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  • Kaptoge, S., et al. (författare)
  • C-Reactive Protein, Fibrinogen, and Cardiovascular Disease Prediction
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: New England Journal of Medicine. - : Massachusetts Medical Society. - 0028-4793 .- 1533-4406. ; 367:14, s. 1310-1320
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background There is debate about the value of assessing levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and other biomarkers of inflammation for the prediction of first cardiovascular events. Methods We analyzed data from 52 prospective studies that included 246,669 participants without a history of cardiovascular disease to investigate the value of adding CRP or fibrinogen levels to conventional risk factors for the prediction of cardiovascular risk. We calculated measures of discrimination and reclassification during follow-up and modeled the clinical implications of initiation of statin therapy after the assessment of CRP or fibrinogen. Results The addition of information on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol to a prognostic model for cardiovascular disease that included age, sex, smoking status, blood pressure, history of diabetes, and total cholesterol level increased the C-index, a measure of risk discrimination, by 0.0050. The further addition to this model of information on CRP or fibrinogen increased the C-index by 0.0039 and 0.0027, respectively (P < 0.001), and yielded a net reclassification improvement of 1.52% and 0.83%, respectively, for the predicted 10-year risk categories of "low" (< 10%), " intermediate" (10% to < 20%), and "high" (>= 20%) (P < 0.02 for both comparisons). We estimated that among 100,000 adults 40 years of age or older, 15,025 persons would initially be classified as being at intermediate risk for a cardiovascular event if conventional risk factors alone were used to calculate risk. Assuming that statin therapy would be initiated in accordance with Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines (i.e., for persons with a predicted risk of >= 20% and for those with certain other risk factors, such as diabetes, irrespective of their 10-year predicted risk), additional targeted assessment of CRP or fibrinogen levels in the 13,199 remaining participants at intermediate risk could help prevent approximately 30 additional cardiovascular events over the course of 10 years. Conclusions In a study of people without known cardiovascular disease, we estimated that under current treatment guidelines, assessment of the CRP or fibrinogen level in people at intermediate risk for a cardiovascular event could help prevent one additional event over a period of 10 years for every 400 to 500 people screened. (Funded by the British Heart Foundation and others.)
  • Wormser, David, et al. (författare)
  • Adult height and the risk of cause-specific death and vascular morbidity in 1 million people : individual participant meta-analysis
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Epidemiology. - : Oxford University Press. - 0300-5771 .- 1464-3685. ; 41:5, s. 1419-1433
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundThe extent to which adult height, a biomarker of the interplay of genetic endowment and early-life experiences, is related to risk of chronic diseases in adulthood is uncertain.MethodsWe calculated hazard ratios (HRs) for height, assessed in increments of 6.5 cm, using individual-participant data on 174 374 deaths or major non-fatal vascular outcomes recorded among 1 085 949 people in 121 prospective studies.ResultsFor people born between 1900 and 1960, mean adult height increased 0.5-1 cm with each successive decade of birth. After adjustment for age, sex, smoking and year of birth, HRs per 6.5 cm greater height were 0.97 (95% confidence interval: 0.96-0.99) for death from any cause, 0.94 (0.93-0.96) for death from vascular causes, 1.04 (1.03-1.06) for death from cancer and 0.92 (0.90-0.94) for death from other causes. Height was negatively associated with death from coronary disease, stroke subtypes, heart failure, stomach and oral cancers, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, mental disorders, liver disease and external causes. In contrast, height was positively associated with death from ruptured aortic aneurysm, pulmonary embolism, melanoma and cancers of the pancreas, endocrine and nervous systems, ovary, breast, prostate, colorectum, blood and lung. HRs per 6.5 cm greater height ranged from 1.26 (1.12-1.42) for risk of melanoma death to 0.84 (0.80-0.89) for risk of death from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. HRs were not appreciably altered after further adjustment for adiposity, blood pressure, lipids, inflammation biomarkers, diabetes mellitus, alcohol consumption or socio-economic indicators.ConclusionAdult height has directionally opposing relationships with risk of death from several different major causes of chronic diseases.
