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Sökning: WFRF:(Williamson Catherine)

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  • Hagstrom, H., et al. (författare)
  • Outcomes of Pregnancy in Mothers With Cirrhosis: A National Population-Based Cohort Study of 1.3 Million Pregnancies
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Hepatology Communications. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 2471-254X. ; 2:11, s. 1299-1305
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • There are limited data on pregnancy outcomes in women with cirrhosis. To address this gap, we examined the records of singleton births from Sweden's National Patient Register (NPR), Cause of Death Register (CDR), and Medical Birth Register (MBR) between 1997 and 2011 to assess exposure and pregnancy-related and liver-related outcomes of pregnant women with cirrhosis. Exposure status was defined as having an International Classification of Diseases (ICU) code for cirrhosis obtained prior to or during pregnancy. Poisson regression with cluster-robust standard errors was used to estimate relative risks (RRs) adjusted for maternal age, smoking, and body mass index (BMI). We identified 103 pregnancies in women with cirrhosis and compared these to 1,361,566 pregnancies in women without cirrhosis. Pregnancies in women with cirrhosis were at increased risk of caesarean delivery (36% versus 16%, respectively; adjusted RR [aRR], 2.00; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.47-2.73), low birth weight (15% versus 3%; aRR, 3.87; 95% CI, 2.11-7.06), and preterm delivery (19% versus 5%; aRR, 3.51; 95% CI, 2.16-5.72). Rates of maternal mortality during pregnancy (no cases), gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, small for gestational age, congenital malformations, and stillbirth were not increased when compared to the pregnant women without cirrhosis. There were 12 hospitalizations during pregnancy due to liver-related events, including one case with bleeding esophageal varices. Conclusion: Women with cirrhosis are at increased risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes. However, severe maternal and fetal adverse events were rare in our study, and most pregnancies in women with cirrhosis ended without complications.
  • Klionsky, Daniel J., et al. (författare)
  • Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Autophagy. - : Landes Bioscience. - 1554-8635 .- 1554-8627. ; 8:4, s. 445-544
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process vs. those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process); thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from stimuli that result in increased autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.
  • Vasavan, Tharni, et al. (författare)
  • Fetal cardiac dysfunction in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy is associated with elevated serum bile acid concentrations.
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Journal of hepatology. - 1600-0641. ; 74:5, s. 1087-1096
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is associated with increased stillbirth risk. This study aimed to assess the relationship between bile acid concentrations and fetal cardiac dysfunction in ICP with or without ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) treatment.Bile acid profiles and NT-proBNP, a marker of ventricular dysfunction, were assayed in umbilical venous serum from 15 controls and 76 ICP cases (36 untreated, 40 UDCA-treated). Fetal ECG traces were obtained from 43 controls and 48 ICP cases (26 untreated, 22 UDCA-treated). PR interval length and heart rate variability parameters (RMSSD, SDNN) were measured in two behavioural states (quiet and active sleep). Partial correlation coefficients (r) and median [IQR] are reported.In untreated ICP, fetal total serum bile acids (TSBA, r=0.49, p=0.019), their hydrophobicity index (r=0.20, p=0.039), glycocholate (r=0.56, p=0.007) and taurocholate (r=0.44, p=0.039) positively correlated with fetal NT-proBNP. Maternal TSBA (r=0.40, p=0.026) and alanine aminotransferase (r=0.40, p=0.046) also positively correlated with fetal NT-proBNP. No significant correlations to NT-proBNP were observed in the UDCA-treated cohort. Fetal PR interval length positively correlated with maternal TSBA in untreated (r=0.46, p=0.027) and UDCA-treated ICP (r=0.54, p=0.026). Fetal RMSSD in active sleep (9.6 [8.8,11.3] vs. 8.7 [7.6,9.6] ms, p=0.028) and SDNN in quiet sleep (11.0 [9.5,14.9] vs. 7.9 [5.1,9.7] ms, p=0.013) and active sleep (25.4 [21.0,32.4] vs. 18.2 [14.7,25.7] ms, p=0.003) were significantly higher in untreated ICP cases than controls. Heart rate variability values in UDCA-treated cases did not differ to controls.Elevated fetal and maternal serum bile acid concentrations in untreated ICP are associated with an abnormal fetal cardiac phenotype characterised by increased NT-proBNP concentration, PR interval length and heart rate variability. UDCA treatment partially attenuates this phenotype.
  • Abu-Hayyeh, Shadi, et al. (författare)
  • Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy levels of sulfated progesterone metabolites inhibit farnesoid X receptor resulting in a cholestatic phenotype.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Hepatology. - 0270-9139. ; 57:2, s. 716-726
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is the most prevalent pregnancy-specific liver disease and is associated with an increased risk of adverse fetal outcomes, including preterm labor and intrauterine death. The endocrine signals that cause cholestasis are not known but 3α-sulfated progesterone metabolites have been shown to be elevated in ICP, leading us to study the impact of sulfated progesterone metabolites on farnesoid X receptor (FXR)-mediated bile acid homeostasis pathways. Here we report that the 3β-sulfated progesterone metabolite epiallopregnanolone sulfate is supraphysiologically raised in the serum of ICP patients. Mice challenged with cholic acid developed hypercholanemia and a hepatic gene expression profile indicative of FXR activation. However, coadministration of epiallopregnanolone sulfate with cholic acid exacerbated the hypercholanemia and resulted in aberrant gene expression profiles for hepatic bile acid-responsive genes consistent with cholestasis. We demonstrate that levels of epiallopregnanolone sulfate found in ICP can function as a partial agonist for FXR, resulting in the aberrant expression of bile acid homeostasis genes in hepatoma cell lines and primary human hepatocytes. Furthermore, epiallopregnanolone sulfate inhibition of FXR results in reduced FXR-mediated bile acid efflux and secreted FGF19. Using cofactor recruitment assays, we show that epiallopregnanolone sulfate competitively inhibits bile acid-mediated recruitment of cofactor motifs to the FXR-ligand binding domain. Conclusion: Our results reveal a novel molecular interaction between ICP-associated levels of the 3β-sulfated progesterone metabolite epiallopregnanolone sulfate and FXR that couples the endocrine component of pregnancy in ICP to abnormal bile acid homeostasis. (HEPATOLOGY 2012;).
