the succession of stages. This could be achieved not only by both halting the triggering effect of positive and negative symptoms, but also by stopping the sensitization effect on the neural pathways responsible for the development of hostility, excitement, anxiety, and depression as well as the deleterious effect on neural networks responsible for neurocognition.
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8.
  • Hagman, A., et al. (författare)
  • Urinary continence recovery and oncological outcomes after surgery for prostate cancer analysed by risk category: results from the LAParoscopic prostatectomy robot and open trial
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: World Journal of Urology. - : Springer. - 0724-4983 .- 1433-8726.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose To evaluate urinary continence (UC) recovery and oncological outcomes in different risk-groups after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RALP) and open retropubic radical prostatectomy (RRP). Patients and methods We analysed 2650 men with prostate cancer from seven open (n = 805) and seven robotic (n = 1845) Swedish centres between 2008 and 2011 in a prospective non-randomised trial, LAPPRO. UC recovery was defined as change of pads less than once in 24 h. Information was collected through validated questionnaires. Rate of positive surgical margins (PSM) and biochemical recurrence (BCR), defined as prostate-specific antigen (PSA) > 0.25 mg/ml, were recorded. We stratified patients into two risk groups (low-intermediate and high risk) based on the D'Amico risk classification system. Result Among men with high-risk prostate cancer, we found significantly higher rates of UC recovery up to 24 months after RRP compared to RALP (66.1% vs 60.5%) RR 0.85 (CI 95% 0.73-0.99) while PSM was more frequent after RRP compared to RALP (46.8% vs 23.5%) RR 1.56 (CI 95% 1.10-2.21). In the same group no significant difference was seen in BCR. Overall, however, BCR was significantly more common after RRP compared to RALP at 24 months (9.8% vs 6.6%) RR 1.43 (Cl 95% 1.08-1.89). The limitations of this study are its non-randomized design and the relatively short time of follow-up. Conclusions Our study indicates that men with high-risk tumour operated with open surgery had better urinary continence recovery but with a higher risk of PSM than after robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery. No significant difference was seen in biochemical recurrence.
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9.
  • Nyberg, M., et al. (författare)
  • Risk of Recurrent Disease 6 Years After Open or Robotic-assisted Radical Prostatectomy in the Prospective Controlled Trial LAPPRO
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: European Urology Open Science. - : Elsevier. - 2666-1691. ; 20, s. 54-61
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Conclusive evidence of superiority in oncological outcome for robotassisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP) over retropubic radical prostatectomy (RRP) is lacking. Objective: To compare RALP and RRP regarding recurrent disease and to report the mortality rate 6 yr after surgery. Design, setting, and participants: A total of 4003 men with localized prostate cancer were enrolled between 2008 and 2011 in Laparoscopic Prostatectomy Robot Open (LAPPRO)- a prospective, controlled, nonrandomized trial performed at 14 Swedish centers. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: Data were collected at visits and by patient questionnaires at 3, 12, and 24 mo, and through a structured telephone interview at 6 yr. Cause of death was retrieved from the National Cause of Death Register in Sweden. The modified Poisson regression approach was used for analyses. Results and limitations: After adjustment for patient-, tumor-, and surgeon-related confounders, no statistically significant difference was observed between RALP and RRP in biochemical recurrence rate (14 vs 16%, relative risk [RR] 0.77, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.56-1.06) or in not cured endpoint (22% vs 23%, RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.6-1.11). Stratified by D'Amico risk group, a significant benefit for RALP existed for recurrent disease in high-risk patients (RR 0.47, 95% CI 0.26-0.86, p = 0.02). All-cause mortality was 3% (n = 96). Prostate cancer-specific mortality was 0.6% (n = 21) overall, 0.3% (n = 8) after RALP, and 1.5% (n = 13) after RRP. The nonrandomized design is a limitation. Conclusions: No significant difference was observed for cancer recurrence rate between RALP and RRP 6 yr after surgery. However, in a subgroup analysis, we found a significant benefit for RALP regarding recurrence rate in the high-risk group. Larger studies with longer follow-up are needed to make a firm conclusion and to evaluate a possible survival benefit. Patient summary: In general, the oncological outcome is comparable between robotic and open radical prostatectomy 6 yr after surgery. For high-risk patients, our findings indicate that there is an advantage for robotics, but further studies with longer follow-up time is needed to make a firm conclusion. (c) 2020 Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of European Association of Urology. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons. org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
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10.
  • Sooriakumaran, P., et al. (författare)
  • Survival Among Men at High Risk of Disseminated Prostate Cancer Receiving Initial Locally Directed Radical Treatment or Initial Androgen Deprivation Therapy
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: European Urology. - : Elsevier. - 0302-2838 .- 1873-7560. ; 72:3, s. 345-351
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: There is increasing low-quality evidence rationalizing the use of radical therapy for men at high risk of disseminated prostate cancer. Objective: To investigate, using high-quality epidemiologic data, whether initial radical therapy in men at high risk of disseminated prostate cancer improves survival. Design, setting, and participants: An observational population-based Swedish study from 1996 to 2010 of men at high risk of disseminated prostate cancer (prostate-specific antigen [PSA] > 50) initially treated by radical therapy (radiation therapy [n = 630] or radical prostatectomy [n = 120]) or androgen deprivation therapy (n = 17 602), and followed for up to 15 yr. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: Prostate-cancer and other-cause mortality was estimated for the treatment groups. We also matched the two cohorts for grade, T stage, M stage, Charlson score, year of diagnosis, age, and PSA, and found androgen deprivation therapy patient matches for 575 of the radical therapy patients, and then repeated comparative effectiveness analyses. Results and limitation: Prostate-cancer mortality was substantially greater in the androgen deprivation therapy group compared with the radically treated one, in unmatched (9062/17 602 vs 86/750) and matched (177/575 vs 71/575) cohorts. Among matched cohorts, initial androgen deprivation therapy was associated with nearly three-fold higher hazard of prostate-cancer death compared with initial radical therapy (2.87; 95% confidence interval 2.16-3.82). Multiple sensitivity analyses suggested that the findings were robust, although the general limitations of nonrandomized studies remain. Further, the study cohort may have included men with both systemic and nonsystemic disease, as a sole eligibility criterion of PSA > 50 was used. Conclusions: This large and comprehensive population-based study suggests that initial radical therapy in men at high risk of disseminated prostate cancer improves survival. Patient summary: This large Swedish study suggests that men with prostate cancer that has spread beyond the prostate benefit from treating the prostate itself with radiation therapy or surgery rather than treating the disease with hormones alone. (C) 2017 European Association of Urology.
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