  • Björling, G., et al. (författare)
  • Moderna antipsykotika ger färre biverkningar och lägre dödlighet: Men de är dyrare än äldre neuroleptika, visar studie från Västra Götaland
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Läkartidningen. - 0023-7205. ; 109:29-31, s. 1350-1353
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Västra Götalandsregionen har drygt 1,5 miljoner invåna re. Patienter med diagnosen schizofreni (N = 4 593) under juli 2005 till och med decem ber 2009 har studerats. Läkemedelskostnaden var lägre för äldre neuroleptika än för nyare »atypiska« anti psykotika. Sjukhuskostna derna var lika för båda grup perna, medan öppenvårds­ kostnaderna var högre vid behandling med nya medel än med äldre. Totalkostnaden per patient varierade från 243 000 (äldre läkemedel) till 360 000 kro nor (nyare antipsykotika). Samsjukligheten tenderade att vara lägre för aripiprazol, men var lika för äldre och and ra nyare preparat. Sjukskrivningstiderna var lika oberoende av preparat. Dödligheten var 2,4 gånger högre hos schizofrenipatien ter än i totalbefolkningen, men den var inte signifikant lägre vid läkemedelsbehand ling än utan. Dock var den signifikant lägre vid behand ling med nyare antipsykotika än med äldre läkemedel.
  • de Smet, P., et al. (författare)
  • Gender and regional differences in perceived job stress across Europe
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Eur J Public Health. - : Oxford University Press. - 1101-1262. ; 15:5, s. 536-45
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Over the last 20 years stress at work has been found to be predictive of several conditions such as coronary heart disease, high blood pressure and non-specific sick leave. The Karasek demand/control/strain concept has been the most widely used in prospective epidemiological studies. OBJECTIVES: To describe distribution in Karasek's demand/control (DC) dimensions as well as prevalence of strain in samples from different parts of Europe grouped into three regions (South, Middle, Sweden), adjusting for occupation. To describe gender differences in Karasek's DC dimensions along with strain prevalence and assess the regional stability of those differences in different occupational groups. DESIGN: The Job stress, Absenteeism and Coronary heart disease in Europe (JACE) study, a Concerted Action (Biomed I) of the European Union, is a multicentre prospective cohort epidemiological study: 38,019 subjects at work aged 35-59 years were surveyed at baseline. Standardised techniques were used for occupation coding (International Standardised Classification of Occupations) and for the DC model (Karasek scale): five items for the psychological demand and nine items for the control or decision latitude dimensions, respectively. RESULTS: A total of 34,972 subjects had a complete data set. There were important regional differences in the Karasek scales and in prevalence of strain even after adjustment for occupational class. Mean demand and control were higher in the Swedish centres when compared to two centres in Milano and Barcelona (Southern region) and values observed in four centres (Ghent, Brussels, Lille and Hoofddorp) in Middle Europe were closer to those observed in the Southern cities than to those obtained in the Swedish cities. Clerks (ISCO 4) and, more specifically, office clerks (ISCO 41) exhibited the smallest regional variation. In a multivariate model, the factor 'region' explained a small fraction of total variance. In the two Southern centres as well as in the four Middle European centres, men perceived marginally less job-demand as compared to women whereas the reverse was observed in the two Swedish centres. Differences were larger for control: men appeared to perceive more control at work than did women. In a multivariate model, gender explained a small fraction whereas occupational level explained a large fraction of the variance. CONCLUSIONS: In this standardised multicentre European study Karasek's DC model showed large gender and occupational differences whereas geographic region explained a small fraction of the total DC variance, notwithstanding large differences in labour market and working conditions as pointed out by the European Commission as recently as 2000.