  • Ademuyiwa, Adesoji O., et al. (författare)
  • Determinants of morbidity and mortality following emergency abdominal surgery in children in low-income and middle-income countries
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: BMJ Global Health. - : BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. - 2059-7908. ; 1:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Child health is a key priority on the global health agenda, yet the provision of essential and emergency surgery in children is patchy in resource-poor regions. This study was aimed to determine the mortality risk for emergency abdominal paediatric surgery in low-income countries globally.Methods: Multicentre, international, prospective, cohort study. Self-selected surgical units performing emergency abdominal surgery submitted prespecified data for consecutive children aged <16 years during a 2-week period between July and December 2014. The United Nation's Human Development Index (HDI) was used to stratify countries. The main outcome measure was 30-day postoperative mortality, analysed by multilevel logistic regression.Results: This study included 1409 patients from 253 centres in 43 countries; 282 children were under 2 years of age. Among them, 265 (18.8%) were from low-HDI, 450 (31.9%) from middle-HDI and 694 (49.3%) from high-HDI countries. The most common operations performed were appendectomy, small bowel resection, pyloromyotomy and correction of intussusception. After adjustment for patient and hospital risk factors, child mortality at 30 days was significantly higher in low-HDI (adjusted OR 7.14 (95% CI 2.52 to 20.23), p<0.001) and middle-HDI (4.42 (1.44 to 13.56), p=0.009) countries compared with high-HDI countries, translating to 40 excess deaths per 1000 procedures performed.Conclusions: Adjusted mortality in children following emergency abdominal surgery may be as high as 7 times greater in low-HDI and middle-HDI countries compared with high-HDI countries. Effective provision of emergency essential surgery should be a key priority for global child health agendas.
  • de Jong, Simone, et al. (författare)
  • Applying polygenic risk scoring for psychiatric disorders to a large family with bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Communications Biology. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 2399-3642. ; 1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Psychiatric disorders are thought to have a complex genetic pathology consisting of interplay of common and rare variation. Traditionally, pedigrees are used to shed light on the latter only, while here we discuss the application of polygenic risk scores to also highlight patterns of common genetic risk. We analyze polygenic risk scores for psychiatric disorders in a large pedigree (n ~ 260) in which 30% of family members suffer from major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder. Studying patterns of assortative mating and anticipation, it appears increased polygenic risk is contributed by affected individuals who married into the family, resulting in an increasing genetic risk over generations. This may explain the observation of anticipation in mood disorders, whereby onset is earlier and the severity increases over the generations of a family. Joint analyses of rare and common variation may be a powerful way to understand the familial genetics of psychiatric disorders.
  • Geenes, V., et al. (författare)
  • Rifampicin in the treatment of severe intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology. - 0301-2115 .- 1872-7654. ; 189, s. 59-63
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: To describe the use of combined ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and rifampicin treatment in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP). Study design: A questionnaire survey of 27 women with 28 affected pregnancies identified via the UK and International Obstetric Medicine forum. The clinical case notes of women with ICP treated with combined UDCA and rifampicin therapy were reviewed, and data regarding maternal and perinatal outcomes extracted. Results: Serum bile acids remained high whilst taking UDCA as monotherapy. In 14 pregnancies (54%) serum bile acids decreased following the introduction of rifampicin. In 10 pregnancies (38%), there was a 50% reduction in serum bile acids. There were no adverse effects reported with either drug. Conclusions: This is the first report of the use of rifampicin in ICP. The data suggest that combined treatment with UDCA and rifampicin is an effective way of treating women with severe ICP who do not respond to treatment with UDCA alone. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Völz, Sebastian, 1980, et al. (författare)
  • Reply.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of hypertension. - 1473-5598. ; 71:12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
  • Borges Manna, Luiza, et al. (författare)
  • Ursodeoxycholic acid improves feto-placental and offspring metabolic outcomes in hypercholanemic pregnancy.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Scientific reports. - 2045-2322. ; 10:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Perturbations in the intrauterine environment can result in lifelong consequences for metabolic health during postnatal life. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) can predispose offspring to metabolic disease in adulthood, likely due to a combination of the effects of increased bile acids, maternal dyslipidemia and deranged maternal and fetal lipid homeostasis. Whereas ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is a commonly used treatment for ICP, no studies have yet addressed whether it can also prevent the metabolic effects of ICP in the offspring and fetoplacental unit. We therefore analyzed the lipid profile of fetal serum from untreated ICP, UDCA-treated ICP and uncomplicated pregnancies and found that UDCA ameliorates ICP-associated fetal dyslipidemia. We then investigated the effects of UDCA in a mouse model of hypercholanemic pregnancy and showed that it induces hepatoprotective mechanisms in the fetal liver, reduces hepatic fatty acid synthase (Fas) expression and improves glucose tolerance in the adult offspring. Finally, we showed that ICP leads to epigenetic changes in pathways of relevance to the offspring phenotype. We therefore conclude that UDCA can be used as an intervention in pregnancy to reduce features of metabolic disease in the offspring of hypercholanemic mothers.
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