  • El-Mansoury, Mohamed Mostafa, 1953, et al. (författare)
  • Chromosomal mosaicism mitigates stigmata and cardiovascular risk factors in Turner syndrome.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Clinical endocrinology. - 0300-0664. ; 66:5, s. 744-51
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To study genotype-phenotype correlations in Turner syndrome (TS) regarding body composition, cardiovascular risk factors, stigmata and age at diagnosis vs. degree of mosaicism estimated as the percentage of 45,X and 46,XX cells. METHODS: One hundred and twenty-six TS women, mean age 31 years, were examined by three specialists, who reported stigmata independent of each other. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to measure bone mineral density (BMD). The karyotype was blinded. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was performed on buccal cells. A random population sample served as controls. RESULTS: Forty-four per cent exhibited a 45,X karyotype and 56% a second-cell line, while 27% of all had a 45,X/46,XX mosaicism. Five 45,X cases with a conventional karyotype were 45,X/46,XX mosaic according to FISH. At diagnosis, 45,X cases were younger (P < 0.05) and had more stigmata per person (P < 0.01) than the mosaics. TS with marker chromosome X or Y, iso or ring, did not differ from 45,X in this aspect. The mosaics had higher BMD and SHBG and lower total cholesterol and FSH than TS with 45,X and did not differ compared with controls in terms of body mass index (BMI), waist/hip ratio, BMD, blood pressure, cholesterol, triglycerides, SHBG, diabetes or osteoporosis. The number of stigmata correlated positively to BMI, waist/hip ratio, cholesterol and %45,X and inversely to height and %46,XX according to FISH. CONCLUSIONS: Mosaicism seems to mitigate the TS phenotype and the cardiovascular risk factor profile. Mosaics were diagnosed 8 years later than 45,X cases. This emphasizes the necessity for a stricter genotype categorization not only in the clinic but also in research on TS than previously adopted.
  • El-Mansoury, Mohamed Mostafa, 1953, et al. (författare)
  • Hypothyroidism is common in turner syndrome: results of a five-year follow-up.
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. - : Oxford University Press. - 0021-972X .- 1945-7197. ; 90:4, s. 2131-5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Turner syndrome (TS) is caused by a sex chromosome aberration. The aim was to study the prevalence and incidence of thyroid disease in adults with TS. Women with TS (n = 91; mean age, 37.7 +/- 11 yr) were compared with an age-matched female random population sample (n = 228). At baseline, 15 (16%) TS women were treated for hypothyroidism, and elevated serum TSH was found in another eight (9%). As a result, hypothyroidism was more common in women with TS (25%) than in controls (2%; P < 0.0001). Serum free T4 was lower (P = 0.02), and serum TSH was higher (P < 0.0001) in TS women than in age-matched controls. Of all TS women with hypothyroidism, 10 (43%) had an elevated thyroid peroxidase antibody titer vs. 15 (22%) of those without hypothyroidism (P < 0.05), evenly distributed between the karyotype 45,X and mosaicism. A high body mass index, but not a family history or blood lipids, was associated with hypothyroidism in TS. After the 5-yr follow-up, an additional 11 (16%) developed hypothyroidism, of whom four (36%) had elevated thyroid peroxidase. Altogether, 34 (37%) TS women had hypothyroidism after the 5-yr follow-up. Autoimmune hypothyroidism was common, with an annual incidence of 3.2% in TS. Thyroid function should be checked regularly in TS.
  • Giang, Kok Wai, 1984, et al. (författare)
  • Long-term risk of stroke and myocardial infarction in middle-aged men with a hypertensive response to exercise: a 44-year follow-up study.
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Journal of hypertension. - 1473-5598 .- 0263-6352. ; 39:3, s. 503-510
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Data on the prognostic value of hypertensive response to exercise in cardiovascular disease are limited. The aim was to determine whether SBP reactions during exercise have any prognostic value in relation to the long-term risk of stroke and myocardial infarction (MI).A representative cohort of men from Gothenburg, Sweden, born in 1913, who performed a maximum exercise test at age 54 years, (n = 604), was followed-up for a maximum of 44 years with regard to stroke and MI.Among the 604 men, the mean resting and maximum SBP was 141.5 (SD 18.8) and 212.1 (SD 24.6) mmHg, respectively. For maximum SBP, the risk of stroke increased by 34% (hazard ratio 1.34, 95% confidence interval 1.11-1.61) per 1-SD increase, while no risk increase was observed for MI. The highest risk of stroke among blood pressure groups was observed among men with a resting SBP of at least 140 mmHg and a maximum SBP of at least 210 mmHg with an hazard ratio of 2.09 (95% confidence interval 1.29-3.40), compared with men with a resting SBP of less than 140 mmHg and a maximum SBP of less than 210 mmHg, independent of smoking, blood glucose, cholesterol and BMI.Among middle-aged men with high resting and maximum blood pressure during maximum exercise workload, an increased risk of stroke was observed but not for MI. Further studies with larger sample sizes are needed to investigate the underlying mechanisms of the increased risk of stroke among individuals with hypertensive response to exercise.
  • Gregson, J., et al. (författare)
  • Cardiovascular Risk Factors Associated With Venous Thromboembolism
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: JAMA Cardiology. - : AMER MEDICAL ASSOC. - 0965-2590 .- 2380-6583 .- 2380-6591. ; 4:2, s. 163-173
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • IMPORTANCE It is uncertain to what extent established cardiovascular risk factors are associated with venous thromboembolism (VTE). OBJECTIVE To estimate the associations of major cardiovascular risk factors with VTE, ie, deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This study included individual participant data mostly from essentially population-based cohort studies from the Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration (ERFC; 731728 participants; 75 cohorts; years of baseline surveys, February 1960 to June 2008; latest date of follow-up, December 2015) and the UK Biobank (421537 participants; years of baseline surveys, March 2006 to September 2010; latest date of follow-up, February 2016). Participants without cardiovascular disease at baseline were included. Data were analyzed from June 2017 to September 2018. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Hazard ratios (HRs) per 1-SD higher usual risk factor levels (or presence/absence). Incident fatal outcomes in ERFC (VTE, 1041; coronary heart disease [CND], 25131) and incident fatal/nonfatal outcomes in UK Biobank (VTE, 2321; CHD, 3385). Hazard ratios were adjusted for age, sex, smoking status, diabetes, and body mass index (BMI). RESULTS Of the 731728 participants from the ERFC. 403 396 (55.1%) were female, and the mean (SD) age at the time of the survey was 51.9 (9.0) years; of the 421537 participants from the UK Biobank, 233 699 (55.4%) were female, and the mean (SD) age at the time of the survey was 56.4 (8.1) years. Risk factors for VTE included older age (ERFC: HR per decade, 2.67; 95% CI, 2.45-2.91; UK Biobank: HR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.71-1.92), current smoking (ERFC: HR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.20-1.58; UK Biobank: HR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.08-1.40), and BMI (ERFC: HR per 1-SD higher BMI, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.35-1.50; UK Biobank: HR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.32-1.41). For these factors, there were similar HRs for pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis in UK Biobank (except adiposity was more strongly associated with pulmonary embolism) and similar HRs for unprovoked vs provoked VTE. Apart from adiposity, these risk factors were less strongly associated with VTE than CHD. There were inconsistent associations of VTEs with diabetes and blood pressure across ERFC and UK Biobank, and there was limited ability to study lipid and inflammation markers. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Older age, smoking, and adiposity were consistently associated with higher VTE risk.
  • Herlitz, Johan, 1949, et al. (författare)
  • Body temperature in acute myocardial infarction and its relation to early intervention with metoprolol.
  • 1988
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cardiology. - : Elsevier Ireland Ltd. - 0167-5273 .- 1874-1754. ; 20:1, s. 65-71
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In a subsample of 223 patients participating in a double-blind trial with metoprolol in suspected acute myocardial infarction, body temperature during the first 5 days in hospital was recorded. Patients developing infarction had a mean temperature of 37.3 degrees C compared with 36.8 degrees C for those with no infarction (P less than 0.001). A positive association was observed between enzyme-estimated infarct size and body temperature (P less than 0.001). Patients given metoprolol had a mean temperature of 37.0 degrees C as compared with 37.2 degrees C in those given placebo (P = 0.03). The most marked difference between metoprolol and placebo was observed among those treated very early. We conclude that early treatment with metoprolol in suspected acute myocardial infarction appears to lower body temperature during the following days. This might reflect limitation of the infarct size.
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